Chapter 17 - The Nervous System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 17 - The Nervous System Deck (82)
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1

Central nervous system

Brain and spinal cord

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Peripheral nervous system

All nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord

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Neurons

Conducting tissue of the nervous system

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Neuroglia

Cells that support and protect the nervous system

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Dendrite

Carries impulses toward the cell body

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Axon

Carries impulses away from the cell body

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Myelin

Whitish, fatty material that insulates and protects the axon and speeds electrical conduction.

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Myelinated

Covered axons

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Grey matter

Unmyelinated tissue.

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Sensory or afferent neuron

Transmits impulses toward the CNS

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Motor or efferent neuron

Transmits impulses away from the CNS

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Interneurons

Connecting cells of the CNS

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Synapse

Point of contact between two neurons. Energy is passed from one cell to another.

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Ganglion

Collection of cell bodies along the pathway of a nerve

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4 parts of the brain

Cerebrum, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum.

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Cerebrum

Largest part of the brain. Largely composed of white matter. Thin outer layer of grey matter called the cerebral cortex

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Cerebral cortex

Outer layer of the cerebrum. Higher functions of memory, reason, and abstract thought occur here.

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Sulci

Grooves of the grey matter

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Gyri

Raised areas of the grey matter

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Diencephalon

Contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, and pituitary gland.

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Parts of the brainstem

Midbrain, pons, medulla oblongota

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Midbrain

Reflex centers for improved vision and hearing

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Pons

Bulge on the anterior surface of the brainstem. Fibers that connect the brains different regions.

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Medulla oblongota

Connects the brain to the spinal cord. Vital center that controls heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure.

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Cerebellum

Divided into two hemispheres. Controls voluntary muscle movement and maintains posture, balance, and coordination.

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Ventricles

4 of them that produce cerebral spinal fluid that acts a protective cushion.

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Meninges

3 protective layers that protect the brain and spinal cord

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Dura mater

Hard outermost layer of the meninge

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Arachnoid mater

Thin web like middle layer of the meninge

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Pia mater

Thin, vascular innermost layer attached directly to the brain and spinal cord.