Chapter 16 - The Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

PHS Medical Terminology > Chapter 16 - The Endocrine System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 16 - The Endocrine System Deck (59)
Loading flashcards...
1

Steroid hormones

Made from lipids. Created in the gonads and the outer region of the adrenal glands

2

Growth hormone (GH)

Promotes growth of all tissue. Also called somatotropin

3

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

Stimulates thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones

4

Adrenocorticotropic (ACTH)

Stimulates adrenal cortex to produce cortical hormones. Aids in protecting the body in stress situations.

5

Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

Stimulates growth and hormonal activity of ovarian follicles. Stimulates growth of testes. Promotes sperm cell development.

6

Luteinizing hormones (LH)

Causes development of corpus luteum at site of ruptured ovarian follicle in female; stimulates testosterone secretion in males.

7

Prolactin (PRL)

Stimulates milk secretion in mammary glands.

8

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Promotes water reabsorption is kidney tubules; causes blood vessels to constrict

9

Oxytocin

Causes uterine contractions; causes milk ejection from mammary glands

10

Thyroxine; tetraiodothryonine (T4) triiodothyronine(T3)

Increases metabolic rate and heat production; influencing both physical and mental activities; required for normal growth

11

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

Regulates calcium exchange between blood and bones; increases blood calcium levels.

12

Cortisol

Aids in metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Active during stress

13

Aldosterone

Aids in regulating electrolytes and water balance

14

Sex hormones

May influence secondary sexual characteristics

15

Insulin

Aids in glucose transport into cells; required for cellular metabolism of nutrients; especially glucose. Decreases blood glucose levels.

16

Glucagon

Stimulates liver to release glucose thereby increasing glucose levels.

17

Melatonin

Regulates mood, sexual development and daily cycles in response to environmental light

18

Testosterone

Stimulates growth and development of sexual organs plus development of secondary sexual characteristics. Stimulates maturation of sperm cells.

19

Estrogen

Stimulates growth of primary sexual organs and development of secondary sexual characteristics.

20

Progesterone

Prepares uterine lining for implantation of fertilized ovum; aids in maintaining pregnancy; stimulates development of mammary glands secretory tissue

21

Pituitary gland (hypophysis)

Small gland beneath the brain. Divided into anterior (adenohyphosis) and posterior lobe (neurohyphosis)

22

Hypothalamus

Part of the brain that regulates homeostasis. Controls both lobes of the pituitary gland.

23

Anterior pituitary

Produces 6 hormones including growth hormone. Remainder regulate other glands

24

Posterior pituitary

Releases 2 hormones that are actually made in the hypothalamus. Antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin.

25

Thyroid gland

Consists of two lobes on either side of the larynx and upper trachea. Connected by narrow band called an isthmus. Secretes a mixture of hormones. (T4, T3)

26

TBG

Thyroid binding globulin. Binds thyroid hormones in blood to proteins.

27

Parathyroid gland

On posterior surface of the thyroid. Affects calcium metabolism.

28

Adrenal gland

Located above the kidneys. Divided into two distinct regions. Outer cortex and inner medulla.

29

Adrenal cortex

Produces steroid hormones. Cortisol, aldosterone, sex hormones

30

Adrenal medulla

Inner region. Produces epinephrine in response to stress.