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Flashcards in Chapter 7 Deck (94):
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Anatomy

Structure of the body and the relationship of it parts to each other

1

Physiology

Function of the living body and it's parts

2

Lateral recumbent

Patient lying on left or right side

3

Sagittarius plane

Vertical plane that divides the body into right and left segments

4

Frontal or coronal plane

Plane that divides the body into front and back halves

5

Transverse or horizontal plane

Plane that divides the body into top and bottom halves

6

Midline

Line drawn vertically through the middle of the patients body

7

Midaxillary line

Imaginary line vertically from the middle of the patients arm pit down to the ankle

8

Anterior plane

Patients front

9

Posterior plane

Patients back

10

Transverse line

Imaginary line horizontally through the patients waist

11

Anterior

Towards the front

12

Posterior

Towards the back

13

Superior

Towards the head or above the point of reference

14

Inferior

Toward the feet or below the point of reference

15

Dorsal

Towards the back

16

Ventral

Towards the front or belly

17

Medial

Towards the midline or center of the body

18

Lateral

Refers to the left or right of the midline

19

Proximal

Near the point of reference

20

Distal

Distant or far from the point of reference

21

Plantar

Sole of the feet

22

Palmar

Palm of the hand

23

Flexion

Bending towards the body

24

Extension

Straightening away from the body

25

Abduction

Movement away from the midline

26

Adduction

Movement towards the midline

27

Pronation

Turning the forearm so the palm of the hand is turned towards the back

28

Supination

Turning the forearm so the palm of the hand is turned towards the front

29

Artery

Carries blood away from the heart

30

Aorta

Supply all other arteries with blood, the major artery from the heart

31

Coronary arteries

Vessels that supply the heart itself with blood

32

Carotid arteries

Supply the brain and head with blood

33

Femoral arteries

Major artery of the thigh and supplies the groin and leg with blood

34

Dorsalis pedis arteries

Artery in the foot, can be felt on top of the big toes

35

Posterior tibial arteries

Travels from the calf to the foot, can be felt by the ankle

36

Brachial arteries

Major artery of the upper arm, can be felt at the front of the elbow, used when determining blood pressure

37

Radial arteries

Major artery of the arm distal to the elbow joint. Can be felt on the wrist

38

Pulmonary arteries

Carry oxygen depleted blood to the lungs, where the blood is oxygenated and returned to the heart for circulation through out the body

39

Arteriole

Smallest kind of artery, carry blood from the arteries into the capillaries

40

Capillary

Tiny blood vessel that connects an arteriole to a venule

41

Venule

Smallest branch of the veins, connected to the distal ends of capillaries

42

Vein

Carries blood back to the heart

43

Venae cavae

Carry oxygen depleted blood back to the right atrium where it begins circulation through the heart and lungs

44

Pulmonary veins

Carry oxygen rich blood from the lungs to the left atrium

45

Red blood cells

Carry oxygen to the body cells, and carry carbon dioxide away from the cells

46

White blood cells

Part of the body's immune system and help to defend against infection

47

Platelets

Essential to the formation of blood clots

48

Plasma

Liquid part if the blood, which carries blood cells and transports nutrients to all tissue

49

Blood pressure

Force exerted by the blood on the interior walls of the arteries

50

Systolic blood pressure

Exerted against the walls of the arteries whe the left ventricle contracts

51

Diastolic blood pressure

Pressure exerted against the walls of the arteries when the left ventricle is at rest

52

Hydrostatic pressure

The force exerted on the inside of the vessel walls as a result of the blood pressure and volume

53

Edema

Swelling occurring in the tissues

54

Perfusion

The delivery of oxygen, glucose and other nutrients to the cells of all organ systems and the elimination of carbon dioxide

55

Hypoperfusion

Insufficient supply of oxygen to some of the body's cells and the inadequate elimination of carbon dioxide that results from inadequate circulation

56

Where is the tricuspid valve?

Between the right atrium and the right ventricle

57

Where is the pulmonary valve?

At the base of the pulmonary artery in the right ventricle

58

Where is the bicuspid aka mitral valve?

Between the left atrium and the left ventricle

59

Where is the aortic valve?

At the base of the aortic artery in the left ventricle

60

What is the aorta?

Major artery from the heart that supplies blood to all other arteries

61

What are coronary arteries?

Supply the heart with blood

62

What are carotid arteries?

Supply the brain with blood

63

What are Femoral arteries?

Major arteries of the thigh

64

What is the pulmonary arteries?

Carry blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart

65

What is the superior vena cava?

Enters the top of the right atrium, carrying oxygen depleted blood from the upper body

66

What is the inferior vena cava?

Enters the bottom of the right atrium, carrying oxygen depleted blood from the lower body

67

What is hypoperfusion?

An insufficient supply of oxygen and other nutrients to the body's cells and the inadequate elimination of carbon dioxide

68

What does the nervous system control?

Voluntary and involuntary activity of the body

69

What does the central nervous system consist of?

Brain and spinal cord

70

What are afferent nerves?

Carry sensory information from the body to the spinal cord

71

What is a efferent nerve?

Carry motor information from the brain and spinal cord to the body

72

What does the sympathetic nervous system do?

Is activated when the body is challenged AKA fight or flight

73

What is the parasympathetic nervous system?

Returns the body functions to normal or depresses body functions

74

What is RAS?

Reticular activating system - aka wake or sleep center

75

Alpha 1?

Causes the vessels to constrict

76

Alpha 2

Regulate the release of alpha 1

77

Beta 1

Effects everything related to the heart

78

Beta 2

Causes the smooth muscles to dilate, especially I the bronchioles

79

What is the acetabulum.

Pelvic socket

80

Where is the xiphoid process?

Bottom of the sternum

81

Where is the acromion located?

End of the clavicle

82

Where is the manubrium located?

Superior portion of the sternum

83

What is the calcaneus?

Heel bone

84

What is visceral pleura?

Thin layer of tissue over the lungs

85

What is the parietal pleura?

Layer of tissue that covers the internal chest wall

86

Sinoatrial node

Pacemaker

87

What does the pancreas do?

Produces insulin - islets of langerhans
Secretes pancreatic juices that aid in digestion

88

What does the liver do?

Produces bile, which aids in digestion
Stores sugars

89

What does the spleen do?

Filters blood and is used as storage for blood

90

What does the gallbladder do?

Stores bile

91

What does the small intestine do?

Food is broken down and nutrients are absorbed

92

What does the large intestine do AKA colon?

Absorbers water from food waste

93

What is between the vertebra?

Intervertebral