Flashcards in Chapter 17: Fire attack Deck (81):
structure firefighting is based on?
experiments and experience
2 entities that conduct fire experiments?
national institute of standards and technology (nist)/underwriter labs (ul)
in 1908 american society for testing and materials that led to?
standard time temperature curve
by 1917 astm e 119 provided fire behavior as applied to structural firefighting?
standard test methods for fire tests of building construction and material.
100 years ago fires within a structure were?
modern fires are?
stephen kirber (analysis of changing fire dynamics and its implication on ff operational time frames) indicates 4 factors that distinguish modern dwelling from legacy dwelling?
larger homes/open house geometries/increased fuel loads/new construction material
traditional fire behavior?
nist began work to id ff survival factors when assisting?
dc's investigation of 1999 cherry road townhouse
who died in 1999 cherry road townhouse fire?
anthony phillips/louis matthews
which fire protection engineers continued research on wind driven fires?
dan madrzykowski and stephen gerber
volume between inlet and exhaust that allows movement of heat and smoke from higher pressure area to lower pressure area?
ul study of effectiveness of fire service vertical ventilation and suppression tactics in single family homes conducted by fdny in 2012 on governors island concluded the following?
essential to control access door/move from ventilation limited to fuel limited through application of water before vertical ventilation/30-90 seconds water application "softens" the target/can not make big enough hole
important factors limiting heat resource and temperatures?
limiting flow paths until fire supression water is ready
serves as eyes and ears of incident command?
the fire officer must frequently make decisions with?
little or no input from subordinates
success of a ____style comes when officer has developed trust of his/her subordinates?
which nfpa standardizes sop's?
examples of command staff roles?
safety officer/liaison officer/public information officer
systematic approach of gathering and processing info to deal with situation?
when does size up begin and end?
before situation/once situation is stabilized
end result of good size up which identifies pertinent info, strategies and tactics and resources?
incident action plan (iap)
the ic must consciously differentiate _______ in processing size up info?
what is known/what is assumed/what is anticipated
specific size up begins with?
should guide officers systematic thinking to ensure all important factors are considered?
understanding of _____ is needed to predict where fire is burning and where it will spread?
most significant factor in size up?
experienced officers know vicarious dark smoke churning means a higher heat release indicating?
____is generally closer to seat of fire than____
darker smoke/lighter smoke
the volume and color of smoke aid officer in determining?
no smoke showing could indicate building is?
class a combustibles usually indicate?
direct attack with water
class b combustibles require use of?
in 194o chief lloyd layman authored fundamentals of fire tactics 5 step process for analyzing emergency situations? (FiPSDiP)
facts/probabilities/situation/decision/plan of operation
examples of additional facts?
visible smoke and fire conditions
things that are likely to happen or can be anticipated?
aspect of considering probabilities is time it takes to?
accomplish fire ground tasks
3 situation considerations?
resources on scene or enroute adequate/specific capabilities or limitations of resources/limitations or capabilities or personel
4 questions officer needs to ask in decision step of laymans size up?
enough resources/sufficient resources for interior fire attack/most effective assignment of on scene resources/most effective assignment of responding resource
nfa's 3 phases of size up? (PIO)
pre incident info/initial size up/ongoing size up
3 questions of initial size up?
what do i have/where is it going/how do i control it
consists of advancement into building with means of extinguishment?
used when risks outweigh benefit?
when firefighting operation changes or is about to change?
important components of iap after size up?
determination of appropriate strategy to mitigate situation/development of tactics to execute stratgey
priorities for iap?
life safety/incident stabilization/property conservation
ranked lowest on priorities list?
llloyd laymans 7 factors to assist developing iap? (RECEOVS)
when do many fires occur?
many emergency operations are conducted?
in the street
which zone has the highest hazard and minimum number of crews in it?
moderate hazards and restricted number of crews?
minimum hazards and no restriction on crew size?
fire officer should encourage ff's to have on duty____? with duplicate of important info
dedicated crew of ff's assigned for rapid deployment to rescue lost or trapped members? how many make up?
rapid intervention crew (ric)/4
nfpa standard for ric?
2 members of initial attack crew should be?
initial rapid intervention crew (iric)
differnce between ric and iric?
ric is 4 members sometimes referred to as rit(rapid intervention team)/iric is 2 members of initial attack crew
radio term for lost ff?
systematic method of accounting for all personel at emergency incident?
personel accountability report
fire officer should have what type of contact w/ ff's to verify their status?
first arriving officer at incident assumes role of?
specific assignments typically performed by one company or small number of companies working together?
the ic should use____when assigning tasks?
when situations exceed capabilities of organization sometimes this is needed?
more civilian deaths occur these type of dwellings than any other?
1 and 2 family dwellings
single family dwellings constructed since 1980 have?
geometry design w/ lightweight support components
type of construction common until 1930's?
balloon frame construction incorporated void spaces
low rise multiple family dwellings are often this type of construction?
type 5 (wood frame)
multiple family dwelling usually have this type of sprinkler?
type of construction popular decades ago highlighted by inside steel flue and outside steel flue separated by 1 inch (2.5 cm) of air?
zero clearance chimney
nfpa estimates no automatic sprinklers in these dwellings?
41% high rise/45% high rise hotels/54% high rise apartments
built in sprinkler systems fail in?
one out 14 fires
responsible for communications and ff rehab?
responsible for adequate supplies, personnel, and equipment?
where primary logistics functions are coordinated and administered?
controls entry of ff's and civilians in lobby?
labor intensive moving of equipment and firehose up and down stairwells?
stairwell support group