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Flashcards in Chapter 6 Deck (191):
1

The law of specific nerve energies states that:
a. perception of a repeated stimulus fades.
b. every stimulation of the optic nerve is perceived as light.
c. the speed of action potentials varies depending on the strength of the stimulus.
d. any stimulation above the threshold produces an action potential.

b. every stimulation of the optic nerve is perceived as light.

2

Which of the following is TRUE according to the law of specific nerve energies?
a. Any stimulation of the auditory nerve is perceived as sound.
b. A single nerve can convey either auditory or visual information.
c. Each sensory system has a unique electrical charge.
d. If one sensory system becomes inactive, others will compensate.

a. Any stimulation of the auditory nerve is perceived as sound.

3

According to the law of specific nerve energies, the brain tells the difference between one sensory modality and another by:
a. which neurotransmitter is released.
b. which neurons are active.
c. the velocity of the action potentials.
d. the amplitude of the action potentials.

b. which neurons are active.

4

In the human retina, messages go from receptors at the back of the eye to ____.
a. retina cells
b. bipolar cells
c. ganglion cells
d. spiny cells

b. bipolar cells

5

Light enters the eye through an opening in the center of the iris called the:
a. retina.
b. cornea.
c. pupil.
d. macula.

c. pupil.

6

The bipolar cells send their messages to ____, located closer to the center of the eye.
a. spiny cells
b. cornea cells
c. bipolar cells
d. ganglion cells

d. ganglion cells

7

Light is focused as it enters through which of the following structures?
a. lens only
b. cornea only
c. lens and cornea
d. pupil

c. lens and cornea

8

Light from the right half of the world strikes what part of the retina?
a. the left half
b. the right half
c. the whole retina equally
d. It depends of the wavelength.

a. the left half

9

Light from the left half of the world strikes what part of the retina?
a. the left half
b. the right half
c. the whole retina equally
d. It depends of the wavelength.

b. the right half

10

Light from above our head strikes the:
a. left side of the retina.
b. right side of the retina.
c. top half of the retina.
d. bottom half of the retina.

d. bottom half of the retina.

11

In what order does visual information pass through the retina?
a. receptor cells, ganglion cells, bipolar cells
b. ganglion cells, bipolar cells, receptor cells
c. receptor cells, bipolar cells, ganglion cells
d. bipolar cells, receptor cells, ganglion cells

c. receptor cells, bipolar cells, ganglion cells

12

Various types of ____ cells refine the input to ganglion cells, enabling them to respond specifically to shapes, movement, or other visual features.
a. receptors
b. geniculate cells
c. amacrine cells
d. optic nerves

c. amacrine cells

13

Cells in the retina that provide connections among themselves, as well as with bipolar and ganglion cells, are known as:
a. receptors.
b. geniculate cells.
c. amacrine cells.
d. optic nerves.

c. amacrine cells.

14

The optic nerve is composed of axons from which kind of cell?
a. rods and cones
b. bipolar cells
c. horizontal cells
d. ganglion cells

d. ganglion cells

15

The name of the point at which the optic nerve leaves the retina is called the:
a. blind spot.
b. fovea.
c. optic chiasm.
d. ganglion.

a. blind spot.

16

The blind spot in each eye is blind because:
a. everyone has nerve damage.
b. the fluid in the eye becomes crystallized there.
c. amacrine cells are tangled there.
d. there are no receptors there.

d. there are no receptors there.

17

Which of the following characterizes the blind spot?
a. It has the greatest perception of detail.
b. There are no receptors there..
c. It falls in the shadow cast by the pupil.
d. It has more rods than cones.

b. There are no receptors there..

18

Which of the following characterizes the fovea?
a. It has the greatest perception of detail.
b. It surrounds the point of exit of the optic nerve.
c. It falls in the shadow cast by the pupil.
d. It has more rods than cones.

a. It has the greatest perception of detail.

19

If you want to see something in fine detail, you should focus the light on which part of your retina?
a. the optic nerve
b. the fovea
c. an area containing mostly rods
d. the cornea

b. the fovea

20

The retinas of predatory birds such as hawks:
a. have no discernible fovea.
b. have a greater density of receptors than do humans on the top half of the retina.
c. have a greater density of receptors than do humans on the bottom half of the retina.
d. are virtually indistinguishable from the retinas of humans.

b. have a greater density of receptors than do humans on the top half of the retina.

21

Because blood vessels and ganglion cell axons are almost absent near the ____, it has nearly unimpeded vision.
a. optic nerve
b. fovea
c. area containing mostly rods
d. cornea

b. fovea

22

Foveal vision has:
a. better sensitivity to dim light.
b. better acuity.
c. less ability for detailed vision.
d. no ability for visual perception.

b. better acuity.

23

Ganglion cells near the fovea in humans and other primates are called ____ ganglion cells.
a. midget
b. giant
c. reticulated
d. cone-shaped

a. midget

24

In vertebrate retinas, receptors send their messages:
a. straight to the brain.
b. immediately to ganglion cells within the retina.
c. to bipolar cells within the retina.
d. to the periphery of the retina first, ganglion cells next, and bipolar cells last.

c. to bipolar cells within the retina.

25

Why does the fovea provide the clearest, most detailed visual information?
a. It is closest to the pupil.
b. It surrounds the optic nerve.
c. Receptors are tightly packed there.
d. There are many blood vessels for supplying energy.

c. Receptors are tightly packed there.

26

All of the following are reasons why the fovea is well-suited for highly detailed vision EXCEPT:
a. there are few blood vessels there.
b. there are few ganglion cells there.
c. the receptors are tightly-packed there.
d. the optic nerve connects there.

d. the optic nerve connects there.

27

How do the retinas of predatory birds, such as hawks, differ from the retinas of prey species, such as rats?
a. Hawks have one fovea; rats have two.
b. Hawks have greater density of receptors on the top half of their retinas than do rats.
c. Hawks do not have bipolar cells in the retina; rats have an abundance of bipolar cells in the retina.
d. Hawks have mostly rods, whereas rats have mostly cones.

b. Hawks have greater density of receptors on the top half of their retinas than do rats.

28

Which of the following is TRUE related to peripheral vision?
a. It is very sensitive to detail.
b. It is easier to recognize single objects in the periphery that are not surrounded by other objects.
c. It is not very sensitive to light.
d. It is most sensitive to color.

b. It is easier to recognize single objects in the periphery that are not surrounded by other objects.

29

What are the two kinds of receptors in the retina?
a. bipolar and ganglion cells
b. ganglion and rods
c. rods and cones
d. amacrine and horizontal

c. rods and cones

30

In comparison to the rods, cones are more:
a. common toward the periphery of the retina.
b. sensitive to detail.
c. sensitive to dim light.
d. common in rodents and other nocturnal animals.

b. sensitive to detail.

31

____ are chemicals that release energy when struck by light.
a. Phototransmitters
b. Photosins
c. Photopigments
d. Photoions

c. Photopigments

32

Light energy converts 11-cis-retinal to:
a. opsins.
b. unstable proteins.
c. all-trans-retinal.
d. sodium.

c. all-trans-retinal.

33

Chemicals that release energy when struck by light are called:
a. photo-optics.
b. photopigments.
c. opsins.
d. kestrels.

b. photopigments.

34

In comparison to cones, rods:
a. are more common toward the center of the retina.
b. are more sensitive to detail.
c. are more sensitive to dim light.
d. reach their peak firing levels slowly.

c. are more sensitive to dim light.

35

Rods are to ____ as cones are to ____.
a. the periphery; the fovea
b. red; blue
c. vertebrates; invertebrates
d. reading text; reading road signs

a. the periphery; the fovea

36

Most retinal cones are concentrated in the:
a. periphery.
b. fovea.
c. right half of each retina.
d. top part of each retina.

b. fovea.

37

____ modify the ____ sensitivity to different wavelengths of light.
a. Retinol; photopigments
b. Opsins; retinol
c. Photopigments; opsins
d. Opsins; photopigments

d. Opsins; photopigments

38

Peripheral vision mainly depends upon:
a. the fovea.
b. cones.
c. rods.
d. just a few receptors.

c. rods.

39

Night-active species are more likely than day-active species to have:
a. better peripheral vision.
b. larger blind spots.
c. a greater rod to cone ratio.
d. a greater cone to rod ratio.

c. a greater rod to cone ratio

40

How does light excite a rod or cone?
a. It heats up the fluid in the receptor.
b. It converts 11-cis-retinal into all-trans-retinal.
c. It converts leu-enkephalin into met-enkephalin.
d. It ionizes neutral sodium into a positively charged ion.

b. It converts 11-cis-retinal into all-trans-retinal.

41

Why do humans perceive faint light better in the periphery of the eye?
a. Receptors in the periphery are closer to the pupil.
b. The fovea is closer to the retina's blind spot than peripheral receptors are.
c. More receptors in the periphery than in the fovea funnel input to each ganglion cell.
d. Ganglion cells in the periphery transmit their information to a larger brain area.

c. More receptors in the periphery than in the fovea funnel input to each ganglion cell.

42

If you wanted to see a faint star at night, you should:
a. stare straight at it.
b. look slightly to one side.
c. look at a mirror's reflection of it.
d. wait until daytime.

b. look slightly to one side.

43

Which receptors are responsible for the perception of color?
a. cones
b. rods
c. both rods and cones
d. horizontal and amacrine cells

a. cones

44

More than a century ago, researchers had evidence that the human retina contained three kinds of color-sensitive receptors. What was the basis of their evidence?
a. observations of negative after-images
b. studies of how people adapt to various degrees of light or darkness
c. chemical measurements on the receptors themselves
d. experiments on mixing colors of light together

d. experiments on mixing colors of light together

45

Initially, researchers determined how many types of receptors we have for determining color:
a. through psychophysical observations.
b. through the use of biochemical methods.
c. through genetic markers.
d. by developing a trichromatic spectrometer.

a. through psychophysical observations.

46

According to the trichromatic theory of color vision:
a. there are only three rods and three cones in each eye.
b. there are only three colors of light in the world.
c. rods are important for perception of light colors.
d. our perception of color depends on the relative activity of three types of cones.

d. our perception of color depends on the relative activity of three types of cones.

47

According to the Young-Helmholtz theory, what is the basis for color vision?
a. a different receptor for each color
b. three kinds of cones
c. a single receptor that produces different responses for each color
d. the combined influences of rods and cones

b. three kinds of cones

48

Which theory emphasizes the idea that color vision depends on the relative responses of three kinds of cones?
a. Young-Helmholtz theory
b. opponent-process theory
c. retinal theory
d. volley theory

a. Young-Helmholtz theory

49

According to the trichromatic theory of color vision, the most important factor in determining the color we see is the:
a. velocity of the action potential.
b. absolute activity of a single cone.
c. difference between cone and rod activity.
d. relative activity of short, medium, and long wavelengths.

d. relative activity of short, medium, and long wavelengths.

50

The fact that all colors on older televisions were created by combining only three different colors of light supports the ____ theory of color vision.
a. CRT
b. opponent process
c. retinex
d. trichromatic

d. trichromatic

51

Based on the relative distribution of the three kinds of cones in the retina, which color of road sign would be most difficult to see from a distance?
a. blue
b. red
c. yellow
d. white

a. blue

52

What is perceived when all types of cones are simultaneously and equally active?
a. red
b. green
c. white
d. yellow

c. white

53

At the level of rods and cones, the ____ theory seems to fit best, while at the level of the bipolar cells, the ____ theory seems to fit best.
a. opponent process; volley
b. volley; trichromatic
c. opponent process; trichromatic
d. trichromatic; opponent process

d. trichromatic; opponent process

54

After you stare at a bright green object for a minute and look away, you see red. Which theory attempts to explain this finding?
a. Young-Helmholtz theory
b. trichromatic theory
c. opponent-process theory
d. color-constancy theory

c. opponent-process theory

55

After staring at your instructor’s red shirt for an entire class period, the negative afterimage will most likely be:
a. green.
b. red.
c. yellow.
d. blue.

a. green.

56

Which theory of color vision is best able to explain negative color afterimages?
a. retinex theory
b. opponent-process theory
c. trichromatic theory
d. kodak theory

b. opponent-process theory

57

Color constancy is the ability to:
a. perceive all wavelengths as the same color.
b. see color, even in very faint light.
c. differentiate among many colors and hues.
d. recognize the color of an object despite changes in lighting.

d. recognize the color of an object despite changes in lighting.

58

The principle that allows you to perceive an orange shirt to be the same color under varying lighting conditions is known as:
a. trichromacy.
b. color constancy.
c. size constancy.
d. an illusion.

b. color constancy.

59

Color and brightness constancy are best explained by the ____ theory of color vision.
a. trichromatic
b. opponent-process
c. retinex
d. constancy

c. retinex

60

According to the retinex theory, we perceive color by:
a. the relative activity of three kinds of cones.
b. contrasting the activity in one area of the visual field with that of the others.
c. a red vs. green system and a yellow vs. blue system.
d. detecting the velocity of action potentials from the eye.

b. contrasting the activity in one area of the visual field with that of the others.

61

Which theory can best explain why people that are wearing yellow-colored glasses can still identify the color of a green apple?
a. trichromatic theory
b. retinex theory
c. opponent-process theory
d. kodak theory

b. retinex theory

62

Difficulty distinguishing between ____ and ____ is the most common form of color vision deficiency.
a. blue; yellow
b. green; blue
c. red; green
d. red; blue

c. red; green

63

In the most common form of color vision deficiency, people have difficulty distinguishing:
a. between blue and yellow.
b. between green and blue.
c. between red and green.
d. among all colors.

c. between red and green.

64

What is the relationship of color blindness between males and females?
a. Males are more likely to be color blind.
b. Females are more likely to be color blind.
c. Males and females show roughly equal susceptibility to color blindness.
d. Males are more likely to report problems with color vision, but females are more likely to actually be color blind.

a. Males are more likely to be color blind.

65

Why are men more likely to experience color vision deficiency than women?
a. Women have a greater number of cones.
b. Men don't have as much experience matching colors.
c. It is a sex-linked genetic disorder.
d. Testosterone in males affects the activity of the cones.

c. It is a sex-linked genetic disorder.

66

The ability of some women to detect slightly finer discriminations of color than other women is most likely due to having:
a. two types of long-wavelength cones.
b. more short-wavelength cones.
c. shorter optic nerves.
d. a larger cortex.

a. two types of long-wavelength cones.

67

The most common form of color vision deficiency is due to:
a. poor eyesight.
b. malformation of area V4 in the brain.
c. complete absence of one of the types of cones.
d. long- and medium-wavelength cones making the same photopigment.

d. long- and medium-wavelength cones making the same photopigment.

68

Which of the following is NOT a factor in color vision deficiency?
a. elongated shape of the eye
b. low numbers of a particular type of cone
c. complete absence of one of the types of cones
d. long- and medium-wavelength cones making the same photopigment

a. elongated shape of the eye

69

____ cells axons make up the optic nerve.
a. Horizontal
b. Amacrine
c. Bipolar
d. Ganglion

d. Ganglion

70

The optic nerve is composed of axons from which of the following cells?
a. Horizontal
b. Amacrine
c. Bipolar
d. Ganglion

d. Ganglion

71

The optic nerves from the right and left eye initially meet at the:
a. optic chiasm.
b. lateral geniculate nucleus.
c. hypothalamus.
d. cerebral cortex.

a. optic chiasm.

72

In humans, the optic nerves from the two eyes follow what pathway?
a. They go directly to the ipsilateral hemisphere, without contacting each other.
b. They go directly to the contralateral hemisphere, without contacting each other.
c. Half of the axons from each eye cross to the other side at the optic chiasm.
d. They combine to send identical information to each hemisphere.

c. Half of the axons from each eye cross to the other side at the optic chiasm.

73

Where does the optic nerve send most of its information?
a. directly to the cerebral cortex
b. to the lateral geniculate
c. to the superior colliculus
d. directly to the occipital lobe

b. to the lateral geniculate

74

The lateral geniculate nucleus is part of the:
a. cerebral cortex
b. superior colliculus
c. inferior colliculus
d. thalamus

d. thalamus

75

Branches of the optic nerve go directly to what areas of the brain?
a. lateral geniculate and cerebral cortex
b. superior colliculus and cerebral cortex
c. lateral geniculate and superior colliculus
d. prefrontal cortex and occipital lobe

c. lateral geniculate and superior colliculus

76

In the visual system, the ____ and ____ constantly feed information back and forth.
a. thalamus; cortex
b. thalamus; inferior geniculate
c. inferior colliculus; thalamus
d. thalamus; lateral colliculus

a. thalamus; cortex

77

Cutting the left optic nerve in front of the optic chiasm would result in blindness in ____.
a. the right eye
b. the left eye
c. peripheral vision of both eyes
d. the left visual field

b. the left eye

78

The enhancement of contrast at the edge of an object is the result of:
a. lateral inhibition in the retina.
b. the diffraction of light from the edge's surface.
c. fatigue of the rods and cones.
d. the color of the object.

a. lateral inhibition in the retina.

79

In the vertebrate retina, which cells are responsible for lateral inhibition?
a. horizontal cells
b. ganglion cells
c. bipolar cells
d. glial cells

a. horizontal cells

80

Horizontal cells receive their input from ____; they send output to ____.
a. rods and cones; ganglion cells
b. rods and cones; bipolar cells
c. bipolar cells; ganglion cells
d. cones; rods

b. rods and cones; bipolar cells

81

While light is striking a visual receptor, light begins also to strike the receptor next to it. What effect will this additional light have on the response of the first cell?
a. excitation
b. inhibition
c. no effect
d. first inhibition, then excitation

b. inhibition

82

Suppose someone has a genetic defect that prevents the formation of horizontal cells in the retina. Which visual phenomenon is most likely to be impaired?
a. lateral inhibition
b. movement perception
c. dark adaptation
d. size constancy

a. lateral inhibition

83

What is responsible for sharpening contrast at visual borders?
a. receptive fields
b. lateral inhibition
c. retinal disparity
d. the direction in which the light shines

b. lateral inhibition

84

The enhancement of contrast at the edge of an object is primarily due to lateral inhibition by the:
a. rods.
b. cones.
c. horizontal cells.
d. bipolar cells.

c. horizontal cells.

85

The receptive field of a receptor is the:
a. point at which the optic nerve exits the retina.
b. axon hillock.
c. point in space from which light strikes the receptor.
d. point where light shines on, and excites, the visual cortex.

c. point in space from which light strikes the receptor.

86

The point in space from which light strikes the receptor is called the:
a. stimulus field.
b. convergence field.
c. receptive field.
d. bipolar area.

c. receptive field.

87

Stimulating a receptor leads to either excitation or inhibition of a particular neuron; the receptor is part of that neuron's:
a. stimulus field.
b. convergence field.
c. receptive field.
d. bipolar area.

c. receptive field.

88

If light shines in the receptive field of a bipolar cell of the visual system, what effect will it have on the activity of that cell?
a. It will have no effect.
b. It will excite the cell.
c. It will inhibit the cell.
d. It may excite or inhibit the cell.

d. It may excite or inhibit the cell.

89

Which ganglion cells, if any, are located mostly in or near the fovea?
a. Parvocellular
b. Magnocellular
c. Koniocellular
d. They are all distributed equally.

a. Parvocellular

90

The ability to detect movement better than color in our peripheral vision is largely due to:
a. magnocellular neurons in the periphery.
b. parvocellular neurons tightly packed in the periphery.
c. no cones in the periphery.
d. the strength of the eye muscles.

a. magnocellular neurons in the periphery.

91

Small receptive fields are to ____ cells as large receptive fields are to ____ cells.
a. parvocellular; magnocellular
b. magnocellular; parvocellular
c. magnocellular; koniocellular
d. koniocellular; parvocellular

a. parvocellular; magnocellular

92

Parvocellular neurons most likely receive input from:
a. magnocellular neurons.
b. rods.
c. bipolar cells that receive input from cones.
d. the periphery of the retina.

c. bipolar cells that receive input from cones.

93

Magnocellular cells are to ____ as parvocellular cells are to ____.
a. wake-sleep cycles; movement
b. movement; color
c. detail; color
d. color; wake-sleep cycles

b. movement; color

94

Being able to detect fine details of a color painting would depend most on which of the following types of ganglion cells?
a. Parvocellular
b. Magnocellular
c. Koniocellular
d. Kodacellular

a. Parvocellular

95

Axons from the lateral geniculate extend to which area of the cerebral cortex?
a. precentral gyrus
b. postcentral gyrus
c. prefrontal cortex
d. occipital lobe

d. occipital lobe

96

The primary visual cortex sends its information:
a. to the lateral geniculate nucleus.
b. to area V1.
c. to area V2.
d. back to the retina.

c. to area V2.

97

Cortical area ____ appears to be where conscious visual perception occurs.
a. V4
b. V3
c. V2
d. V1

d. V1

98

The primary visual cortex is also known as the:
a. lateral geniculate nucleus.
b. striate cortex.
c. area V2.
d. parvocellular area.

b. striate cortex.

99

Visual information from the lateral geniculate area goes to the:
a. retina.
b. primary visual cortex.
c. thalamus.
d. hypothalamus.

b. primary visual cortex.

100

Blindsight refers to:
a. the ability to localize visual objects within an apparently blind visual field.
b. the ability to merge together information from your two eyes even though they do not see the exact same picture.
c. improved hearing and touch in blind people.
d. the inability to see flashing light.

a. the ability to localize visual objects within an apparently blind visual field.

101

In the case of blindsight, losing conscious visual perception would most likely be associated with:
a. massive damage to the optic nerves.
b. increased olfactory perception.
c. enhanced visual dreams.
d. loss of visual imagination.

d. loss of visual imagination.

102

Once information is sent to the secondary visual cortex, it:
a. has reached its final processing destination.
b. may return to the primary visual cortex.
c. goes mostly to the primary motor cortex.
d. is sent back to the retina.

b. may return to the primary visual cortex.

103

Once within the cerebral cortex, the parvocellular pathway continues as a pathway sensitive to:
a. details of shape.
b. depth.
c. visual memories.
d. movement.

a. details of shape.

104

Within the cerebral cortex, the pathway in the visual system responsible for color information also seems to be responsible for what other information?
a. movement
b. brightness
c. distance
d. dark adaptation

b. brightness

105

Once within the cerebral cortex, the magnocellular pathway continues as a pathway sensitive to:
a. details of shape.
b. depth.
c. visual memories.
d. movement.

d. movement.

106

Once within the cerebral cortex, the magnocellular pathway continues, with a ventral branch sensitive to:
a. details of shape.
b. facial features.
c. movement.
d. brightness.

c. movement.

107

Once within the cerebral cortex, the magnocellular pathway continues, with a dorsal branch important for:
a. details of shape.
b. color and brightness.
c. movement.
d. integrating vision with action.

d. integrating vision with action.

108

Once within the cerebral cortex, a mixed pathway of magnocellular and parvocellular cells is important for:
a. brightness and color.
b. integrating vision with action.
c. details of shape.
d. distinguishing facial features.

a. brightness and color.

109

The visual paths in the temporal cortex collectively are referred to as the:
a. ventral stream.
b. dorsal stream.
c. lateral stream.
d. magnoparvocellular pathway.

a. ventral stream.

110

The pathway associated with integrating vision and movement progresses from the occipital cortex to the:
a. temporal cortex.
b. parietal cortex.
c. visual cortex.
d. frontal lobe.

b. parietal cortex.

111

An individual suffers damage to the temporal cortex, but maintains an intact parietal cortex. This may result in an inability to:
a. step over or go around objects in their way.
b. control movements of eye muscles.
c. reach out and grasp an object.
d. describe the size or shape of objects they see.

d. describe the size or shape of objects they see.

112

The visual path in the parietal cortex is referred to as the:
a. ventral stream.
b. dorsal stream.
c. parvocellular pathway.
d. magnocellular pathway.

b. dorsal stream.

113

Damage to the ventral stream may interfere with:
a. the ability to describe the shape or size of an object.
b. walking toward something seen.
c. reaching to grasp an object.
d. perceiving whether the lights are on or off.

a. the ability to describe the shape or size of an object.

114

In the visual system of the mammalian cerebral cortex, the dorsal stream is specialized for detecting ____, and the ventral stream is specialized for detecting ____.
a. meaning; duration
b. duration; meaning
c. shape; location
d. location; shape

d. location; shape

115

Damage to the dorsal stream may interfere with:
a. describing what is seen.
b. perceiving the movement of an object.
c. remembering something seen at a previous time.
d. reaching out to grasp an object.

d. reaching out to grasp an object.

116

An individual suffers damage to the parietal cortex, but maintains an intact temporal cortex. This may result in an inability to:
a. describe the size of objects.
b. describe the shape of objects.
c. describe the color of objects.
d. reach out and grasp an object.

d. reach out and grasp an object.

117

What is the shape of the receptive field to which a simple cell in the primary visual cortex responds?
a. circle of a particular radius
b. circle with a hole in the middle
c. bar in a particular orientation
d. bar of a particular length

c. bar in a particular orientation

118

Which of the following would most strongly excite a simple cell in the primary visual cortex?
a. loud sound
b. donut
c. diffuse light throughout the visual field
d. square picture frame

d. square picture frame

119

What is the shape of the receptive field to which a simple cell in the primary visual cortex responds?
a. circle of a particular radius
b. circle with a hole in the middle
c. bar in a particular orientation
d. bar of a particular length

c. bar in a particular orientation

120

What type of cell responds to a pattern of light in a particular orientation anywhere within its large receptive field, regardless of the exact location of the stimulus?
a. simple
b. complex
c. bipolar
d. ganglion

b. complex

121

A cell that responds best to a bar of light throughout a large area of its receptive field, without a strong inhibitory area at one end is most likely a:
a. simple cell.
b. hypercomplex cell.
c. complex cell.
d. rod.

c. complex cell.

122

Which cell responds most strongly to a stimulus moving perpendicular to its axis?
a. simple
b. complex
c. lateral geniculate
d. ganglion

b. complex

123

If we compare the receptive fields of two simple cells in the primary visual cortex, chosen at random, in what way are they most likely to differ?
a. orientation (angle) of a line that they respond to
b. shape
c. whether they respond to colored light as well as white light
d. the size of their receptive field

a. orientation (angle) of a line that they respond to

124

What is one way to determine whether a given cell in the primary visual cortex is "simple" or "complex"?
a. the shape of its receptive field
b. whether its receptive field is monocular or binocular
c. whether it can respond equally to lines in more than one location
d. whether it is sensitive to the orientation of the stimulus

c. whether it can respond equally to lines in more than one location

125

A(n) ____ cell has a strong inhibitory area at one end of its bar-shaped receptive field.
a. simple
b. complex
c. hypercomplex
d. polycomplex

c. hypercomplex

126

The one additional feature that hypercomplex cells have that complex cells do not is that:
a. they respond to their receptive field faster.
b. hypercomplex cells have a strong inhibitory area at one end of its receptive field.
c. they have receptive fields that are triangular.
d. they respond to bars of light in more than one orientation.

b. hypercomplex cells have a strong inhibitory area at one end of its receptive field.

127

What would an investigator find concerning the properties of cells in a single column of the visual cortex?
a. They have receptive fields in the same location in the visual field.
b. They have receptive fields of the same angle of orientation.
c. Moving from dorsal to ventral through the column, each receptive field is slightly larger than the previous one.
d. Their receptive fields vary randomly.

b. They have receptive fields of the same angle of orientation.

128

___ respond to a particular feature of a stimulus.
a. Hypercomplex cells
b. Magnocellular cells
c. Feature detectors
d. Shape detectors

c. Feature detectors

129

Neurons whose responses indicate a particular feature of a stimulus, such as the presence of a bar, line, or edge are referred to as:
a. hypercomplex cells.
b. magnocellular cells.
c. feature detectors.
d. shape detectors.

c. feature detectors.

130

Most visual researchers suggest that area V1 neurons respond most strongly to:
a. spatial frequencies.
b. round shapes.
c. faces.
d. unfamiliar stimuli.

a. spatial frequencies.

131

Most neurons in the inferior temporal cortex that respond to a particular shape will be LEAST likely to respond to a:
a. contrast reversal.
b. figure-ground reversal.
c. mirror image.
d. photograph of the same shape.

b. figure-ground reversal.

132

V1 neurons would be most strongly activated by viewing:
a. the letter T.
b. a circle.
c. repeating stripes on a flag.
d. a single bar of light.

c. repeating stripes on a flag.

133

Which of the following has the largest receptive fields and the greatest preferential sensitivity to highly complex visual patterns, such as faces?
a. inferior temporal cortex
b. superior colliculus
c. lateral geniculate
d. striate cortex

a. inferior temporal cortex

134

Cells in the inferior temporal cortex that are sensitive to a particular shape are also likely to respond to the shape’s:
a. figure-ground reversal.
b. color.
c. motion.
d. mirror-reversal.

d. mirror-reversal.

135

How do the receptive fields of the inferior temporal cortex compare to those of the primary visual cortex?
a. They are located lower in the retina.
b. They are sensitive to larger, more complicated patterns.
c. They are smaller and more symmetrical.
d. They are more sensitive to identifying exact locations.

b. They are sensitive to larger, more complicated patterns.

136

An inability to recognize objects despite otherwise satisfactory vision is called:
a. visual agnosia.
b. blindsight.
c. prosopagnosia.
d. hemianopsia.

a. visual agnosia.

137

To what does "shape constancy" refer?
a. All neurons within a single column have the same shape of dendritic tree.
b. We can recognize objects even at different orientations.
c. Objects described from memory are described as more symmetrical than they actually were when we saw them.
d. No matter how big we get, our mothers still see us as children.

b. We can recognize objects even at different orientations.

138

The ability to recognize that a door maintains its shape even though the shape of the image on the retina is changing is known as:
a. size constancy.
b. brightness constancy.
c. shape constancy.
d. hypercomplex constancy.

c. shape constancy

139

Cells in the inferior temporal cortex respond vigorously to their preferred shape:
a. but only if the stimulus is also the preferred color.
b. as long as it is also a particular size.
c. as long as it is stationary.
d. regardless of its exact size or position on the retina.

d. regardless of its exact size or position on the retina.

140

A person with visual agnosia is unable to:
a. perceive colors.
b. point to objects.
c. recognize visual objects.
d. see.

c. recognize visual objects.

141

What difficulty does someone with prosopagnosia have?
a. focusing on colored objects
b. seeing items located in the left visual field
c. recognizing faces
d. processing information from more than one sensory modality at a time

c. recognizing faces

142

Damage to the fusiform gyrus of the inferior temporal cortex results in:
a. aphasia.
b. prosopagnosia.
c. lateral inhibition.
d. motion blindness.

b. prosopagnosia.

143

No known type of brain damage causes a person to lose the ability to recognize one person without impairing the ability to recognize others. What inference can we draw from this fact?
a. Visual recognition depends on simple cells, not complex cells.
b. Visual recognition depends on complex cells, not simple cells.
c. Visual recognition depends on cells in the lateral geniculate.
d. No one cell is solely responsible for recognizing any one facial pattern.

d. No one cell is solely responsible for recognizing any one facial pattern.

144

A man has suffered brain damage that has left him unable to recognize the faces of his wife and children, although he can identify them by their voices. What is his condition?
a. Aphasia
b. Prosopagnosia
c. lateral inhibition
d. motion blindness

b. Prosopagnosia

145

People who suffer from prosopagnosia can recognize:
a. relatives and friends by the sound of their voices.
b. faces of people they knew before the damage.
c. faces of people they have met after the damage.
d. faces of famous people.

a. relatives and friends by the sound of their voices.

146

In addition to having difficulty recognizing faces, people with prosopagnosia may have difficulty:
a. reading.
b. with all types of memory.
c. recognizing colors.
d. recognizing different kinds of plants and animals.

d. recognizing different kinds of plants and animals.

147

When individuals with intact brains recognize faces, activity:
a. increases in the fusiform gyrus.
b. decreases in the fusiform gyrus.
c. increases in the fovea.
d. decreases in the prefrontal cortex.

a. increases in the fusiform gyrus.

148

The fusiform gyrus would be most excited in which of the following cases?
a. a child trying to identify a species of plant
b. a person with prosopagnosia looking at a face
c. a car salesman looking at a customer’s face
d. viewing colorful patterns on a screen

c. a car salesman looking at a customer’s face

149

Color perception depends MOSTLY on the:
a. magnocellular pathway.
b. parvocellular pathway.
c. superior colliculus.
d. lateral geniculate.

b. parvocellular pathway.

150

Area ____ is particularly important for color constancy.
a. V1
b. V2
c. V3
d. V4

d. V4

151

Color constancy depends on which part of the nervous system?
a. rods
b. the postcentral gyrus
c. area V4 of the occipital lobe
d. area V1 of the temporal lobe

c. area V4 of the occipital lobe

152

Monkeys with damage to area V4 lose:
a. vision.
b. color vision.
c. color constancy.
d. shape constancy.

c. color constancy.

153

When cells in the middle temporal cortex respond to visual stimuli, their response depends mostly on the:
a. speed and direction of movement.
b. exact shape of the object.
c. color and brightness of the object.
d. exact location of the object in visual space.

a. speed and direction of movement.

154

One might find cells that respond to the movement of an object in a specific direction in the:
a. MT.
b. striate cortex.
c. retina.
d. lateral geniculate.

a. MT.

155

Cells in the ____ prevent us from confusing eye movements with object movements.
a. ventral part of area MST
b. dorsal part of area MST
c. motor cortex
d. occipital lobe

a. ventral part of area MST

156

One might find cells that respond best to moving borders within specific receptive fields in the:
a. striate cortex.
b. middle temporal cortex.
c. retina.
d. lateral geniculate.

b. middle temporal cortex.

157

A person with damage to V1, but not V4, would be able to perceive:
a. motion, but not shape or color.
b. shapes, but not color.
c. color, but not shapes.
d. motion and color.

a. motion, but not shape or color.

158

One might find cells that respond best to the movement of an object relative to its background in the:
a. medial superior temporal cortex.
b. striate cortex.
c. retina.
d. lateral geniculate.

a. medial superior temporal cortex.

159

Damage to the magnocellular pathway would most likely lead to the loss of:
a. color vision.
b. shape perception.
c. color constancy.
d. motion perception.

d. motion perception.

160

Cells in V5 and the medial superior temporal cortex selectively respond to which characteristic of visual stimuli?
a. color
b. movement
c. particular shapes
d. brightness

b. movement

161

The ability that you have to determine that your eyes are moving, instead of the room that you are in, is a function of which brain area?
a. MT
b. primary visual cortex
c. inferior temporal cortex
d. area MST

d. area MST

162

Which of the following would be easiest for someone who is motion blind?
a. dressing themselves
b. driving a car
c. taking the dog for a walk
d. filling a pitcher with water

a. dressing themselves

163

People with motion blindness probably have suffered damage to the:
a. striate cortex.
b. middle-temporal cortex.
c. corpus callosum.
d. retina.

b. middle-temporal cortex.

164

Human newborns come into the world predisposed to pay more attention to _____ than any other stationary displays.
a. toys
b. balloons
c. faces
d. dogs

c. faces

165

Which of these visual items would most likely attract the attention of a newborn baby?
a. diaper
b. rattle
c. human face
d. dog

c. human face

166

Cortical neurons in the visual cortex of a kitten or a cat will lose the ability to respond to stimuli in one eye if the eye is sutured shut for:
a. the first week after birth.
b. the first month of life.
c. any two month period in adult life.
d. the third and fourth months of life.

b. the first month of life.

167

If a kitten is reared with one eye shut, cells in its visual cortex become sensitive to:
a. both eyes equally, the same as a kitten reared normally.
b. both eyes, but more so to the eye that has been inactive.
c. only the eye that has been inactive.
d. only the eye that has been active.

d. only the eye that has been active.

168

Most of the neurons in the visual cortex of very young kittens respond to:
a. one eye, but later develop binocular control.
b. one eye, and continue that way.
c. both eyes, but later fine tune to only one.
d. both eyes, and continue that way.

d. both eyes, and continue that way.

169

The most probable reason that both cats and humans have difficulty with recognition of objects if deprived of visual stimuli during the critical period is that:
a. neurons in the primary visual cortex die.
b. their cortical cells lack the sharply tuned receptive fields that make recognition possible.
c. they can't perceive color.
d. the rods and cones no longer work.

b. their cortical cells lack the sharply tuned receptive fields that make recognition possible.

170

If both eyes of a very young kitten are sutured shut for the first few weeks:
a. the kitten will be blind once the sutures are removed.
b. one eye will develop sight, but the other will not.
c. the cortex remains responsive to both eyes.
d. the kitten becomes more sensitive to highly saturated wavelengths of light.

c. the cortex remains responsive to both eyes.

171

Stereoscopic depth perception requires the brain to detect:
a. amblyopia.
b. retinal disparity.
c. strabismus.
d. contrasting imagery.

b. retinal disparity.

172

By comparing the slightly different inputs from the two eyes, you achieve:
a. amblyopia.
b. strabismus.
c. stereoscopic depth perception.
d. contrasting imagery.

c. stereoscopic depth perception.

173

In depth perception, different views are received by each eye, depending on the distance of the object being viewed. What is this called?
a. retinal disparity
b. amblyopic differential
c. astigmatic contrast
d. contrasting imagery

a. retinal disparity

174

Kittens that are restricted to having only having one eye open at a time are similar to humans with strabismus in that:
a. stereoscopic depth perception fails to develop.
b. they are completely blind.
c. they can see twice as much.
d. they are cross-eyed.

a. stereoscopic depth perception fails to develop.

175

What would the effect be if an experimenter covered the eye of a kitten in an alternating pattern (left eye one day; right the next)?
a. The cat would eventually lose all vision.
b. The kitten would eventually develop the ability to pay attention to two stimuli at the same time.
c. The kitten would never learn to focus its eyes on stimuli.
d. Most cortical neurons would respond to stimuli in one eye or the other, but not both.

d. Most cortical neurons would respond to stimuli in one eye or the other, but not both.

176

If a kitten sees alternately with only one eye one day and the other eye the next day during its critical period for visual development, what happens to its visual cortex?
a. Its cells become virtually unresponsive to all visual stimuli.
b. One eye will become dominant and the other lazy.
c. Each cortical cell will become responsive to just one eye.
d. Cells will respond to either eye, but the responses will be sluggish.

c. Each cortical cell will become responsive to just one eye.

177


What is strabismus?
a. a failure of the two eyes to focus on the same thing at the same time
b. a blurring of vision caused by asymmetrical curvature of the eye
c. stereoscopic depth perception
d. the ability to perceive a flashing light as if it were a moving object

a. a failure of the two eyes to focus on the same thing at the same time

178

Children with strabismus fail to develop:
a. perception of movement.
b. the ability to recognize faces.
c. stereoscopic depth perception.
d. any kind of depth perception.

c. stereoscopic depth perception.

179

According to research on visual development in animals, probably the best way to treat amblyopia is to cover:
a. both eyes for a few months early in life.
b. the strong eye for a period of time early in life.
c. the lazy eye for a period of time early in life.
d. the strong eye for a period of time during adulthood.

b. the strong eye for a period of time early in life.

180

A promising therapy for lazy eye is to ask a child to play ____ that require attention to both eyes.
a. action video games
b. board games
c. sports
d. with crayons

a. action video games

181

One drawback to using an eye patch to help correct lazy eye is that:
a. the eyes do not equalize in strength
b. the eye patch makes the strong eye weaker
c. the child often refuses to wear the patch as long as necessary
d. the child breaks the patch

c. the child often refuses to wear the patch as long as necessary

182

The human condition that corresponds closest to what kittens experience when raised in an environment of only horizontal or vertical lines is:
a. strabismus.
b. double vision.
c. astigmatism.
d. amblyopia.

c. astigmatism.

183

What is true about cortical neurons that have become insensitive to an eye that was sutured shut during the critical period?
a. Nothing can restore sensitivity to stimuli in that eye.
b. That eye will gradually recover after years of exposure to normal visual stimuli.
c. Some sensitivity can be recovered if the other eye is sutured shut for a few months.
d. Some sensitivity can be recovered if both eyes are sutured shut for a few months.

c. Some sensitivity can be recovered if the other eye is sutured shut for a few months.

184

Astigmatism refers to the:
a. sensitive period for development of vision.
b. ability to see horizontal and vertical lines.
c. asymmetric curvature of eyes.
d. inability to detect motion.

c. asymmetric curvature of eyes.

185

If a kitten is reared in an environment consisting entirely of horizontal lines, the visual cortex becomes:
a. normal.
b. insensitive to horizontal lines.
c. sensitive to almost nothing but horizontal lines.
d. inactive, failing to respond to any visual stimuli at all.

c. sensitive to almost nothing but horizontal lines.

186

A strong astigmatism during the first year or so of life can produce effects in the human brain similar to those found in what kinds of experiments on cats?
a. covering one eye during the sensitive period
b. covering both eyes during the sensitive period
c. destroying individual cells by implanting electrodes
d. restricting visual stimulation to one particular orientation

d. restricting visual stimulation to one particular orientation

187

What can cause a permanent blurring of vision for either horizontal or vertical lines?
a. pressure on the optic chiasm
b. weak muscles controlling the lens of the eyes
c. asymmetric curvature of the eyes
d. damage to the corpus callosum

c. asymmetric curvature of the eyes

188

Cortical plasticity:
a. is only available in early life.
b. is only available later in life.
c. is available in early life, but greatest in later life.
d. is greatest in early life, but never ends.

d. is greatest in early life, but never ends.

189

Infants with cataracts need to have surgical repair:
a. as early as possible.
b. before they begin school.
c. if it does not fix itself
d. when they are old enough to recover from surgery.

a. as early as possible.

190

What would be the likely outcome of a person who was blind at birth, and had vision restored later in life by the removal of cataracts (clouded lenses)?
a. quick development of normal vision
b. trouble describing the shapes of objects
c. trouble identifying the location of light
d. inability to use touch and sound cues to maneuver around in a building

b. trouble describing the shapes of objects

191

Cases in which individuals with cataracts have sight restored to them after many years suggest that:
a. most aspects of visual perception are inborn.
b. early experiences can have relatively permanent effects on the brain.
c. visual perception can be learned at any age.
d. experiences later in life can greatly remodel connection in the visual cortex.

b. early experiences can have relatively permanent effects on the brain.