Chapter 15 Nervous System Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15 Nervous System Disorders Deck (17):
1

Alzheimer disease

Disease characterized by early dementia, confusion, loss of recognition of persons or familiar surroundings, restlessness and impaired memory

2

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Progressive muscle atrophy caused by degeneration and scarring of neurons along the lateral columns of the spinal cord that control muscles

3

Bell palsy

Paralysis of muscles on one side of the face caused by inflammation or compression of the facial nerve

4

Cerebral aneurysm

Aneurysm in the cerebrum

5

Cerebral embolism

An embolus (blood clot) lodges in the cerebral artery causing sudden blockage of blood supply to brain tissue. Leads to atrial fibrillation, which can lead to stroke.

6

Cerebral palsy

Condition characterized by lack of muscle control and partial paralysis, caused by brain defect or lesion present at birth or shortly after.

7

Dementia

Cognitive impairment characterized by loss of intellectual brain function. Difficulty in performing complex tasks, reasoning, learning and retaining new info, orientation, word finding and behavior.

8

Epilepsy

Condition characterized by recurrent seizures, a general term given to neurological disorders, all characterized by abnormal electrical activity in the brain

9

Hydrocephalus

Disorder caused by obstructed circulation of cerebrospinal fluid, resulting in dilated cerebral ventricles and impaired brain function.

10

Intracerebral hemorrhage

Bleeding in the brain as a result of a ruptured blood vessel within the brain. Symptoms include dyspnea, dysphagia and diminished level of consciousness.

11

Multiple sclerosis

Chronic degenerative disease characterized by sclerotic patches along the brain and spinal cord. Symptoms include fatigue, balance and coordination impairments, numbness and vision problems.

12

Parkinson disease

Chronic degenerative disease of the central nervous system. Symptoms include resting tremors of the hands and feet, rigidity, expressionless face, and shuffling gait.

13

Sciatica

Inflammation of the sciatic nerve, causing pain that travels from the thigh through the leg to the foot and toes. Can be caused by injury, infection, arthritis or from prolonged pressure on the nerve from sitting for long periods of time.

14

Shingles

Viral disease that affects peripheral nerves and causes blisters on the skin.

15

Stroke

Occurs when there is an interruption of blood supply to a region of the brain, depriving nerve cells of oxygen and nutrients. The cells cannot perform and may be damaged or die within minutes. Speech, movement, memory can be affected.

16

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

Bleeding caused by a ruptured blood vessel just outside the brain. The patient may experience an intense, sudden headache accompanied by nausea, vomiting and neck pain.

17

Transient ischemic attack

Sudden deficient supply of blood to the brain lasting a short time. Symptoms are similar to stroke, but temporary and the usual outcome is complete recovery.

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