Chapter 15 - Shock And Resuscitation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15 - Shock And Resuscitation Deck (40):
0

What is shock?

Inadequate tissue perfusion

1

What is inadequate volume?

A decrease of blood volume, which will decrease the preload, which will cause the stroke volume and cardiac output to fall, which will cause the systolic blood pressure to fall

2

What is inadequate pump function?

When the heart does not generate enough force to move the necessary amount of blood through out the body

3

What is inadequate vessel tone?

When the vessels size increases because of massive vasodilation, the resistance decreases and the blood pressure and perfusion Olson decrease

4

What is hypovolemic shock?

Shock that is caused from a low volume of blood

5

What is the most common cause of hypovolemic shock?

Hemorrhage - the loss of whole blood

6

What is distributive shock?

A decrease in the inter vascular volume caused by massive systemic vasodilation and an increase in capillary permeability

7

What are the 5 categories of shock?

Hypovolemic, distributive, obstructive, cardiogenic
Metabolic/respiratory

8

What are the types of hypovolemic shock?

Hemorrhagic
Non hemorrhagic, burn

9

What are the types of distributive shock?

Septic
Neurogenic
Anaphylactic

10

What are the types of obstructive shock?

Pulmonic embolism
Pericardial tamponade
Tension pneumothorax

11

What are the types of cardiogenic shock?

MI, CHF
Beta blockers, calcium channel blockers
Abnormal rhythm
Depressed pump function

12

What are the types of metabolic/respiratory shock?

CO2, oxygen diffusion

13

What is cardiogenic shock?

Caused by ineffective pump function, usually when more than 40 percent of the left ventricle has been lost

14

What is obstructive shock?

Condition when blood is obstructed from moving forward

15

What is anaphylactic shock?

When chemical mediators are released that cause massive and systemic vasodilation

16

What is septic shock?

Infection that releases bacteria or toxins in the blood, causing the vessels to dilate and become permeable

17

What is neurogenic shock?

A spinal cord injury that damages the sympathetic nerve fibers that control the vessel tone

18

What is cardiogenic shock?

Depressed pumping functions of the heart that reduces the stroke volume, cardiac output, systolic blood pressure and perfusion

19

What is direct nerve stimulation?

When shock occurs, the sympathetic nervous system is activated and tries to restore normal blood pressure

20

What is compensatory shock?

When the body is able to adjust and maintain near normal blood pressure and perfusion to vital organs

21

What is decompensatory shock?

An advanced stage of shock where the body is no longer able to maintain blood pressure and perfusion to vital organs

22

What is irreversible shock?

The stage at which, regardless of intervention, the patient outcome is death

23

What is the lower blood pressure limit for a child less than 10 dealing with shock?

Systolic blood pressure of 70 plus two times the age is the lower limit of normal

24

What does resuscitation mean?

Bringing the patient back from potential or apparent death

25

What is sudden death?

When the patient dies within 1 hour of the onset of the signs and symptoms

26

How long before the brain has irreversible changes due to cardiac arrest?

4 to 6 minutes

27

What is the electric phase of shock?

Begins immediately upon cardiac arrest thru 4 minutes, the heart still has a good supply of oxygen and glucose and aerobic metabolism is maintained

28

What is circulatory phase of shock?

From 4 to 10 minutes after onset, oxygen stores have been depleted and the body shifts to anaerobic metabolism

29

What is the metabolic phase of shock?

After 10 minutes of onset, the heart is starved of oxygen and the body has a huge buildup of acid. Chances of survival drop dramatically

30

What is downtime?

The time the patient goes into cardiac arrest until CPR is performed

31

What is total downtime?

The total time from onset of cardiac arrest until the patient is delivered to the ER

32

What is ROSC?

Return of spontaneous circulation

33

What is considered survival?

When a cardiac arrest patient is able to leave the hospital

34

What is the adult chain of survival?

Immediate recognition and activation
Early CPR
Rapid defibrillation
Effective advanced life support
Integrated post cardiac arrest care

35

What is the compression rate during CPR?

100 per minute
30 compressions to 2 ventilations

36

What is ventricular fibrillation?

Disorganized cardiac rhythm that produce no pulse or cardiac output

37

What is ventricular tachycardia?

A very fast heart rhythm that is generated in the ventricle instead of the sinoatrial node in the atrium

38

What is asystole?

The absence of electrical activity and pumping action in the heart
aka - flat line

39

What is PEA?

Pulseless electrical activity, the heart has an organized rhythm but the heart does not respond or there is nothing to pump