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Flashcards in Chapter 12 Deck (167):
1

Psychologists typically define emotion in terms of the following three components:
a. actions, cognitions, and emotions
b. feelings, actions, and emotions
c. cognitions, actions, and emotions
d. cognitions, feelings, and actions

d. cognitions, feelings, and actions

2

The autonomic nervous system is divided into two parts; the ____ nervous system (which prepares the body for emergency action), and the ____ nervous system (which calms the body).
a. sympathetic; parasympathetic
b. parasympathetic; sympathetic
c. somatic; craniosacral
d. craniosacral; somatic

a. sympathetic; parasympathetic

3

The branch of the autonomic nervous system that is responsible for preparing the body for intense, vigorous, emergency activity is the:
a. somatic nervous system.
b. craniosacral nervous system.
c. sympathetic nervous system.
d. parasympathetic nervous system.

c. sympathetic nervous system.

4

The branch of the autonomic nervous system that is responsible for preparing the body for fight or flight behaviors is called the:
a. parasympathetic nervous system.
b. sympathetic nervous system.
c. somatic nervous system.
d. craniosacral nervous system.

b. sympathetic nervous system.

5

The sympathetic nervous system is to ____ as the parasympathetic nervous system is to ____.
a. fight; flight
b. emergencies; relaxation
c. assertiveness; aggressiveness
d. striated muscles; smooth muscles

c. assertiveness; aggressiveness

6

A scientist would be most likely to use which of the following when attempting to obtain an objective measure of emotion?
a. a self report
b. ratings by independent observers
c. measures of sympathetic nervous system responses
d. measures of parasympathetic nervous system responses

c. measures of sympathetic nervous system responses

7

According to the ____ theory, we experience emotion after we experience autonomic arousal.
a. Lange-Jung
b. Lange-Papez
c. James-Jung
d. James-Lange

d. James-Lange

8

According to the James-Lange theory, we experience emotion:
a. first, then come our actions.
b. and act upon that emotion, simultaneously.
c. after we experience autonomic arousal.
d. and must label it before we can act on it.

c. after we experience autonomic arousal.

9

In the revised James-Lange theory of emotion, what occurs first?
a. cognitive appraisal
b. actions
c. physiological changes
d. feeling

a. cognitive appraisal

10

According to the James-Lange theory of emotion:
a. only sympathetic arousal is important.
b. emotional intensity is a function of physiological responses.
c. we experience emotion first, and then our autonomic nervous system produces the appropriate changes.
d. we attack because we are angry.

b. emotional intensity is a function of physiological responses.

11

Which evidence is most detrimental to the James-Lange theory?
a. Patients with pure autonomic failure experience emotions.
b. Sometimes people have trouble reporting what they are feeling.
c. Changes in arousal are reported as changes in emotions.
d. Some people feel stronger emotions than others do.

a. Patients with pure autonomic failure experience emotions.

12

Individuals with pure autonomic failure:
a. experience no emotion at all.
b. have diminished intensity of emotion, but still report cognitive aspects of it.
c. die from low blood pressure.
d. lose all output to the muscles.

b. have diminished intensity of emotion, but still report cognitive aspects of it.

13

Individuals with pure autonomic failure:
a. do not experience emotions.
b. are paralyzed.
c. are always fearful.
d. do not experience much intensity of emotion.

d. do not experience much intensity of emotion.

14

Findings from people with pure autonomic failure suggest that:
a. autonomic output is important for experiencing emotion.
b. the James-Lange theory is incorrect.
c. feelings are the same thing as emotions.
d. lack of physiological feedback makes us happy.

a. autonomic output is important for experiencing emotion.

15

People with pure autonomic failure have ____ changes in their heart rate and other organ responses; they usually report ____ intensity of emotions.
a. increased, increased
b. increased, decreased
c. decreased, increased
d. decreased, decreased

d. decreased, decreased

16

Which of the following is characterized by extreme sympathetic nervous system arousal?
a. locked-in syndrome
b. pure autonomic failure
c. panic attack
d. prosopagnosia

c. panic attack

17

Which of the following is characterized by extreme physiological arousal?
a. locked-in syndrome
b. pure autonomic failure
c. panic attack
d. prosopagnosia

c. panic attack

18

When people were forced to smile, by clenching a pen between their teeth, how did they rate a cartoon they were reading?
a. funnier than if they were not forced to smile
b. just as funny as when they were frowning
c. not as funny as when they were holding a pen between their lips
d. as frightening

a. funnier than if they were not forced to smile

19

Children with a rare condition called ____ are unable to move their facial muscles to make a smile.
a. Lange syndrome
b. Möbius syndrome
c. James syndrome
d. Fregoli syndrome

b. Möbius syndrome

20

A group of forebrain structures that appear to be critical for emotion are known as the:
a. pyramidal system.
b. sympathetic nervous system.
c. parasympathetic nervous system.
d. limbic system.

d. limbic system.

21

The amygdala is part of the:
a. pyramidal system.
b. sympathetic nervous system.
c. parasympathetic nervous system.
d. limbic system.

d. limbic system.

22

The limbic system consists of structures that are believed to be important for which kind of responses?
a. reflexes
b. fine motor control
c. spatial orientation
d. emotional

d. emotional

23

A search for the happiness center in the brain is unlikely to be successful because:
a. brain areas associated with particular emotions vary considerably.
b. happiness is only an epiphenomenon.
c. fear activates the identical brain areas as happiness does.
d. no one has been able to define happiness.

a. brain areas associated with particular emotions vary considerably.

24

The challenge in identifying specific brain areas that are associated with specific emotions is that:
a. all emotions activate all parts of the brain.
b. the procedures used to measure emotions vary considerably.
c. we don’t have techniques to view activity in the brain.
d. the area of the brain responsible for a particular emotion varies over time.

b. the procedures used to measure emotions vary considerably.

25

The area that is activated by feeling disgusted is the same area of the brain responsible for:
a. sight.
b. smell.
c. taste.
d. hearing.

c. taste.

26

Damage to the insular cortex impairs the sense of taste and the ability to recognize:
A fear.
B sadness.
C happiness.
D disgust.

D disgust.

27

Damage to the ____ results in a diminished ability to experience and recognize disgust.
a. temporal cortex
b. insular cortex
c. hippocampus
d. frontal cortex

b. insular cortex

28

Which of the following problems is most likely to result in an increased ability to identify the emotional expression of people viewing pleasant and unpleasant pictures?
a. locked in syndrome
b. damage to the left hemisphere
c. panic disorder
d. damage to the right hemisphere

b. damage to the left hemisphere

29

Activity in the left hemisphere is associated with:
a. decreased emotional experiences.
b. fear, but not other emotions.
c. behavioral activation.
d. behavioral inhibition.

c. behavioral activation.

30

The Behavioral Activation System is associated with:
a. low to moderate arousal, tendency to approach new objects, and pleasant mood.
b. maximum arousal, increased fear, and negative mood.
c. lack of arousal, decreased action, and pleasant mood.
d. increased attention and arousal, decreased action, and fear or disgust.

a. low to moderate arousal, tendency to approach new objects, and pleasant mood.

31

The Behavioral Inhibition System is associated with:
a. low to moderate arousal, tendency to approach new objects, and pleasant mood.
b. maximum arousal, increased fear, and negative mood.
c. lack of arousal, decreased action, and pleasant mood.
d. increased attention and arousal, decreased action, and fear or disgust.

d. increased attention and arousal, decreased action, and fear or disgust.

32

Increased activity of the frontal and temporal lobes of the right hemisphere is associated with the:
a. Behavioral Inhibition System.
b. Behavioral Activation System.
c. Behavioral Attenuation System.
d. Behavioral Attraction System.

a. Behavioral Inhibition System.

33

Which of the following systems is most likely to be active when moderate physiological arousal occurs while approaching a member of the opposite sex?
a. Behavioral Inhibition System
b. Behavioral Activation System
c. Behavioral Attenuation System
d. Behavioral Attraction System

b. Behavioral Activation System

34

Stimuli that are below the level of conscious detection:
a. have no effect on our autonomic system activity.
b. may produce changes in autonomic responses that account for "gut feelings."
c. are easily detected if we attend to them.
d. produce memory loss.

b. may produce changes in autonomic responses that account for "gut feelings."

35

People are given moral dilemmas, such as whether it is all right to kill one person in order to save five others. The people most likely to make the “cold, calculating” decision that these acts are okay are people who have suffered brain damage that impairs which of these?
A Memory
B Emotions
C Vision
D Activity level

B Emotions

36

Investigators have found that individuals who suffer prefrontal cortex damage:
a. often make bad decisions.
b. become more logical than usual in their reasoning.
c. become excessively inhibited in their dealings with others.
d. perform poorly on IQ tests.

a. often make bad decisions.

37

Historically, the most famous case of a person with prefrontal damage is that of:
a. John Limbic.
b. James Papez.
c. Antonio Damasio.
d. Phineas Gage.

d. Phineas Gage.

38

Impulsive behavior and poor decisions are common symptoms of:
a. parietal damage.
b. prefrontal damage.
c. occipital damage.
d. temporal damage.

b. prefrontal damage.

39

Why do individuals with prefrontal cortex damage often make bad decisions?
A They can't understand complexly worded questions.
B They don't anticipate the unpleasantness of likely outcomes.
C They conform readily to whatever other people are doing.
D They can’t predict the consequences of one decision or another.

B They don't anticipate the unpleasantness of likely outcomes.

40

Some cats "play" with a mouse before killing it. How can this kind of behavior best be explained?
a. the cat's perverse pleasure in prolonging the mouse's pain
b. an instinctive need for additional pursuit behaviors prior to eating
c. a conflict between attack and escape behaviors
d. regression to infantile patterns of activity in the hippocampus

c. a conflict between attack and escape behaviors

41

If a hamster in its home territory attacks an intruder, what will the hamster do if a second intruder arrives shortly after the first intruder leaves?
a. Withdraw from the second intruder.
b. Play with the second intruder.
c. Attack the second intruder quickly and vigorously.
d. Attack the second intruder but less vigorously than the first.

c. Attack the second intruder quickly and vigorously.

42

If a hamster is primed for a fight, increased activity will most likely be found:
a. in the corticomedial amygdala.
b. all over the cortex.
c. all over the temporal lobe.
d. in the occipital lobe.

a. in the corticomedial amygdala.

43

Directly stimulating the ____ of a hamster results in priming it to attack, even without the previous experience of fighting.
a. corticomedial amygdala.
b. cortex.
c. temporal lobe.
d. occipital lobe.

a. corticomedial amygdala.

44

Studies of aggressive and criminal behaviors in adulthood have found that:
a. there doesn't appear to be a genetic link.
b. there appears to be more aggression by twins than non-twins.
c. monozygotic twins resemble each other more closely than dizygotic twins.
d. dizygotic twins resemble each other more closely than monozygotic twins.

c. monozygotic twins resemble each other more closely than dizygotic twins.

45

Under what circumstances do the criminal behaviors of monozygotic twins resemble each other more than dizygotic twins?
a. when the monozygotic twins have been raised apart
b. when the dizygotic twins have been raised together
c. in adulthood
d. in childhood

c. in adulthood

46

Several studies have found that ____ is particularly enhanced in people with both a genetic predisposition and a troubled early environment.
a. anxiety
b. emotion
c. violence
d. trust

c. violence

47

Not all children who are abused become violently aggressive in adolescence or adulthood. Of the following, which has been demonstrated to influence violence by these people?
A genes regulating testosterone receptors
B genes regulating the suprachiasmatic nucleus
C genes regulating secretion of aldosterone
D genes regulating monoamine oxidase

D genes regulating monoamine oxidase

48

A research study linked different genes for the enzyme MAO-A to the probability of antisocial behavior. The effect of the gene varied from small to great, depending on what?
A whether the person lived in a large or small town
B whether the person lived alone or with others
C whether the person was maltreated during childhood
D whether the person’s diet was high or low in fats and carbohydrates

C whether the person was maltreated during childhood

49

Male aggressive behavior depends heavily on:
a. acetylcholine.
b. estrogen.
c. testosterone.
d. dopamine.

c. testosterone.

50

Of the following choices, the most likely explanation for how testosterone may be associated with violent behavior is that it:
a. may induce greater attention to situations of aggression and conflict.
b. creates greater muscle mass.
c. reduces inhibitions.
d. inhibits cells in the amygdala.

a. may induce greater attention to situations of aggression and conflict.

51

A study administering testosterone to women found which of these effects?
A Testosterone increased their violent dreams.
B Testosterone decreased their ability to recognize facial expressions of emotion.
C Testosterone caused them to report feeling angry for no apparent reason.
D Testosterone made them want to play pool, drink beer, and spit.

B Testosterone decreased their ability to recognize facial expressions of emotion.

52

If a monkey with low serotonin turnover survives, they are more likely to:
a. be extremely fearful.
b. be submissive.
c. have fewer offspring.
d. have dominant status.

d. have dominant status.

53

What potential advantage does a moderately aggressive monkey possess?
a. They are more likely to get mates and food.
b. They have better memories of other monkeys they have defeated.
c. They are less depressed.
d. Their immune system becomes stronger with each fight.

a. They are more likely to get mates and food.

54

In a study of serotonin turnover in male monkeys, it was found that those with:
a. low levels were most submissive.
b. high levels had the most scars.
c. high levels were the most aggressive.
d. low levels were usually dead by age six.

d. low levels were usually dead by age six.

55

The term "serotonin turnover" refers to the amount of serotonin that is:
a. released at synapses and resynthesized.
b. currently present in the brain.
c. radioactively labeled.
d. converted into another transmitter.

a. released at synapses and resynthesized.

56

The concentration of 5-HIAA in the blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or urine provides an estimate of:
a. serotonin stores.
b. serotonin turnover.
c. dopamine stores.
d. dopamine turnover.

b. serotonin turnover.

57

To estimate the amount of serotonin turnover in the brain, investigators measure the amount of ____ in the blood or cerebrospinal fluid.
a. COMT
b. MPTP
c. 5-HIAA
d. MAO

c. 5-HIAA

58

According to a number of animal studies, under which of the following conditions is the probability of violent behavior greatest?
a. low acetylcholine turnover
b. high acetylcholine turnover
c. low serotonin turnover
d. high serotonin turnover

c. low serotonin turnover

59

One explanation for why having genes for low serotonin turnover may be beneficial in monkeys is that:
a. a low level of aggression is best for survival.
b. an intermediate level of aggression prevents them from being too fearful or too violent.
c. most highly aggressive monkeys get everything they want.
d. serotonin causes cancer.

b. an intermediate level of aggression prevents them from being too fearful or too violent.

60

Many studies have found that violent criminals and arsonists released from prison had a greater probability of committing other violent crimes if they:
a. underwent surgical removal of the amygdala.
b. ate diets low in corn.
c. had lower than normal serotonin turnover.
d. had higher than normal serotonin turnover.

c. had lower than normal serotonin turnover.

61

Blood and urine levels of which chemicals are related to a history of violent suicide attempts?
a. high amount of serotonin turnover
b. low amount of serotonin turnover
c. high levels of L-dopa
d. low levels of L-dopa

b. low amount of serotonin turnover

62

Which of the following has been associated with an increased probability of suicide attempts?
a. high dopamine turnover
b. high GABA turnover
c. low serotonin turnover
d. low substance-P turnover

c. low serotonin turnover

63

The precursor for the synthesis of serotonin is:
a. tryptophan.
b. phenylalanine.
c. monoamine.
d. norepinephrine.

a. tryptophan.

64

Tryptophan hydroxylase is the enzyme that converts ____ into ____.
a. serotonin, 5-HIAA
b. 5-HIAA, serotonin
c. serotonin, tryptophan
d. tryptophan, serotonin

d. tryptophan, serotonin

65

One study found that many young men showed an increase in aggressive behavior a few hours after eating a diet:
a. high in tryptophan.
b. high in both tryptophan and phenylalanine.
c. low in tryptophan and high in phenylalanine.
d. low in both tryptophan and phenylalanine.

c. low in tryptophan and high in phenylalanine.

66

Why do certain people suspect that a diet high in corn may lead to an increase in aggressive behavior?
a. Corn is low in tryptophan and high in phenylalanine.
b. Corn contains a chemical similar to testosterone.
c. Corn is deficient in thiamine and other B vitamins.
d. Corn is high in fats and contains no proteins or amino acids.

a. Corn is low in tryptophan and high in phenylalanine.

67

Phenylalanine might affect the probability of aggressive behavior by:
a. converting to testosterone in the body.
b. converting to L-dopa in the body.
c. interfering with the production of serotonin.
d. interfering with the production of GABA.

c. interfering with the production of serotonin.

68

High levels of phenylalanine in the diet impair the synthesis of serotonin because it:
a. causes the breakdown of serotonin in the vesicles.
b. competes with an active transport mechanism shared by tryptophan.
c. interferes with the enzyme that synthesizes serotonin.
d. prevents the reuptake of serotonin.

b. competes with an active transport mechanism shared by tryptophan.

69

Suppose you want to DECREASE the aggressive behavior of an animal, and all you are allowed to use is a nutritional supplement. Which might be a good choice?
a. increase tryptophan
b. increase phenylalanine
c. decrease thiamine
d. decrease lecithin

a. increase tryptophan

70

People with less active forms of ____ are more likely than average to report frequent anger and aggression.
a. monoamine oxidase
b. dopamine
c. serotonin
d. tryptophan hydroxylase

d. tryptophan hydroxylase

71

Depression is linked to ____ serotonin and aggressive behavior is linked to ____ serotonin.
a. low; low
b. low; high
c. high; low
d. high; high

a. low; low

72

A person with a history of depression would most likely react to a diet low in tryptophan by becoming:
a. susceptible to a drug craving.
b. angry.
c. depressed.
d. violent.

c. depressed.

73

A person with a history of violence would most likely react to a diet low in tryptophan by becoming:
a. susceptible to a drug craving.
b. angry.
c. depressed.
d. violent.

d. violent.

74

If a treatment suddenly lowered your serotonin level:
a. you would experience depression.
b. you would become violent.
c. you would become both depressed and violent.
d. we could not predict how and when your behavior would change.

d. we could not predict how and when your behavior would change.

75

According to one hypothesis, if serotonin is released during aggressive behavior, then individuals with low serotonin release are more aggressive because of:
a. increased depression.
b. decreased serotonin synthesis.
c. increased serotonin receptor sensitivity.
d. decreased serotonin receptor sensitivity.

c. increased serotonin receptor sensitivity.

76

A startle reflex occurs in response to:
a. grief.
b. depression.
c. anxiety.
d. an unexpected loud noise.

d. an unexpected loud noise.

77

After a loud noise, information travels from the medulla to the ____, and then to the neck muscles.
a. pons
b. caudate nucleus
c. cochlear nucleus
d. hypothalamus

a. pons

78

The common measure of fear or anxiety that is popular because it can be used with non-humans as well as humans is:
a. facial expressions.
b. the startle response.
c. spontaneous muscle twitches.
d. hyperventilation.

b. the startle response.

79

What is a common measure of fear or anxiety that is popular because it can be used with non-humans as well as humans?
a. facial expressions
b. spontaneous muscle twitches
c. the startle response
d. hyperventilation

c. the startle response

80

To measure fear or anxiety in both humans and nonhumans, researchers measure variations in an individual’s:
a. rate of eyelid blinking.
b. attention to a flickering light.
c. salivary reflex.
d. startle reflex.

d. startle reflex.

81

Information reaches the pons within 3 to 8 ms after a ____, and the full startle reflex occurs in less than two-tenths of a second.
a. loud noise.
b. puff of air directed at your eye.
c. bright light.
d. pinch on the foot.

a. loud noise.

82

It is possible to predict (with moderate accuracy) people’s political attitudes toward the use of the military, the death penalty, and so forth by monitoring which of the following?
A differences in fMRI response between the left and right hemispheres
B size of the hippocampus
C amygdala responses to a sudden loud noise
D fluctuations in testosterone levels between morning and evening

C amygdala responses to a sudden loud noise

83

Startle responses are greater when a person is:
a. depressed.
b. anxious.
c. violent.
d. aggressive.

b. anxious.

84

In people suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, the startle response is:
a. generally absent.
b. generally weaker than in other people.
c. the same as in other people.
d. generally stronger than in other people.

d. generally stronger than in other people.

85

The startle response to a loud noise is increased in the presence of a stimulus that has been paired with:
a. something fearful.
b. something pleasant.
c. something neutral.
d. soft noises.

a. something fearful.

86

What area of the brain seems to be a key area for learned fears?
a. occipital cortex
b. somatosensory cortex
c. corpus callosum
d. amygdala

d. amygdala

87

Many cells in the amygdala get input from sensory modalities, especially the ____ nuclei.
a. basolateral and central
b. lateral and medial
c. hypothalamic
d. brain stem

a. basolateral and central

88

Damage to the amygdala impairs:
a. motor coordination.
b. circadian rhythms.
c. learned fears.
d. language comprehension.

c. learned fears.

89

Approach and avoidance responses are modified by output from the amygdala to the:
a. brain stem
b. hypothalamus
c. prefrontal cortex
d. basolateral nuclei

c. prefrontal cortex

90

Output from the amygdala to the ____ modifies approach and avoidance responses.
a. brain stem
b. hypothalamus
c. prefrontal cortex
d. basolateral nuclei

c. prefrontal cortex

91

The ____ receives axons from the amygdala and sends axons to the pons to control the startle response.
a. midbrain
b. caudate nucleus
c. cingulate gyrus
d. pineal gland

a. midbrain

92

The amygdala send axons to the ____, which in turn sends axons to the pons to control the startle reflex.
a. midbrain
b. caudate nucleus
c. cingulate gyrus
d. pineal gland

a. midbrain

93

People with amygdala damage have trouble identifying fear expressions. How could we improve their ability to recognize fear?
a. Give drugs that suppress serotonin synapses.
b. Change where they focus their eyes.
c. Test at a different time of day.
d. Display the expressions in black and white photos.

b. Change where they focus their eyes.

94

After damage to the amygdala, what happens to a rat’s startle reflex?
A The rat shows no startle reflex.
B The rat’s startle reflex does not vary from one situation to another.
C The rat shows an exaggerated startle reflex.
D The rat shows a startle reflex only when in the presence of danger signals.

B The rat’s startle reflex does not vary from one situation to another.

95

The parasite Toxoplasma gondii is able to reinfect cats when the cats:
a. come into close contact with other infected cats.
b. are bitten by scared rats.
c. eat fearless infected rats.
d. are bitten by mosquitos carrying the parasite.

c. eat fearless infected rats.

96

Which of the following effects would result from damage to the amygdala?
a. lack of a startle response
b. a normal startle response, but absence of learned fears
c. an enhanced startle response and an enhanced response to learned fears
d. a fear response to any novel stimulus

b. a normal startle response, but absence of learned fears

97

Animals with damage to the amygdala:
a. neither learn new fears nor retain previously learned fears.
b. fail to show a startle response to any stimulus.
c. become extremely aggressive and emotional.
d. are unable to store new memories of any kind.

a. neither learn new fears nor retain previously learned fears.

98

The most likely result of an amygdala lesion in the most dominant monkey in a group would be:
a. increased aggression.
b. lack of any emotions.
c. avoidance of all socialization.
d. lowered social status in the hierarchy.

d. lowered social status in the hierarchy.

99

Looking at a picture of people showing emotional expressions causes the greatest activity in the:
a. frontal lobe.
b. hippocampus.
c. fornix.
d. amygdala.

d. amygdala.

100

Human amygdala activity was found to be greatest when looking at a picture of:
a. people showing emotional expressions.
b. people with neutral expressions.
c. a puppy or kitten.
d. an infant.

a. people showing emotional expressions.

101

Recognition of an angry expression is faster when the face is directed ____, and a fearful expression is faster if it is directed ____.
a. toward you, to the side
b. to the side, toward you
c. toward you, toward you
d. to the side, to the side

a. toward you, to the side

102

According to research, the human amygdala responds most strongly when people are looking at:
a. scenes that depict or imply movement.
b. emotional expressions.
c. familiar, recognizable faces.
d. pictures than can be interpreted in more than one way.

b. emotional expressions.

103

Amygdala activation to angry and fearful expressions suggests that the amygdala responds most strongly:
a. to fearful faces directed to the viewer.
b. when emotional interpretation is unclear.
c. to happy faces.
d. to neutral faces.

b. when emotional interpretation is unclear.

104

When asked to draw pictures expressing different emotions, which emotion would cause the most difficulty for a person with Urbach-Wiethe disease?
a. happiness
b. disgust
c. sadness
d. fear

d. fear

105

When asked to identify different emotional expressions, people with Urbach-Wiethe disease had the most difficulty identifying:
a. surprise.
b. anger.
c. fear.
d. joy.

c. fear.

106

Which of the following social behaviors can result from damage to the amygdala?
a. standing closer than usual to someone during a conversation
b. tendency to trust almost no one
c. impairment at remembering people’s names
d. loss of sexual responsiveness

b. tendency to trust almost no one

107

Across studies involving amygdala damage, the general conclusion seems to be that the amygdala is important for:
a. focusing attention on emotional stimuli.
b. only the expression of emotion.
c. only the interpretation of emotion.
d. the normal startle response.

a. focusing attention on emotional stimuli.

108

One explanation for the difficulty that people with amygdala damage have with recognizing fearful faces is that they:
a. can’t see very well.
b. don’t remember what fear looks like.
c. focus their attention on the eyes of faces instead of the nose and mouth.
d. focus their attention on the nose and mouth of faces instead of the eyes.

d. focus their attention on the nose and mouth of faces instead of the eyes.

109

Increased fear, anxiety, or panic is related to increased activity of ____ and decreased activity of ____.
a. CCK; GABA
b. acetylcholine; glutamate
c. dopamine; norepinephrine
d. serotonin; NPY

a. CCK; GABA

110

One could reduce anxiety by:
a. decreasing GABA.
b. increasing CCK.
c. blocking CCK.
d. blocking dopamine.

c. blocking CCK.

111

____ decrease(s) the responses in a rat’s brain to the smell of a cat.
a. Orexin
b. Cholecystokinin
c. Benzodiazepines
d. Chloride ions

c. Benzodiazepines

112

The enhanced startle reflex in the presence of a feared stimulus would be reduced by all of the following methods EXCEPT:
a. stimulating GABA-A receptors.
b. opening chloride channels.
c. damaging the amygdala.
d. stimulating CCK receptors in the amygdala.

d. stimulating CCK receptors in the amygdala.

113

Most tranquilizers reduce anxiety by:
a. decreasing GABA.
b. increasing GABA.
c. blocking dopamine.
d. increasing CCK.

b. increasing GABA.

114

Benzodiazepines relieve anxiety by ____ transmission at ____ synapses.
a. facilitating; dopamine
b. inhibiting; serotonin
c. facilitating; GABA
d. inhibiting; norepinephrine

c. facilitating; GABA

115

Benzodiazepine tranquilizers affect GABA synapses by:
a. stimulating GABA receptors.
b. facilitating binding of GABA to its receptors.
c. inhibiting GABA receptors.
d. decreasing binding of GABA to its receptors.

b. facilitating binding of GABA to its receptors.

116

Which of the following conditions most resembles the effects of amygdala damage?
a. injecting CCK in the brain
b. taking tranquilizers
c. taking endozepines
d. blocking GABA receptors

b. taking tranquilizers

117

A drug that facilitates transmission at GABA-A synapses has what effect on behavior?
a. increases anxiety
b. decreases anxiety
c. increases overall arousal
d. decreases aggressiveness

b. decreases anxiety

118

The flow of ____ ions across the membrane is controlled by the GABA-A complex.
a. sodium
b. potassium
c. calcium
d. chloride

d. chloride

119

The GABA-A receptor complex controls the flow of which ion across the membrane?
a. sodium
b. potassium
c. calcium
d. chloride

d. chloride

120

A benzodiazepine molecule attaches to its receptor and affects the cell by:
a. increasing receptor response to GABA.
b. blocking the sodium gates in the membrane.
c. increasing the flow of potassium.
d. temporarily decreasing serotonin turnover.

a. increasing receptor response to GABA.

121

A variety of studies indicate that anxiety is increased by the transmitters ____ and ____.
a. alprazolam, orexin
b. cholecystokinin, orexin
c. orexin, diazepam
d. alprazolam, cholecystokinin

d. alprazolam, cholecystokinin

122

At the center of the GABAᴀ receptor is a:
a. benzodiazepine
b. neurotransmitter
c. chloride channel
d. transmitter channel

c. chloride channel

123

Benzodiazepines produce a variety of effects, including the possibility of:
a. fear
b. anxiety
c. anger
d. addiction

d. addiction

124

Which of the following decreases anxiety?
a. benzodiazepines
b. barbiturates
c. alcohol
d. endozepines

a. benzodiazepines

125

A person who has developed a tolerance to alcohol is likely to show a cross-tolerance to:
a. lithium.
b. amphetamines.
c. benzodiazepines.
d. antidepressants.

c. benzodiazepines.

126

Alcohol decreases anxiety by:
a. promoting chloride flow at the GABA-A receptor complex.
b. inhibiting chloride flow at the GABA-A receptor complex.
c. promoting sodium flow at serotonin synapses.
d. inhibiting sodium flow at serotonin synapses.

a. promoting chloride flow at the GABA-A receptor complex.

127

A combination of benzodiazepines and alcohol should be avoided because:
a. each magnifies the effects of the other.
b. each cancels the effects of the other.
c. they react with each other chemically to form a new compound.
d. the combination produces excessive anxiety.

a. each magnifies the effects of the other.

128

Someone who had developed a tolerance to alcohol is likely to show a cross-tolerance to:
a. benzodiazepines.
b. amphetamines.
c. lithium.
d. antidepressants.

a. benzodiazepines.

129

An experimental drug, Ro15-4513, has been shown to block the behavioral effects of:
a. tricyclics.
b. amphetamines.
c. alcohol.
d. endozepines.

c. alcohol.

130

The field of study that would be most concerned with the effects of smoking, diet, exercise, and stress on health is:
a. behavioral medicine.
b. neurology.
c. dietetics.
d. psychology.

a. behavioral medicine.

131

Hans Selye's defined stress in terms of:
a. the duration of troubling events.
b. an increase in worry.
c. the nonspecific response of the body to any demand.
d. the amount of homework to be done.

c. the nonspecific response of the body to any demand.

132

A nonspecific response of the body to any demand made upon it is a definition of:
a. emotion.
b. feeling.
c. stress.
d. psychosomatic illness.

c. stress.

133

Selye inferred that any threat to the body, in addition to its specific effects, activated a generalized response to stress, which he called the:
a. general stress syndrome.
b. general adaptation syndrome.
c. general activation syndrome.
d. general limbic syndrome.

b. general adaptation syndrome.

134

Stress activates two systems. One is the:
a. HPA axis, which reacts more quickly than the other.
b. HPA axis, which becomes increasingly important with prolonged stressors.
c. autonomic nervous system which secretes the hormone ACTH.
d. autonomic nervous system which secretes the hormone cortisol.

b. HPA axis, which becomes increasingly important with prolonged stressors.

135

In Selye’s general adaptation syndrome, the release of cortisol occurs during the ____ stage.
a. alarm
b. resistance
c. exhaustion
d. promotional

b. resistance

136

Which of the following hormones is released by the adrenal gland during stress?
a. cortisol
b. ACTH
c. CRH
d. NPY

a. cortisol

137

Leukocytes identify intruder cells by their:
a. shape.
b. chromosomal pattern.
c. rate of cell division.
d. surface proteins.

d. surface proteins.

138

A leukocyte attacks when it finds a cell with foreign:
a. antigens.
b. contours.
c. chromosomes.
d. neurotransmitters.

a. antigens.

139

Which type of leukocyte attaches to an intruder and produces a specific antibody to attack the intruder's antigen?
a. Macrophage
b. B cell
c. T cell
d. A cell

b. B cell

140

Which type of leukocyte matures in the bone marrow?
a. Antigen
b. Macrophage
c. B cell
d. T cell

c. B cell

141

Proteins that circulate in the blood, specifically attaching to one kind of antigen are:
a. macrophages.
b. B cells.
c. T cells.
d. antibodies.

d. antibodies.

142

What type of leukocyte matures in the thymus gland?
a. natural killer cell
b. macrophage
c. B cell
d. T cell

d. T cell

143

Which type of leukocyte matures in the bone marrow and produces antibodies to attack specific targets?
a. B cells
b. Y cells
c. T cells
d. natural killer cells

a. B cells

144

Blood cells that attach to types of tumor cells and cells infected with viruses are known as:
a. B cells.
b. T cells.
c. cytotoxic T cells.
d. natural killer cells.

d. natural killer cells.

145

Which type of leukocyte destroys tumor cells and cells infected with viruses?
a. T cells
b. B cells
c. Schwann cells
d. natural killer cells

d. natural killer cells

146

One of the main differences between natural killer cells and T cells is that natural killer cells:
a. attack normal tissue.
b. attack several kinds of intruders.
c. are cancer cells.
d. are more specific in their targets.

b. attack several kinds of intruders.

147

Chemicals released by the immune system that attack infections and communicate with the brain to elicit anti-illness behaviors are:
a. macrophages.
b. cytotoxic cells.
c. cytokines.
d. natural killer cells.

c. cytokines.

148

The immune system's way of telling the brain that the body is ill is by way of:
a. macrophages.
b. cytotoxic cells.
c. cytokines.
d. natural killer cells.

c. cytokines.

149

Information from cytokines is relayed to the brain, specifically to the:
a. hypothalamus.
b. cerebellum.
c. pineal gland.
d. locus coeruleus.

a. hypothalamus.

150

The classical illness behaviors such as fever, sleepiness, and lack of appetite are caused by:
a. decreased brain activity.
b. toxins released by pathogens.
c. the immune system's production of cytokines.
d. antibody production.

c. the immune system's production of cytokines.

151

Why do humans suffer from sleepiness, decreased muscle activity, and decreased sex drive during illness?
A The illness suppresses nearly all brain activity.
B The virus saps the organism's energy and uses it to attack the body.
C They are useful ways of conserving energy while the body is attacking the illness.
D An illness decreases blood flow to the brain and muscles.

C They are useful ways of conserving energy while the body is attacking the illness.

152

The field of study concerned with how the nervous system interacts with the immune system is known as:
a. endocrinology
b. immunopsychology.
c. psychoneuroimmunology.
d. neurobiology.

c. psychoneuroimmunology.

153

Occasional brief periods of stress:
a. are harmful to an organism.
b. are harmful if the emotion is anger.
c. boost the activity of the immune system.
d. direct energy away from the synthesis of proteins.

c. boost the activity of the immune system.

154

What did researchers find in Antarctic research scientists who spent a 9-month period of social isolation in the cold and dark?
a. T cell functioning increased by about 50%
b. T cell functioning decreased by about half
c. leukocytes stopped functioning
d. an outbreak of autoimmune diseases

b. T cell functioning decreased by about half

155

Which is more characteristic of the body's response to chronic stress than the response to short-term stress?
a. sympathetic nervous system involvement
b. elevated heart rate
c. a sudden burst of activity ("fight or flight" response)
d. secretions of cortisol

d. secretions of cortisol

156

Chronically high cortisol levels can be harmful to an individual by:
a. increasing the vulnerability of the hippocampus.
b. killing off natural killer cells.
c. increasing metabolism.
d. elevating fevers.

a. increasing the vulnerability of the hippocampus.

157

High cortisol levels increase the likelihood that hippocampal cells will be:
a. responsive to new learning.
b. capable of generating a circadian rhythm.
c. synchronized to sensory stimulation.
d. vulnerable to damage by toxins.

d. vulnerable to damage by toxins.

158

Aged people with the highest cortisol levels tend to be those with the:
a. largest hippocampus.
b. greatest memory problems.
c. greatest amount of social support.
d. most cellulose in the diet.

b. greatest memory problems.

159

Recurring nightmares, exaggerated startle response, and avoidance behavior are common symptoms of:
a. autoimmune disorders.
b. schizophrenia.
c. alcoholism.
d. posttraumatic stress disorder.

d. posttraumatic stress disorder.

160

Experiencing nightmares about a traumatic event, avoiding reminders of it, and exaggerated startle response are symptoms of:
a. major depression.
b. mild depression.
c. PTSD.
d. schizophrenia.

c. PTSD.

161

PTSD victims tend to have a ____ hippocampus and ____ cortisol levels.
a. larger, higher
b. larger, lower
c. smaller, higher
d. smaller, lower

d. smaller, lower

162

What is the relationship between PTSD and size of the hippocampus?
a. PTSD causes a decrease in the number of neurons in the hippocampus.
b. PTSD causes a decrease in the size of neurons in the hippocampus.
c. People with a smaller than average hippocampus are more likely than others to develop PTSD.
d. People with a larger than average hippocampus are more likely than others to develop PTSD.

c. People with a smaller than average hippocampus are more likely than others to develop PTSD.

163

One surprising feature about people with posttraumatic stress disorder is that, on the average, they have:
a. lower than normal cortisol levels.
b. a larger than normal hippocampus.
c. a stronger, healthier immune system than most people.
d. a weaker than normal startle response to a loud noise.

a. lower than normal cortisol levels.

164

Among people who had been in severe automobile accidents, the ones who develop PTSD are more likely to have:
a. more severe head injury.
b. a smaller than average hippocampus.
c. longer recovery times.
d. larger cortisol responses.

b. a smaller than average hippocampus.

165

Among identical twins, if one of them has PTSD, then the other is also likely to have a:
a. small hippocampus.
b. large hippocampus.
c. large adrenal gland.
d. small adrenal gland.

a. small hippocampus.

166

Having a small hippocampus may increase one’s vulnerability to:
a. PTSD.
b. bipolar disorder.
c. Urbach-Wiethe disease.
d. Kluver-Bucy syndrome.

a. PTSD.

167

Which brain area is essential for the extreme emotional impact that produces PTSD?
A corpus callosum
B substantia nigra
C dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
D amygdala

D amygdala