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suspension of organisms or fractions of organisms that is used to induce immunity



immunization; process of administering vaccine to stimulate immunity for future protection


principles & effects of vaccination

stimulates a primary immune response against a pathogen,

results in the production of antibodies and long term memory cells.

A vaccinated individual is protected by the faster and stronger secondary immune response stimulated upon encounter with the pathogen later in life.

Especially useful in viral diseases, since viral diseases cannot be effectively treated.



When most of the population is immune to a diseases, there are not many susceptible individuals to support the spread of disease.


characteristics, benefits, and application of live attenuated vaccines

weaken life culture introduced and replicated in body;

induce both humoral and cellular immunity, since pathogen reproduces in host cels.

Lifelong immunity achieved without a booster.


characteristics, benefits, and application of inactivated killed vaccines

Generally considered safer, requires boosters, induce mostly humoral immunity (antibody production)


characteristics, benefits, and application of subunit vaccines

Uses the antigenic fragments of a microbe to stimulate immune response;

can use recombinant DNA tech to produce large quantity of the antigenic fragment;

safer as it is unlikely to be infected with a pathogen this way;

EX: vaccine for strep pneumonia targets its capsule (virulent factor that enables bacteria to be resistant to phagocytosis)


Subunit vaccines: toxoids

inactivated toxins - ex: tetanus, diptheria- included in standard childhood immunization series, followed by boosters every 10 years to stimulate immune response and maintain sufficient level of protection


Subunit vaccines: antitoxins

antibodies against toxin - used to treat patients suspected in danger of tetanus to provide immediate protection


characteristics, benefits, and application of conjugated vaccines

T-independent antigens, such as capsular polysaccharides are poorly antigenic. They conjugate polysaccharides with proteins which results in enhanced immune response and better protection.


characteristics, benefits, and application of DNA vaccines

deliver DNA into skin cell nuclei with gene gun. Protein antigens encoded in DNA are produced. Stimulate both humoral and cellular immunity



Chemical added to the vaccine to increase the immune response stimulated by the vaccine.

does not stimulate immune response


application of immunology in agglutination reactions

Routinely used in ABO and Rh blood type testing, which is called hema_______

antibodies with 2 or more antigen binding sites (2 in IgG or 10 in IgM) are able to cross-link antigens causing clumping


application of immunology in precipitation reactions - immunodiffusion tests

When antibody and antigen are mixed in proper proportion, they form insoluble complexes called precipitates.

EX: antibody and antigen are set up on opposite ends of an agar gel plate. Molecules diffuse and a band of antibody-antigen precipitates form where antibody/antigen molecules meet.


application of immunology in ELISA

Wells of multi-well plate are coated w/ antibody.

Antigen recognized by the antibody is bound to the antibodies and stay on surface of wells.

Enzyme-linked antibody specific for the antigen is added and binds to the antigen; therefore the enzyme-linked antibody stays in the well too.

Substrate of the enzyme is added to the well; enzyme converts the substrate into a product that involves color change, which can be monitored by plate reader.


application of immunology in monoclonal antibodies (MAbs)

antibody-producing plasma cells (normal cells) are fused with myeloma cells (cancerous cells that are able to divide continuously but cannot produce antibody).

Resulted hypridomas have the properties fo both; they are able to divide continuously and produce antibody.

A clone of cells derived from one hybridoma can be isolated and grown in a culture identically--called monoclonal antibodies.

Useful, identical, highly specific, can be produced in large quantities.