Chapter 8 - Pathophysiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8 - Pathophysiology Deck (31):
0

What is aerobic metabolism?

The break down of molecules in the presence of oxygen

1

What is glycolysis?

The metabolism of glucose where it is broken down into pyruvic acid molecules

2

What is ATP?

Andenosine triphosphate - the energy source for cells

3

Where is sodium found?

Outside the cell

4

Where is potassium found?

Inside the cell

5

What is a patent airway?

One that is open and not obstructed

6

What is FiO2?

Fraction of inspired oxygen

7

What is FDO2?

Fraction of delivered oxygen

8

What is Boyles law?

The volume of gas is inversely proportionate to the pressure

An increase in pressure will decrease the volume of gas
A decrease in pressure will increase the volume of gas

9

What is cytosol?

The fluid part of a cell

10

What are the by products of aerobic metabolism?

Heat, carbon dioxide, water

11

What are the by products of anaerobic metabolism?

Lactic acid and a small amount of ATP

12

What is perfusion?

The delivery of oxygen, glucose, and other substances to the cell and the elimination of waste products from the cell

13

What are the components of adequate perfusion?

-composition of air, patent airway, mechanics of ventilation, regulation of ventilation, ventilation/perfusion ratio, transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide by the blood, blood volume, pump function of the myocardium, systemic vascular resistance, micro circulation, blood pressure

14

What does ambient air consist of?

79% nitrogen
21% oxygen
0.9% argon
0.03% carbon dioxide

15

How much oxygen does a non rebreather mask deliver?

0.95 or 95%

16

What does the epiglottis do?

The flap of cartilaginous tissue that covers the opening of the larynx during swallowing

17

What does compliance mean?

The measure of the ability of the chest wall and lungs to stretch, distend and expand

18

What is air way resistance?

The ease of airflow down the conduit of airway structures leading to the alveoli

19

What is minute ventilation aka minute volume?

The amount of air moved in and out of the lungs in one minute

20

What is tidal volume?

The volume of air breathed in with each individual breath

21

What is frequency of ventilation?

The number of ventilations in one minute

22

How is minute volume calculated?

Tidal volume x frequency of ventilation

23

What is an average adults tidal volume?

500ml

24

What is an adults frequency of ventilation?

12 per minute

25

What is the average minute volume for an adult?

6,000 ml

26

What is alveolar ventilation?

The amount of air moved in and out of the alveoli in one minute

27

What are chemoreceptors?

Specialized receptors that monitor the ph, carbon dioxide and oxygen levels in the arterial blood

28

What is preload?

The pressure generated in the left ventricle at the end of diastole, created by the blood volume in the left ventricle

29

Frank Starling law?

The stretch of the muscle fibers at the end of diastole determines the force available to eject the blood from the left ventricle

30

What is afterload?

The resistance in the aorta that must be overcome by contraction of the left ventricle to eject the blood