Flashcards in Chapter 16 - Respiratory Emergencies Deck (29):
What is a normal pulse oximeter reading?
Where are stretch receptors located and what do they do?
In the walls of the lungs, prevent over expansion injuries
Where are irritant receptors located and what do they do?
In the walls of the bronchioles, detect the presence of abnormalities such as excessive fluids, toxic fumes, smoke
Where are the j receptors located and what do they do?
Near the alveoli, detect when the alveolar - capillary beds are becoming abnormally engorged with blood as a result of heart failure
What is wheezing and what is it associated with?
A high pitched, musical, whistling sound that is best he hard on exhalation. It is an indication of swelling and constriction of the inner lining of the bronchioles.
Asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis
What is rhonchi and what is it associated with?
Snoring or rattling noise heard upon auscultation. They indicate obstruction of the larger conducting airways by a thick mucus
Chronic bronchitis, emphysema, aspiration, pneumonia
What is crackles?
Aka rales - bubbly or cracking sound heard during inhalation, sounds associated with fluid that has surrounded or filled the alveoli or very small bronchioles
Pulmonary edema, pneumonia
Decrease of oxygen in the blood stream typically an SpO2 reading below 94%
Shortness of breath
Inadequate supply of oxygen to the cells and tissue
What is respiratory distress?
Difficulty breathing but has adequate tidal volume and respiratory rate
What is respiratory failure?
When either the tidal volume or respiratory rate becomes inadequate
What is CPAP?
Continuous positive airway pressure
What is respiratory arrest?
When breathing stops completely
What is COPD?
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
What is BiPAP?
Bilevel positive airway pressure
What is emphysema?
Destruction of the alveolar sacs and capillary beds
What is chronic bronchitis?
Inflammation, swelling and thinking of the lining of the bronchi and bronchioles and excessive mucus production
What is asthma?
An increased sensitivity of the lower airway to irritants and allergens causing bronchospasm
What is pneumonia?
Lower respiratory tract infection that causes lung inflammation and fluid or pus filled alveoli
What is a pulmonary embolism?
Sudden blockage of blood flow through the pulmonary artery
What is acute pulmonary edema?
When an excessive amount of fluid collects in the spaces between the alveoli and capillaries
What is a spontaneous pneumothorax
A sudden rupture of a portion of the visceral lining of the lung, not caused by trauma, that causes the lung to partially collapse
What is hyperventilation
Faster deeper breaths that blow off excessive amounts of carbon dioxide
What is epiglottis
The area around the epiglottis and the base of the tongue become infected
What is pertussis
Whooping cough, uncontrolled coughing
What is cystic fibrosis
An abnormal gene that alters the mucous gland to cause and over abundant production of mucus, which is very thick and sticky