chapter 15: language and our divided brain Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chapter 15: language and our divided brain Deck (42):
1

spatial cognition

the ability to navigate and to understand the spatial relationship between objects

2

stuttering

the tendency of otherwise normal people to produce speech sounds only haltingly, tripping over certain syllables or unable to start vocalizing certain words

3

Williams syndrome

a disorder characterized by impairments of spatial cognition and IQ, but superior linguistic abilities

4

phoneme

a sound that is produced for language

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morpheme

the smallest grammatical unit of a language; a word or a meaningful part of a word

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sensitive or critical period

the period during development in which an organism can be permanently altered by a particular experience or treatment

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aphasia

an impairment in language understanding and/or production that is caused by brain injury

8

paraphasia

a symptom of aphasia that is distinguished by the substitution of a word by a sound, an incorrect word, an unintended word, or a neologism (a meaningless word)

9

agraphia

the inability to write

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alexia

the inability to read

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apraxia

an impairment in the ability to carry out complex sequential movements, even though there is no muscle paralysis

12

Broca's area

a region of the frontal lobe of the brain that is involved in the production of speech

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nonfluent or Broca's aphasia

a language impairment characterized by difficulty with speech production but not with language comprehension; related to damage in Broca's area

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hemiplegia

partial paralysis involving one side of the body

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hemiparesis

weakness of one side of the body

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Wernicke's area

a region of the temporoparietal cortex in the brain that is involved in the perception and production of speech

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fluent aphasia or Wernicke's aphasia

a language impairment characterized by fluent, meaningless speech and little language comprehension; related to damage in Wernicke's area

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anomia

the inability to name persons or objects readily

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global aphasia

the total loss of ability to understand language, or to speak, read, or write

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connectionist model of aphasia

a theory proposing that left-hemisphere language deficits result from disconnection between the brain regions in a language network, each of which serves a particular linguistic function; also called Wernicke-Geschwind model

21

arcuate fasciculus

a fiber tract classically viewed as a connection between Wernicke's and Broca's speech areas

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conduction aphasia

an impairment in the ability to repeat words and sentences

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motor theory of language

the theory of speech mechanisms proposing that the left-hemisphere language zones are motor control systems that are concerned with both the precise production and the perception of the extremely complex movements that go into speech

24

dyslexia

a reading disorder attributed to brain impairment; also called alexia

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deep dyslexia

acquired dyslexia in which the patient reads a word as another word that is semantically related

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surface dyslexia

acquired dyslexia in which the patient seems to attend only to the fine details of reading

27

split-brain individual

an individual whose corpus callosum has been severed, halting communication between the right and left hemispheres

28

contralateral

in anatomy, pertaining to a location on the opposite side of the body

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dichotic presentation

the simultaneous delivery of different stimuli to both the right and the left ears at the same time

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tachistoscope test

a test in which stimuli are very briefly presented to either the left or right visual half field

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planum temporale

an auditory region of the superior temporal cortex

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prosody

the perception of emotional tone-of-voice aspects of language

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astereognosis

the inability to recognize objects by touching and feeling them

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prosopagnosia or face blindness

a condition characterized by the inability to recognize faces

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fusiform gyrus

a region on the inferior surface of the cortex, at the junction of the temporal and occipital lobes, that has been associated with recognition of faces

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agnosia

the inability to recognize objects, despite being able to describe them in terms of form and color; may occur after localized brain damage

37

recovery of function

the recovery of behavior capacity following brain damage from stroke or injury

38

embryonic stem cell

a cell, derived from an embryo, that has the capacity to form any type of tissue

39

lesion momentum

the phenomenon in which the brain is impaired more by a lesion that develops quickly than by a lesion that develops slowly

40

constraint-induced movement therapy

a therapy for recovery of movement after stroke or injury in which the person's unaffected limb is constrained while she is required to perform tasks with the affected limb

41

concussion

minor brain injury, usually occurring when the brain is impacted by a blow

42

chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)

results after many concussion, impairs cognitive abilities and creates abnormalities in the brain