Flashcards in Chapter 8 - Pathophysiology Deck (31):
What is aerobic metabolism?
The break down of molecules in the presence of oxygen
What is glycolysis?
The metabolism of glucose where it is broken down into pyruvic acid molecules
What is ATP?
Andenosine triphosphate - the energy source for cells
Where is sodium found?
Outside the cell
Where is potassium found?
Inside the cell
What is a patent airway?
One that is open and not obstructed
What is FiO2?
Fraction of inspired oxygen
What is FDO2?
Fraction of delivered oxygen
What is Boyles law?
The volume of gas is inversely proportionate to the pressure
An increase in pressure will decrease the volume of gas
A decrease in pressure will increase the volume of gas
What is cytosol?
The fluid part of a cell
What are the by products of aerobic metabolism?
Heat, carbon dioxide, water
What are the by products of anaerobic metabolism?
Lactic acid and a small amount of ATP
What is perfusion?
The delivery of oxygen, glucose, and other substances to the cell and the elimination of waste products from the cell
What are the components of adequate perfusion?
-composition of air, patent airway, mechanics of ventilation, regulation of ventilation, ventilation/perfusion ratio, transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide by the blood, blood volume, pump function of the myocardium, systemic vascular resistance, micro circulation, blood pressure
What does ambient air consist of?
0.03% carbon dioxide
How much oxygen does a non rebreather mask deliver?
0.95 or 95%
What does the epiglottis do?
The flap of cartilaginous tissue that covers the opening of the larynx during swallowing
What does compliance mean?
The measure of the ability of the chest wall and lungs to stretch, distend and expand
What is air way resistance?
The ease of airflow down the conduit of airway structures leading to the alveoli
What is minute ventilation aka minute volume?
The amount of air moved in and out of the lungs in one minute
What is tidal volume?
The volume of air breathed in with each individual breath
What is frequency of ventilation?
The number of ventilations in one minute
How is minute volume calculated?
Tidal volume x frequency of ventilation
What is an average adults tidal volume?
What is an adults frequency of ventilation?
12 per minute
What is the average minute volume for an adult?
What is alveolar ventilation?
The amount of air moved in and out of the alveoli in one minute
What are chemoreceptors?
Specialized receptors that monitor the ph, carbon dioxide and oxygen levels in the arterial blood
What is preload?
The pressure generated in the left ventricle at the end of diastole, created by the blood volume in the left ventricle
Frank Starling law?
The stretch of the muscle fibers at the end of diastole determines the force available to eject the blood from the left ventricle