Chapter 7 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (201):
1

What is the basis for differences in sensory abilities across species?
a. The larger the organism, the more intense the stimulus must be to be detected.
b. All organisms detect all stimuli, but only focus on those involved in survival.
c. Organisms detect a range of stimuli that are biologically relevant for that species.
d. The larger the organism, the larger the range of stimuli detected.

c. Organisms detect a range of stimuli that are biologically relevant for that species.

2

Which of the following is TRUE about the stimuli detectable by the auditory and visual systems of humans?
a. Humans can detect all sights and sounds, as long as they are above a minimal intensity.
b. Humans respond to a narrower range of stimuli than most other species.
c. Humans are sensitive to all the stimuli lower organisms can detect, as well as some they cannot.
d. Humans are sensitive to a wide range of range of stimuli.

d. Humans are sensitive to a wide range of range of stimuli.

3

Across species, it appears that the sense organs are most attuned to:
a. biologically useful stimuli.
b. low intensity stimuli.
c. detecting odors of other species.
d. detection of chemical stimuli.

a. biologically useful stimuli.

4

What is the intensity of a sound wave called?
a. frequency
b. loudness
c. amplitude
d. tone

c. amplitude

5

The ____ of a sound is the number of compressions per second.
a. pitch
b. frequency
c. amplitude
d. loudness

b. frequency

6

What is the perception of the intensity of a sound wave called?
a. pitch
b. frequency
c. amplitude
d. loudness

d. loudness

7

Pitch is a perception related to which aspect of sound?
a. amplitude
b. frequency
c. intensity
d. across-fiber pattern coding

b. frequency

8

What occurs to a tone as the frequency increases?
a. Pitch gets higher.
b. Pitch gets lower.
c. Loudness increases.
d. Loudness decreases.

a. Pitch gets higher.

9

If two voices differ in their frequency, this means they differ in their:
a. amplitude.
b. number of waves per second.
c. height of each wave.
d. loudness.

b. number of waves per second.

10

Loudness is to ____ as pitch is to ____.
a. frequency; intensity
b. amplitude; frequency
c. pitch; tone
d. amplitude; intensity

b. amplitude; frequency

11

Suppose the highest pitch you can hear is about 20,000 Hz. Under what circumstances will that limit change?
a. It drops naturally as you grow older.
b. It drops if you go several months without listening to any high pitches.
c. It drops only as a result of injury or disease.
d. It increases with musical training.

a. It drops naturally as you grow older.

12

The fact that each person’s pinna is shaped differently from anyone else’s suggests that much of sound localization is:
a. impossible.
b. learned.
c. restricted to activity of the cochlea.
d. enhanced by having small ears.

b. learned.

13

The outer ear includes:
a. the tympanic membrane.
b. the pinna.
c. the MGN.
d. the cochlea.

b. the pinna.

14

The structure that we commonly refer to as the ear (on the outside of the head) is formally known as the:
a. tympanic membrane.
b. stapes.
c. pinna.
d. malleus.

c. pinna.

15

The eardrum is also known as the:
a. pinna.
b. ossicle.
c. tympanic membrane.
d. cochlea.

c. tympanic membrane.

16

The eardrum vibrates at:
a. a much higher frequency than the sound waves that hit it.
b. half the frequency of the sound waves that hit it.
c. the same frequency as the sound waves that hit it.
d. a constant frequency regardless of the frequency of the sound.

c. the same frequency as the sound waves that hit it.

17

What is another name for the tympanic membrane?
a. eardrum
b. pinna
c. auditory nerve
d. cochlea

a. eardrum

18

What is the function of the pinna?
a. It vibrates in synchrony with high-frequency tones.
b. It protects the eardrum from overstimulation.
c. It filters out distracting sounds.
d. It helps us locate the source of sounds.

d. It helps us locate the source of sounds.

19

The tympanic membrane connects to three tiny bones that transmit the vibrations to the:
a. cochlea.
b. pinna.
c. oval window.
d. hair cells.

c. oval window.

20

Vibrations in the fluid of the cochlea causes?
a. movement of the pinna.
b. hair cells to displace.
c. vibrations of the eardrum.
d. vestibular input.

b. hair cells to displace.

21

Three small bones connect the tympanic membrane to the oval window. What is the function of these bones?
a. They hold the tympanic membrane in place.
b. They convert airwaves into waves of greater pressure.
c. They spread out the air waves over an area of larger diameter.
d. They change the frequency of air waves into lower frequencies that can be heard.

b. They convert airwaves into waves of greater pressure.

22

Which of the following are presented in the correct order when describing some of the structures that sound waves travel through as they pass from the outer ear to the inner ear?
a. pinna, tympanic membrane, oval window, cochlea
b. tympanic membrane, pinna, cochlea
c. pinna, stapes, eardrum
d. malleus, tympanic membrane, oval window, pinna

a. pinna, tympanic membrane, oval window, cochlea

23

The malleus, incus, and stapes are small bones:
a. in the inner ear.
b. in the outer ear.
c. that transmit information from the outer ear to the middle ear.
d. that transmit information from the tympanic membrane to the oval window.

d. that transmit information from the tympanic membrane to the oval window.

24

The hammer, anvil and stirrup are found in the:
a. cochlea.
b. middle ear.
c. external auditory canal.
d. temporal lobe.

b. middle ear.

25

The stirrup makes the oval window vibrate at the entrance to the:
a. haircells.
b. scala media.
c. eardrum.
d. scala vestibuli.

d. scala vestibuli.

26

Why is it important for sound vibrations to be amplified as they pass through the ear?
a. The inner membrane gets less sensitive with age.
b. More force is needed to create waves in fluid.
c. Much of the vibration is lost in the eardrum.
d. Too much is lost through friction.

b. More force is needed to create waves in fluid.

27

The scala vestibuli makes up part of the:
a. tympanic membrane.
b. cochlea.
c. middle ear.
d. ossicles.

b. cochlea.

28

The scala media makes up part of the:
a. tympanic membrane.
b. middle ear.
c. cochlea.
d. ossicles.

c. cochlea.

29

In the auditory system, hair cells are specialized receptors that respond to:
a. mechanical displacement.
b. electromagnetic energy.
c. chemicals.
d. vestibular input.

a. mechanical displacement.

30

The scala tympani makes up part of the:
a. tympanic membrane.
b. middle ear.
c. cochlea.
d. ossicles.

c. cochlea.

31

The tympanic membrane is to the ____ as the oval window is to the ____.
a. anvil; hammer
b. stirrup; anvil
c. inner ear; middle ear
d. middle ear; inner ear

d. middle ear; inner ear

32

What is the name of the receptor cells of the auditory system?
a. rods and cones
b. sound bulbs
c. hair cells
d. basilar membranes

c. hair cells

33

Where are the auditory receptor cells located?
a. in the semicircular canal
b. on the tympanic membrane
c. on the basilar membrane
d. in the malleus

c. on the basilar membrane

34

How do sound waves ultimately result in the production of receptor potentials?
a. The tectorial membrane squeezes the auditory nerve.
b. The basilar membrane releases neurotransmitters.
c. Hair cells in the cochlea vibrate, causing ion channels to open in their membrane.
d. The scala vestibuli has receptors that create action potentials.

c. Hair cells in the cochlea vibrate, causing ion channels to open in their membrane.

35

According to the frequency theory, the:
a. tectorial membrane vibrates in synchrony with the auditory nerve.
b. auditory nerve is responsible for perception of sound but not loudness.
c. basilar membrane vibrates in synchrony with a sound, producing action potentials at the same frequency.
d. basilar membrane is tuned to a specific frequency and vibrates whenever that frequency is present.

c. basilar membrane vibrates in synchrony with a sound, producing action potentials at the same frequency.

36

Perception of a low tone is to ____ as perception of a high tone is to ____.
a. volley principle; frequency theory
b. frequency theory; place theory
c. place theory; volley principle
d. gate theory; frequency theory

b. frequency theory; place theory

37

At low frequencies, the intensity of the sound is coded by the:
a. frequency of action potentials.
b. number of neurons producing action potentials.
c. oval window.
d. the relative frequency of action potentials.

b. number of neurons producing action potentials.

38

At low frequencies, our perception of loudness is determined by:
a. the number of activated hair cells.
b. the frequency of action potentials.
c. which neurons are activated.
d. which part of the basilar membrane is vibrating.

a. the number of activated hair cells.

39

What is the major problem for the frequency theory of sound perception?
a. It cannot account for perception of low pitch sounds.
b. It cannot account for perception of low amplitude sounds.
c. It requires the cochlea to vibrate, and it does not.
d. Neurons cannot respond as quickly as the theory requires.

d. Neurons cannot respond as quickly as the theory requires.

40

Which of the following assumptions is necessary for the place theory of pitch perception, but NOT for the frequency theory?
a. Various auditory neurons respond best to different wavelengths.
b. The response of an auditory neuron declines if a sound is repeated many times.
c. The louder a sound, the more auditory neurons respond to it.
d. Most times we hear a combination of many wavelengths, not a pure tone.

a. Various auditory neurons respond best to different wavelengths.

41

The frequency theory of pitch perception works well for ____ frequencies, while the place theory works well for perception of ____ frequencies.
a. low; low
b. high; low
c. high; high
d. low; high

d. low; high

42

The fact that the refractory period limits the firing rate of a neuron is problematic for which of the following?
a. frequency theory
b. place theory
c. volley theory
d. both the frequency theory and the place theory

a. frequency theory

43

The fact that the various parts of the basilar membrane are tightly bound together is problematic for which of the following?
a. the frequency theory
b. the place theory
c. the volley theory
d. both the frequency theory and the place theory

b. the place theory

44

The current view of how we perceive sounds less than 100 Hz is based on:
a. the frequency of action potentials.
b. the area along the basilar membrane that responds most strongly.
c. volleys of responses.
d. the asymmetrical positioning of an individual's ears.

a. the frequency of action potentials.

45

"Every sound causes one location along the basilar membrane to resonate, and thereby excites neurons in that area." This is one way to state which theory about pitch perception?
a. volley principle
b. frequency theory
c. place theory
d. opponent-process theory

c. place theory

46

Currently, the most prevalent theory of pitch perception is:
a. the frequency theory.
b. the place theory.
c. the volley principle.
d. a combination of frequency, place, and volley principles, depending on the frequency of the tone.

d. a combination of frequency, place, and volley principles, depending on the frequency of the tone.

47

The current view of how we perceive high frequencies is based on:
a. the frequency of responses by each auditory neuron.
b. volleys of responses by many auditory neurons.
c. where along the basilar membrane neurons fire most rapidly.
d. the ratio of firing among three types of receptors.

c. where along the basilar membrane neurons fire most rapidly.

48

The highest frequency sounds vibrate hair cells:
a. farther along the membrane.
b. near the base of the membrane.
c. in the middle of the membrane.
d. along the entire length of the membrane.

b. near the base of the membrane.

49

The current view of how we perceive frequencies greater than 1,000 but less than 5,000 Hz is based on:
a. the frequency of responses by each auditory neuron.
b. volleys of responses by many auditory neurons.
c. the area along the basilar membrane where neurons fire most rapidly.
d. the ratio of firing among three types of receptors.

b. volleys of responses by many auditory neurons.

50

Which of the following is true regarding theories of pitch perception?
a. The frequency, pitch, and volley theories each work best for different frequencies.
b. The frequency theory works best for all frequencies.
c. The place theory works best for all frequencies.
d. Each theory works equally well for all frequencies.

a. The frequency, pitch, and volley theories each work best for different frequencies.

51

Where is the basilar membrane most sensitive to the vibrations of very high-frequency sound waves?
a. closest to the cochlea
b. at the apex, farthest from the cochlea
c. about halfway between the cochlea and the apex
d. It is equally sensitive across the entire membrane.

a. closest to the cochlea

52

High frequency tones produce maximum displacement:
a. at the base of the basilar membrane.
b. at the apex of the basilar membrane.
c. at the narrow end of the cochlea.
d. in the eighth cranial nerve.

a. at the base of the basilar membrane.

53

Where is the basal membrane most sensitive to the vibrations of low-frequency sound waves?
a. closest to the cochlea
b. at the apex, farthest from the cochlea
c. about half-way between the cochlea and the apex
d. It is equally sensitive across the entire membrane.

b. at the apex, farthest from the cochlea

54

The ability to hear a note and identify it perfectly is called:
a. ultimate pitch.
b. sharp pitch.
c. tonal pitch.
d. absolute pitch.

d. absolute pitch.

55

Most auditory information is sent to which hemisphere of the brain?
a. the ipsilateral side
b. the contralateral side
c. the left hemisphere
d. It depends on whether the individual is dominant for audition in the right or the left hemisphere.

b. the contralateral side

56

To what lobe of the cerebral cortex is auditory information sent?
a. occipital
b. temporal
c. parietal
d. frontal

b. temporal

57

A tonotopic map refers to:
a. an auditory cortex map of sounds.
b. a diagram of which kinds of sounds are most common in different parts of the world.
c. a diagram comparing the different tones to which different species are sensitive.
d. a map showing connections between the auditory cortex and the visual cortex.

a. an auditory cortex map of sounds.

58

Damage to V1 produces ____ and damage to A1 produces ____.
a. blindness; complete deafness
b. complete deafness; blindness
c. blindness; deafness to complex sounds
d. blindness; ringing in the ears

c. blindness; deafness to complex sounds

59

People with massive damage to the primary auditory cortex:
a. are rendered completely deaf.
b. are rendered deaf to only high-frequency sounds.
c. cannot recognize combinations or sequences of sounds.
d. can no longer hear and recognize simple sounds.

c. cannot recognize combinations or sequences of sounds.

60

Damage to the primary auditory cortex results in:
a. difficulty in responding to sequences of sounds
b. complete deafness
c. tone deafness
d. inability to hear sounds other than one's own voice

a. difficulty in responding to sequences of sounds

61

To what kinds of tones do cells in the primary auditory cortex respond best?
a. low-pitch tones
b. high-pitch tones
c. pure single tones
d. combinations or patterns of tones

d. combinations or patterns of tones

62

Patients with damage in area MT have problems with perception of:
a. location of sounds.
b. location of objects.
c. movement of objects and sounds.
d. high frequency sounds.

c. movement of objects and sounds.

63

Visual imagery is to ____ as auditory imagery is to ____.
a. A1; A1
b. V1; V1
c. area MT; A1
d. V1; A1

d. V1; A1

64

Areas bordering the primary auditory cortex are important for:
a. detecting loudness of sounds.
b. analyzing the meaning of sounds.
c. determining location of sounds.
d. detecting pitch of sounds.

b. analyzing the meaning of sounds.

65

A person would have the most difficulty locating the sight and sound of an approaching train with damage to the:
a. area MT.
b. parietal cortex.
c. prefrontal cortex.
d. tympanic membrane.

b. parietal cortex.

66

Which of the following would a cell in the primary auditory cortex be LEAST excited by?
a. a pure tone
b. the sound of conversation
c. an unusual sound
d. a tone with several harmonics

a. a pure tone

67

What is the result of damage to the primary auditory cortex?
a. tone deafness
b. complete deafness
c. difficulty in responding to sequences of sounds
d. inability to hear sounds other than one's own voice

c. difficulty in responding to sequences of sounds

68

Within the primary auditory cortex, most cells respond selectively to a particular:
a. loudness.
b. rhythm.
c. frequency.
d. word.

c. frequency.

69

What kind of deafness is the result of damage to the cochlea or the hair cells?
a. conductive
b. nerve
c. temporary
d. hysterical

b. nerve

70

Which of the following statements about nerve deafness is FALSE?
a. It can be caused by inadequate oxygen to the brain at birth.
b. Hearing aids can compensate for some of the hearing loss.
c. Prolonged exposure to loud noise is one of the most common causes.
d. With surgical treatment, it is possible to regain normal hearing.

d. With surgical treatment, it is possible to regain normal hearing.

71

Conductive deafness is also known as:
a. nerve deafness.
b. middle ear deafness.
c. inner ear deafness.
d. outer ear deafness.

b. middle ear deafness.

72

Which of the following would a person with conductive deafness be able to hear better than a person with nerve deafness?
a. everything
b. themselves talking
c. other people talking
d. nothing

b. themselves talking

73

People with conductive deafness:
a. often have an abnormal cochlea.
b. often have an abnormal auditory nerve.
c. often suffer damage to the hair cells.
d. can benefit from surgery or hearing aids.

d. can benefit from surgery or hearing aids.

74

What can most people with nerve deafness hear?
a. some frequencies of sound better than others
b. external sounds, but not their own voices
c. soft sounds better than loud sounds
d. nothing at all

a. some frequencies of sound better than others

75

What can people with conductive deafness hear?
a. high-pitched sounds but not low-pitched sounds
b. their own voice better than external sounds
c. sounds, but not pitch; everything is monotone
d. nothing at all

b. their own voice better than external sounds

76

Conductive deafness is to ____ as nerve deafness is to ____.
a. the inner ear; the middle ear
b. the middle ear; the inner ear
c. disease; exposure to loud noises
d. age; disease

b. the middle ear; the inner ear

77

Which of the following is true for nerve deafness?
a. It is usually temporary.
b. It often can be corrected by surgery.
c. It will involve a normal cochlea and auditory nerve.
d. It can result from damage to the cochlea.

d. It can result from damage to the cochlea.

78

Tinnitus is often:
a. suffered by those with conductive deafness.
b. seen in the very young.
c. due to a phenomenon like the phantom limb.
d. due to differential loudness.

c. due to a phenomenon like the phantom limb.

79

If the cochlea suffers damage but it is confined to one part of the cochlea, that individual will lose:
a. all hearing.
b. hearing of certain frequencies of sound.
c. hearing of certain rhythms of sound.
d. hearing of certain loudness of sound.

b. hearing of certain frequencies of sound.

80

Damage to the part of the cochlea that sends information about high frequency sounds to the primary auditory cortex could result in:
a. hearing loss in the opposite ear.
b. inability to hear loud sounds.
c. tinnitus.
d. complete hearing loss.

c. tinnitus.

81

Nerve deafness often produces:
a. hearing loss in the opposite ear.
b. tinnitus.
c. inability to hear loud sounds.
d. infections.

b. tinnitus.

82

Nerve deafness is to ____ as conductive deafness is to ____.
a. the inner ear; the middle ear
b. the middle ear; the inner ear
c. disease; exposure to loud noises
d. age; disease

a. the inner ear; the middle ear

83

Which statement about tinnitus is FALSE?
a. Many people with nerve deafness experience tinnitus.
b. Many people with conductive deafness experience tinnitus.
c. Tinnitus is common among the elderly.
d. Tinnitus is a frequent or constant ringing in the ears.

b. Many people with conductive deafness experience tinnitus.

84

Comparisons between which two responses are helpful in locating the source of a sound?
a. the base and the apex of the basilar membrane
b. the middle ear and the inner ear
c. the left ear and the right ear
d. the start of the sound and the end of the sound

c. the left ear and the right ear

85

Humans localize low frequencies by ____ differences and high frequencies by ____ differences.
a. timing; phase
b. loudness; phase
c. phase; timing
d. phase; loudness

d. phase; loudness

86

What sound characteristics can be compared between the two ears to locate the source of the sound?
a. sound shadows and frequency
b. frequency and amplitude
c. loudness and timing
d. timbre and rhythm

c. loudness and timing

87

For what kind of sounds can differences in loudness be used most accurately for localization?
a. loud
b. soft
c. low-pitched
d. high-pitched

d. high-pitched

88

Which two factors determine whether or not there will be a "sound shadow"?
a. loudness and ear size
b. head size and frequency
c. frequency and cochlea size
d. suddenness of onset and loudness

b. head size and frequency

89

Timing differences can be used most accurately for localizing:
a. sudden-onset sounds.
b. gradual-onset sounds.
c. loud sounds.
d. bird alarm calls.

a. sudden-onset sounds.

90

In terms of sound localization, low frequencies are to ____ differences, as high frequencies are to ____ differences.
a. timing; phase
b. loudness; phase
c. phase; timing
d. phase; loudness

d. phase; loudness

91

A sound shadow refers to:
a. out of phase sound waves.
b. in phase sound waves.
c. the time it takes sound waves to reach the ears.
d. how much louder a high-frequency sound is for the ear closest to the sound.

d. how much louder a high-frequency sound is for the ear closest to the sound.

92

Which of the following would be LEAST able to use phase differences as a means of sound localization?
a. chimpanzees
b. humans
c. elephants
d. ground squirrels

d. ground squirrels

93

Suppose you suddenly become deaf in one ear. With practice, you would most likely be able to locate familiar sounds based on differences in:
a. phase.
b. frequency.
c. pitch.
d. loudness.

d. loudness.

94

What does the vestibular system detect?
a. the degree of stretch of muscles
b. vibrations on the skin
c. the location of sounds
d. movement of the head

d. movement of the head

95

Which of the following would be most impaired with damage to the vestibular senses?
a. writing
b. hearing
c. visually tracking an object while dancing
d. ability to discriminate salt from sugar

c. visually tracking an object while dancing

96

In the otolith organs, the otoliths are calcium carbonate particles that:
a. push against hair cells when moved.
b. vibrate with different frequencies.
c. stabilize the semicircular canals.
d. enhance sound localization.

a. push against hair cells when moved.

97

Which two structures provide information about vestibular sensation?
a. cochlea and otolith organs
b. semicircular canals and cochlea
c. semicircular canals and otolith organs
d. cerebellum and sinuses

c. semicircular canals and otolith organs

98

The vestibular organ consists of:
a. only otolith organs.
b. only semicircular canals.
c. otolith organs and semicircular canals.
d. the cochlea and an otolith organ.

c. otolith organs and semicircular canals.

99

The function of the semicircular canals is to:
a. locate the source of low frequency tones.
b. locate the source of high frequency tones.
c. detect movement of the head.
d. establish a sense of direction while traveling.

c. detect movement of the head.

100

The eighth cranial nerve contains both a(n) ____ component and a ____ component.
a. vestibular; somatosensory
b. visual; vestibular
c. auditory; taste
d. auditory; vestibular

d. auditory; vestibular

101

The somatosensory system involves sensation of:
a. sight and sound.
b. sound and touch.
c. the body and its movements.
d. the head and movements of the eyes.

c. the body and its movements.

102

What kind of receptors detect pain, warmth, and cold?
a. cranial
b. semicircular
c. vestibular
d. somatosensory

d. somatosensory

103

An acceleration of the head at any angle causes:
a. the jelly-like substance in one of the semicircular canals to move to another canal.
b. the jelly-like substance in one of the semicircular canals to push against hair cells.
c. fluid to spill out from the otolith organs into the semicircular canals.
d. hair cells to become stiff and straight.

b. the jelly-like substance in one of the semicircular canals to push against hair cells.

104

Meissner's corpuscles are:
a. elaborate neuron endings for touch.
b. simple, bare neuron endings.
c. bare endings surrounded by non-neural cells.
d. important components of the blood.

a. elaborate neuron endings for touch.

105

Stimulation of a touch receptor opens ____ channels in the axon.
a. choline
b. potassium
c. sodium
d. calcium

c. sodium

106

Ruffini's endings are:
a. elaborate neuron endings for touch.
b. simple, bare neuron endings.
c. bare endings surrounded by non-neural cells.
d. important components of the blood.

a. elaborate neuron endings for touch.

107

Pacinian corpuscles respond best to:
a. rapid mechanical pressure.
b. low frequency sounds.
c. horizontal head movements.
d. slow mechanical movements.

a. rapid mechanical pressure.

108

Pain receptors of the skin are:
a. elaborate neuron endings.
b. also known as Ruffini endings.
c. simple, bare neuron endings.
d. also known as Meissner's corpuscles.

c. simple, bare neuron endings.

109

When mechanical pressure bends the membrane of a Pacinian corpuscle:
a. the membrane's resistance to the flow of sodium ions increases.
b. the membrane's resistance to the flow of sodium ions decreases.
c. the membrane becomes hyperpolarized.
d. there is a sustained, long-term response to this pressure.

b. the membrane's resistance to the flow of sodium ions decreases.

110

Each spinal nerve has:
a. either a sensory or a motor component.
b. both a sensory and a motor component.
c. connections to most parts of the body.
d. connections to each of the major internal organs.

b. both a sensory and a motor component.

111

Someone who has suffered damage to the sensory component of one spinal nerve would lose sensation from:
a. the contralateral half of the body.
b. the ipsilateral half of the body.
c. one ventricle.
d. one dermatome.

d. one dermatome.

112

What is a dermatome?
a. an area of the skin innervated by a given spinal nerve
b. an instrument used to record impulses in the spinal cord
c. the point at which sensory nerves make contact with motor nerves
d. an area of the skin that has no touch receptors

a. an area of the skin innervated by a given spinal nerve

113

Cutting a spinal nerve would result in loss of:
a. sensation in the face.
b. motor control in the part of the body it innervated.
c. sensation in the part of the body it innervated.
d. motor control and sensation in the part of the body it innervated.

d. motor control and sensation in the part of the body it innervated.

114

Somatosensory information travels from the thalamus to which area of the cortex?
a. parietal lobe
b. frontal lobe
c. hippocampus
d. limbic cortex

a. parietal lobe

115

An individual with damage to the primary somatosensory cortex would most have problems with:
a. memory.
b. hearing.
c. ability to locate where someone was touching them.
d. balance.

c. ability to locate where someone was touching them.

116

After damage to the somatosensory cortex, a person would have the most difficulty with:
a. perceiving moving sounds.
b. balance.
c. eye movements.
d. pointing to their own body parts.

d. pointing to their own body parts.

117

Along each strip of somatosensory cortex, different sub-areas respond to:
a. different types of receptors.
b. different areas of the body.
c. different parts of the cortex.
d. different types of transmitters.

b. different areas of the body.

118

Which of the following is TRUE about various types of somatosensation?
a. They are produced by varied responses by a single type of receptor.
b. They involve different receptors, but the spinal cord integrates the information.
c. They remain separate through the spinal cord, but are interpreted by a single set of cortical neurons.
d. They are at least partly distinct all the way from the receptors to the cerebral cortex.

d. They are at least partly distinct all the way from the receptors to the cerebral cortex.

119

What neurotransmitter is released by axons that carry pain information to the brain?
a. dopamine
b. serotonin
c. substance P
d. encephalin

c. substance P

120

The heat receptor responds to ____, the chemical that makes jalapeños.
a. tryptophan
b. pacinian
c. menthol
d. capsaicin

d. capsaicin

121

The ____ nucleus of the thalamus is associated with pain perception of the body.
a. anterior
b. posterior
c. ventral posterior
d. ventral lateral

c. ventral posterior

122

A mild degree of pain releases the neurotransmitter ____. A more intense pain also releases ____.
a. glutamate, substance P
b. GABA, substance P
c. glutamate, dopamine
d. GABA, dopamine

a. glutamate, substance P

123

What would you expect if a researcher injected substance P into an animal's spinal cord?
a. The animal would be paralyzed.
b. The animal would show indications of pain in the part of the body that sends information to that section of the spinal cord.
c. The animal would show indications of pain in the part of the spinal cord where the substance was injected.
d. The animal would show signs of aggression.

b. The animal would show indications of pain in the part of the body that sends information to that section of the spinal cord.

124

A mild pain stimulus is associated with a release of:
a. substance P.
b. substance P and glutamate.
c. glutamate.
d. neuromodulators.

c. glutamate.

125

The sensory aspect of pain activates the ____ cortex, whereas the emotional aspect activates the ____ cortex.
a. cingulate, somatosensory
b. somatosensory, cingulate
c. fusiform, premotor
d. premotor, fusiform

b. somatosensory, cingulate

126

The brain chemicals known as endorphins and enkephalins produce effects similar to which substance?
a. vitamin B-1 (thiamine)
b. substance P
c. opiates
d. amphetamines

c. opiates

127

Endorphins:
a. can interact with the same receptors as morphine.
b. have chemical structures just like morphine.
c. increase pain.
d. are human-made drugs which mimic endorphins.

a. can interact with the same receptors as morphine.

128

Certain painful stimuli activate neurons which release endorphins in the:
a. periaqueductal gray area.
b. ventricles
c. forebrain.
d. cerebellum.

a. periaqueductal gray area.

129

Morphine and other opiate drugs decrease sensitivity to pain by:
a. depleting substance P from parts of the nervous system.
b. mimicking the effects of endorphins at the synapses.
c. preventing sodium from crossing the membrane.
d. altering blood flow to various parts of the nervous system.

b. mimicking the effects of endorphins at the synapses.

130

The current view of how endorphins decrease the experience of pain is that they:
a. deplete the brain of substance P.
b. block the release of substance P.
c. block sodium channels in the membrane of certain neurons.
d. increase the sensitivity of neurons to dopamine.

b. block the release of substance P.

131

What process is predicted by the gate theory of pain?
a. Pain information grows more intense as it passes each synapse on its way to the brain.
b. Non-pain information can inhibit pain information.
c. Intense pain can shut out all other sensory information.
d. The intensity of pain experience depends entirely on the excitability of pain receptors.

b. Non-pain information can inhibit pain information.

132

After hurting your elbow in a biking accident, the gate-control theory of pain suggests that to reduce the pain, you could:
a. eat hot peppers.
b. rub it gently.
c. focus on how painful it is.
d. block endorphin release.

b. rub it gently.

133

Studies with placebos and studies using hypnotism suggest that much of the reduction in pain is the result of decreased activation in the:
a. emotion areas of the brain.
b. hypothalamus.
c. spinal cord.
d. somatosensory areas of the cortex.

a. emotion areas of the brain.

134

Which of the following drug actions would most likely block the effectiveness of placebos?
a. blocking capsaicin receptors
b. blocking endorphin receptors
c. stimulating substance P receptors
d. stimulating endorphin receptors

b. blocking endorphin receptors

135

Why is morphine NOT used to suppress pain during an operation?
a. It is only effective while a person is conscious.
b. Its effects are local.
c. It inhibits dull pain, but not sharp pain.
d. Its effects would be too temporary.

c. It inhibits dull pain, but not sharp pain.

136

Morphine is effective in relieving:
a. pain on the skin.
b. sharp pain.
c. slow, dull pain.
d. pain in the interior of the body.

c. slow, dull pain.

137

Large-diameter pain axons:
a. carry sharp pain information.
b. carry dull pain information.
c. readily respond to endorphins.
d. are associated with small cell bodies.

a. carry sharp pain information.

138

Small-diameter pain axons:
a. carry sharp pain information.
b. carry dull pain information.
c. do not respond to endorphins.
d. are associated with large cell bodies.

b. carry dull pain information.

139

Anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen, relieve pain by:
a. reducing the release of chemicals from damaged tissues.
b. dulling the pain information.
c. blocking synapses.
d. numbing the damaged tissue.

a. reducing the release of chemicals from damaged tissues.

140

Itching is primarily the result of:
a. bad circulation.
b. baby powder.
c. histamine release.
d. substance P release.

c. histamine release.

141

A distinctive feature of itch is that it relies on:
a. axons that go directly from the skin to the cerebral cortex.
b. axons that make several synapses before reaching the spinal cord.
c. unusually fast axons.
d. unusually slow axons.

a. axons that go directly from the skin to the cerebral cortex.

142

What is the relationship between pain and itch?
a. Pain inhibits itch.
b. Itch is a mild form of pain.
c. Itch and pain are different, but both are reduced by opiate drugs.
d. Itch and pain are different, but both are increased by opiate drugs.

a. Pain inhibits itch.

143

One peculiarity of itch sensations is that:
a. they can be felt in body parts that have no sensory receptors.
b. they are suppressed by morphine for unusually long times.
c. they are suppressed by Novocaine for unusually long times.
d. they depend on action potentials transmitted at very slow speeds.

d. they depend on action potentials transmitted at very slow speeds.

144

Antihistamine drugs tend to ____ itching, and opiates tend to ____ itching.
a. reduce, increase
b. reduce, reduce
c. increase, increase
d. increase, reduce

a. reduce, increase

145

Most theorists believe that the first sensory system was:
a. vision.
b. vestibular.
c. pain.
d. chemical.

d. chemical.

146

One difference between labeled-line coding and across-fiber pattern coding is that labeled-line is:
a. only found in vertebrates.
b. less versatile.
c. more complicated.
d. slower.

b. less versatile.

147

Each receptor responds to a limited range of stimuli and sends a direct line to the brain. This type of coding is referred to as:
a. across-fiber.
b. labeled-line.
c. vestibular.
d. hierarchical.

b. labeled-line.

148

Each receptor responds to a wide range of stimuli and contributes to the perception of each of them. This type of coding is referred to as:
a. across-fiber.
b. labeled-line.
c. hierarchical.
d. reciprocal-excitatory.

a. across-fiber.

149

Our ability to see a wide range of colors, despite the presence of only three types of receptors, indicates that color vision depends on which type of coding?
a. across-fiber pattern
b. reciprocal-inhibitory
c. labeled-line
d. hierarchical

a. across-fiber pattern

150

Taste and smell axons converge onto many of the same cells in an area called the:
a. frontal cortex.
b. striate cortex.
c. insular cortex.
d. endopiriform cortex.

d. endopiriform cortex.

151

The receptors for taste are:
a. true neurons.
b. covered in myelin.
c. modified skin cells.
d. modified blood cells.

c. modified skin cells.

152

The receptors for taste are not true neurons, but are actually modified skin cells. In what way are these cells like neurons?
a. Once taste receptors die, they are never replaced.
b. They release neurotransmitters.
c. They have axons.
d. They are covered with a myelin sheath.

b. They release neurotransmitters.

153

The receptors for taste are like skin cells in that they:
a. are continuously being replaced.
b. are covered with a myelin sheath.
c. are also sensitive to touch.
d. do not release neurotransmitters.

a. are continuously being replaced.

154

What are found in papillae?
a. olfactory receptors
b. clusters of neurons
c. hair cells
d. taste buds

d. taste buds

155

In adult humans, the taste buds are:
a. evenly distributed across the front half of the tongue.
b. evenly distributed across the whole tongue.
c. concentrated near the center of the tongue.
d. concentrated along the outside edge of the tongue.

d. concentrated along the outside edge of the tongue.

156

Which of the following is TRUE about taste receptors?
a. Their dendrites extend outside the taste buds.
b. They are located mainly along the outside edge of the tongue.
c. Each taste bud contains only one receptor cell.
d. Humans have hundreds of types of taste receptors, each sensitive to a different set of chemicals.

b. They are located mainly along the outside edge of the tongue.

157

Which of the following is TRUE about taste receptors?
a. Their dendrites extend outside the taste buds.
b. They are virtually nonexistent in the center of the tongue.
c. Each taste bud contains only one receptor cell.
d. Humans have hundreds of types of taste receptors, each sensitive to a different set of chemicals.

b. They are virtually nonexistent in the center of the tongue.

158

The miracle of miracle berries is that after eating them:
a. they become tasteless.
b. salty substances taste sour.
c. you don't gain any weight.
d. sour substances can taste sweet.

d. sour substances can taste sweet.

159

What do toothpaste, miracle berries, and Gymnema sylvestre have in common?
a. They are extremely expensive.
b. They modify taste perception.
c. They contain illegal drugs.
d. They activate substance P receptors.

b. They modify taste perception.

160

Reduced response to one taste after exposure to another is referred to as:
a. adaptation.
b. cross-adaptation.
c. umami.
d. PTC.

b. cross-adaptation

161

Why does orange juice taste unpleasant just after one uses toothpaste?
a. Toothpaste contains a chemical that changes certain taste receptors.
b. When the teeth are clean, the acid in the orange juice irritates them.
c. Toothpaste removes a coating that protects the tongue.
d. Toothpaste enhances the binding of molecules to sweetness receptors.

a. Toothpaste contains a chemical that changes certain taste receptors.

162

After soaking your tongue in a sour solution you try tasting salty, sweet, and bitter substances. How are these tastes affected?
a. You will be unable to detect the sweet taste, but the other two will be unaffected.
b. You will be unable to detect the sweet or salty tastes, but bitter will be unaffected.
c. You will be unable to reliably detect any of the other tastes.
d. There will be little or no effect on these three tastes.

d. There will be little or no effect on these three tastes.

163

Exposure to an extremely salty substance decreases sensitivity to other salty substances. What is this phenomenon called?
a. adaptation
b. olfaction
c. umami
d. analgesia

a. adaptation

164

After eating salty pretzels, the salty potato chips will taste less salty because of:
a. cross-adaptation.
b. adaptation.
c. umami.
d. amiloride.

b. adaptation.

165

After soaking their tongues in a sour solution, what do most people experience?
a. Other sour substances taste less sour.
b. Other sour substances taste more sour.
c. Other sour substances taste sweet as well as sour.
d. All substances are perceived as relatively tasteless.

a. Other sour substances taste less sour.

166

Adaptation is to ____ as cross-adaptation is to ____.
a. sour; sweet
b. same tastes; different tastes
c. overstimulation; rebound effects
d. weak stimulation; strong stimulation

b. same tastes; different tastes

167

Taste perception in the brain depends on:
a. relative activity of different taste neurons.
b. absolute frequency of action potentials.
c. only taste receptors on the anterior part of the tongue.
d. the angular gyrus.

a. relative activity of different taste neurons.

168

Chemicals that prevent sodium from crossing the membrane:
a. intensify the salty taste.
b. do not affect taste.
c. reduce the intensity of salty tastes.
d. cause an increase in sensitivity to other primary tastes.

c. reduce the intensity of salty tastes.

169

What causes excitation of the taste receptors that respond to salty tastes?
a. a decrease in the activity of adjacent sweet and bitter receptors
b. sodium ions crossing the membrane of the receptor
c. a hyperpolarization due to the increased concentration of sodium ions outside the cell
d. a blockage of the sodium gates

b. sodium ions crossing the membrane of the receptor

170

Sweetness, bitterness and umami receptors operate by:
a. closing potassium channels.
b. depolarizing the membranes.
c. activating a protein which causes the release of a second messenger.
d. simply permitting sodium ions to cross their membranes.

c. activating a protein which causes the release of a second messenger.

171

One reason why we have difficulty tasting low concentrations of a bitter chemical is that:
a. we have dozens of different types of bitter receptors.
b. bitter receptors are located only on the back of the tongue.
c. bitter receptors have axons with very slow conduction velocities.
d. each bitter receptor responds to a wide variety of chemicals.

a. we have dozens of different types of bitter receptors.

172

We can identify a wide variety of bitter substances because:
a. we have many different bitter receptors.
b. we have only one bitter receptor that responds to all bitter substances.
c. we can combine the activity of the sour and salty receptors.
d. even Pacinian corpuscles respond to bitter substances.

a. we have many different bitter receptors.

173

Information carried to the brain along the chorda tympani comes from the:
a. posterior one-third of the tongue.
b. posterior two-third of the tongue.
c. center of the tongue.
d. anterior two-thirds of the tongue.

d. anterior two-thirds of the tongue.

174

If someone anesthetized your chorda tympani, you would:
a. no longer taste anything.
b. no longer taste anything in the posterior part of your tongue.
c. no longer taste anything in the anterior part of your tongue.
d. not notice any change in your ability to taste.

c. no longer taste anything in the anterior part of your tongue.

175

The nucleus of the tractus solitarius in the medulla is known to receive information from what source?
a. tongue
b. nose
c. ears
d. skin of the hands

a. tongue

176

The taste nerves initially project to the:
a. nucleus of the tractus solitarius.
b. cerebral cortex.
c. hypothalamus.
d. orbital prefrontal cortex.

a. nucleus of the tractus solitarius.

177

The primary taste cortex is known as the:
a. flavor cortex.
b. olfactory cortex.
c. insular cortex.
d. occipital cortex.

c. insular cortex.

178

Which of the following would be able to tolerate the highest level of PTC?
a. people with many fungiform papillae near the tip of the tongue
b. people with few fungiform papillae near the tip of the tongue
c. supertasters
d. a pregnant woman

b. people with few fungiform papillae near the tip of the tongue

179

If you are a supertaster, then:
a. you require high concentrations of a particular taste to be able to identify it.
b. you have more fungiform papillae in the center of your tongue.
c. you are more sensitive than the average person to nearly all tastes.
d. your ability to taste makes up for your lack of ability to identify odors by smell.

c. you are more sensitive than the average person to nearly all tastes.

180

Olfaction also plays a subtle role in:
a. sleeping.
b. social behavior.
c. touch sensation.
d. vestibular sensation.

b. social behavior.

181

How many kinds of olfactory receptors do we have?
a. two or three
b. seven
c. twenty
d. hundreds

d. hundreds

182

In mammals, each olfactory cell has threadlike dendrites that:
a. extend from the cell body into the mucous surface of the nasal passage.
b. extend from the cell body directly into the brain.
c. extend from the mucous surface of the nasal passage to the base of the skull.
d. intermingle with one another to form a web-like structure.

a. extend from the cell body into the mucous surface of the nasal passage.

183

Olfactory receptor sites are located:
a. in the brain.
b. on cilia.
c. in the olfactory bulb.
d. on the basilar membrane.

b. on cilia.

184

How is olfactory information coded in receptor cells?
a. Each odor produces a different ratio of firing across three types of olfactory cells.
b. Each odor produces a different ratio of firing across six types of olfactory cells.
c. There are hundreds of types of receptor molecules, each responsive to a different chemical.
d. Chemicals in the air are transported to the olfactory cortex.

c. There are hundreds of types of receptor molecules, each responsive to a different chemical.

185

Rats and mice are better able to discriminate odors than humans because they:
a. have a greater variety of olfactory receptors.
b. are closer to the ground.
c. have more practice.
d. have shorter olfactory cilia.

a. have a greater variety of olfactory receptors.

186

Analogous to lateral inhibition, when olfactory receptors are stimulated, they:
a. inhibit the activity of other receptors.
b. quickly die.
c. inhibit cell reproduction.
d. inhibit nausea.

a. inhibit the activity of other receptors.

187

Olfactory receptors carry their message to the:
a. cochlea.
b. NTS.
c. insular cortex.
d. olfactory bulb.

d. olfactory bulb.

188

What is unusual about olfactory receptors compared to most other mature mammalian neurons?
a. They have more than one axon each.
b. They have no axons.
c. They are replaceable when old neurons die.
d. They use more than one neurotransmitter.

c. They are replaceable when old neurons die.

189

Given a very faint odor of air freshener, who is most likely to detect it?
a. male
b. post-menopausal female
c. cycling female
d. pre-pubertal female

c. cycling female

190

Deleting a single gene for potassium channels in mice led to an amazing superpower related to the sense of:
a. touch.
b. smell.
c. sight.
d. hearing.

b. smell.

191

The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a set of receptors located:
a. in the inner ear.
b. near, but separate from, the olfactory receptors.
c. in the throat.
d. in the cerebral ventricles.

b. near, but separate from, the olfactory receptors.

192

Pheromone receptors in humans are located in the:
a. tongue.
b. VNO.
c. olfactory mucosa.
d. cochlea.

c. olfactory mucosa.

193

Pheromones are important for the ____ behaviors of many mammalian species.
a. food-getting
b. sexual
c. temperature-regulating
d. conscious and intentional

b. sexual

194

Researchers have found the VNO in humans. It compares to other species in that it is:
a. more dependent on practice or training in humans.
b. a more prominent organ in humans.
c. a small organ without obvious receptors.
d. a small organ with many more receptors.

c. a small organ without obvious receptors.

195

One major difference between olfaction and VNO receptors is that:
a. there are many more VNO receptors.
b. VNO receptors are continuously growing.
c. VNO receptors do not adapt.
d. olfactory receptors are sensitive to pheromones.

c. VNO receptors do not adapt.

196

Studies indicate that pheromones may play a role in humans':
a. ability to detect odors.
b. memories.
c. sexual behaviors.
d. dietary choices.

c. sexual behaviors.

197

Many women living in a college dormitory will gradually begin to synchronize their menstrual cycles. The research indicates that this is, at least in part, based on:
a. sound.
b. sight.
c. pheromones.
d. similar activity schedules.

c. pheromones.

198

Repeated exposure to male pheromones may be associated with ____ in young women who are not sexually active.
a. more regular menstrual cycles
b. sweating
c. increased olfactory capabilities
d. increased appetite

a. more regular menstrual cycles

199

Of the following, which one would be most closely associated with experiencing synesthesia?
a. hearing voices
b. seeing colors and shapes
c. seeing colors of letter or words
d. inability to feel pain

c. seeing colors of letter or words

200

A person who “sees” spoken language or music may be experiencing:
a. synesthesia.
b. amnesia.
c. anesthesia.
d. aphasia.

a. synesthesia.

201

One hypothesis of synesthesia is:
a. that all of the axons from one cortical area have more branches into that cortical area.
b. that all of the axons from one cortical area have branches into another cortical area.
c. that some of the axons from one cortical area have branches into another cortical area.
d. that some of the axons from one cortical area have more branches into that cortical area.

c. that some of the axons from one cortical area have branches into another cortical area.