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Flashcards in Nervous System II Deck (150)
1

protective covering & related brain structures: arachnoid granulations

fingerlike structures that project from the subarachnoid space into the blood-filled dural sinuses, SITE OF PRODUCTION OF CEREBROSPINAL FLUID

2

protective covering & related brain structures: arachnoid mater

thin netlike layer located between dura mater & pia mater

3

protective covering & related brain structures: bone

skull

4

protective covering & related brain structures: dural (sagittal) sinus

areas where the two layeres of the dura mater split forming channels; venous blood travels through these channels as it returns from the brain to vessels leading to the heart

5

protective covering & related brain structures: dura mater

tough superficial white fibrous connective tissue covering the brain spinal cord that is attached internally to the cranium and separated from the vertebral column by the epidural space

6

protective covering & related brain structures: epidural space

space that lies between the dura mater and the bony vertebral column and contains blood vessels, loose connective tissue, and fat tissue

7

protective covering & related brain structures: falx cerebelli

partition of the dura mater that separates the right & left cerebellar hemispheres

8

protective covering & related brain structures: falx cerebri

partition of the dura mater that extends inferiorly into the longitudinal fissure & separates the right & left cerebral hemispheres

9

protective covering & related brain structures: gray matter

region of CNS that lacks myelin and therefore looks gray, inside white matter

10

protective covering & related brain structures: meninges

membranes which enclose the brain & spinal cord- dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater

11

protective covering & related brain structures: pia mater

thin deepest meningeal layer composed of connective tissue that contains many blood vessels that aid in nourishing the underlying brain and spinal cord as it follows all the sulci & gyri

12

protective covering & related brain structures: subarachnoid space

real space formed by thin connective tissue strands that extend between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater that contains cerebrospinal fluid, SITE OF PRODUCTION OF CSF

13

protective covering & related brain structures: subdural space

potential space between the dura mater and the arachnoid mater

14

protective covering & related brain structures: superior sagittal sinus

same as dural sinus

15

protective covering & related brain structures: tentorium cerebelli

partition of dura mater that separates occipital lobes of the cerebrum from the cerebellum

16

protective covering & related brain structures: white matter

Outside of gray matter, covered in myelin

17

site of production of cerebrospinal fluid

manufactured in specialized blood capillaries derived from pia mater, called choroid plexuses; most cerebrospinal fluid is made in choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle

18

site of production of cerebrospinal fluid: cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of sylvius)

narrow canal connects 4th ventrile to the 3rd ventricle and passes lengthwise through the brainstem

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site of production of cerebrospinal fluid: choroid plexus

tiny, reddish cauliflower like masses of specialized capillaries from the pia mater that secret CSF (cerebrospinal fluid)

20

site of production of cerebrospinal fluid: fourth ventricle

in the brain stemp, anterior to the cerebellum.

21

site of production of cerebrospinal fluid: intervertebral foramina

openings at the anterior end of the ventricle that communicates with lateral ventricles.

22

site of production of cerebrospinal fluid: lateral ventricles

largest ventricles - 1st is in left cerebral hemisphere, 2nd is in right cerebral hemisphere

23

site of production of cerebrospinal fluid: third ventricle

narrow space in the midline of the brain betweent he corpus callosum (a bridge of axons that link the two cerebral hemispheres)

24

ascending tracts & functions: fasciculus gracilis and cuneatus

In posterior funiculi of the spinal cord, conduct sensory impulses from the skin, muscles, tendons, and joints to the brain, where they are interpreted as sensations of touch, pressure, and body movement.

25

ascending tracts & functions: spinocerebellar tracts (anterior & posterior)

near surface in the lateral funiculi of the spinal cord. Impulses conducted on their fibers originate in the muscles of the lower limbs and trunk and then travel to the cerebellum. Coordinates muscular movement

26

ascending tracts & functions: spinothalmic tracts (lateral & anterior)

begins in the spinal cord and carries sensory impulses associated with the sensations of pain & touch to the thalamus of the brain

27

descending tracts & functions: corticospinal tracts (lateral & anterior)

originates in the cortex of the brain an carries motor impulses on upper motor neurons downard through the spinal cord. Controls voluntary movements in skeletal muscles.

28

descending tracts & functions: reticulospinal tracts (lateral, anterior, medial)

in lateral funiculi and anterior funiculi, motor impulses transmitted on reticulospinal tracts originate in the brain and control muscular tone & activity of sweat glands.

29

descending tracts & functions: rubrospinal tracts

carry motor impulses from brain to skeletal muscles, and coordinate muscles & control posture.

30

spinal cord structure: anterior median fissure

deep groove that extends the length of the spinal cord on the anterior median surface partially dividing the spinal cord anteriorily into right & left halves

31

spinal cord structure: anterior (ventral) root

fibers of motor neurons that exit the spinal cord on the ventral (anterior) surface

32

spinal cord structure: funiculi

white matter of the spinal cord that is divided into three sections on each side by gray matter (anterior funiculus, posterior funiculus, and lateral funiculus); each section consists of longitudinal bundles of myelinated nerve fibers that comprise major nerve pathways called nerve tracts

33

spinal cord structure: horns (lateral, posterior (dorsal), anterior (ventral))

projections of gray matter of the spinal cord in the shape of a butterfly, has subdivisions (lateral, posterior, anterior)

34

spinal cord structure: lumbar enlargement

thickening in lumbar area, supplies nerves to lower limbs

35

spinal cord structure: lumbar region

L1 - L5 - under thoracic region

36

spinal cord structure: cauda equina

tail end below conus medullaris, above filum terminale, resembles a horse's tail.

37

spinal cord structure: central (spinal) canal

continuous with ventricles of the brain and contains CSF. Prominent during embryonic development, but becomes almost microscopic in adulthood.

38

spinal cord structure: cervical enlargement

thickening in the cervical area; supplies nerves to the upper limbs

39

spinal cord structure: cervical region

C1 - C8 - top of spinal cord

40

spinal cord structure: conus medullaris

sharp terminal tip of the spinal cord that is formed inferior to the lumbar enlargement

41

spinal cord structure: filum terminale

thin cord of pia mater that descends to the upper surface of the coccyx, anchoring the cord to the dura; prevents it from moving superiorily

42

spinal cord structure: gray commissure

gray matter midportion of the spinal cord that forms a bridge between the left & right gray matter regions

43

spinal cord structure: gray matter

in the center of the cord, shaped like a butterfly and consists of cell bodies of interneurons and motor neurons. Projections are called horns.

44

spinal cord structure: posterior (dorsal) root

nodule on dorsal root of the spine that carries signals from sensory organs toward the appropriate integration center. AFFERENT

45

spinal cord structure: posterior median sulcus

shallow groove that extends the length of the spinal cord on the posterior median surface, partially dividing the spinal cord posteriorily into right and left halves

46

spinal cord structure: spinal nerves

spinal cord consists of 31 segments, each of which gives rise to a pair of spinal nerves. These nerves branch to various body parts and connect them with the cns.

47

spinal cord structure: thoracic region

T1 - T12 - under cervical

48

spinal cord structure: white matter

contain sensory & motor neurons, located outside of gray matter, carry information up & down spinal cord

49

reflex arc location and all parts

carry out the simplest responses reflexes

50

structure of reflex arc: afferent (sensory) neuron

dendrite, cell body, or axon of a sensory neuron that transmit nerve impulses from the receptor into the brain or spinal cord

51

structure of reflex arc: association (internuncial) neuron (interneuron)

multipolar neuron; dendrites, cell body, and axon are located in the gray matter of the spinal cord, processing center - conducts nerve impulse from sensory neurons to a motor neuron

52

structure of reflex arc: effector

muscle or gland

53

structure of reflex arc: efferent (motor) neuron

dendrite, cell body, or axon of a motor neuron which controls efferent organs

54

structure of reflex arc: nerve pathway

nerve impulses follow nerve pathways as the travel through the nervous system. Simplest of these is called a reflex arc.

55

structure of reflex arc: receptor

receptor end of a dendrite or a specialized receptor cell in a sensory organ

56

structure of reflex arc: response

reaction to the stimulus

57

structure of reflex arc: reflex center

any center in the brain or spinal cord in which a sensory impression is changed into a motor impulse

58

structure of reflex arc: stimulus

change in the environment

59

embryonic development of the brain: forebrain aka

prosencephalon

60

embryonic development of the brain: telencephalon space produce & regions of brain produced

anterior portion of forebrain
space produced: lateral ventricles
regions of brain produced: cerebrum & basal nuclei

61

embryonic development of the brain: diencephalon space produce & regions of brain produced

posterior portion of forebrain
space produced: third ventricle
regions of brain produced: thalamus, hypothalamus, posterior pituitary gland, pineal gland

62

embryonic development of the brain: midbrain aka mesencephalon space produce & regions of brain produced

space produced: cerebral aqueduct
regions of brain produced: midbrain

63

embryonic development of the brain: hindbrain aka

rhombencephalon

64

embryonic development of the brain: metencephalon space produce & regions of brain produced

anterior portion of hindbrain
space produced: fourth ventricle
regions of brain produced: cerebellum, pons

65

embryonic development of the brain: myelencephalon space produce & regions of brain produced

posterior portion of hindbrain
space produced: fourth ventricle
regions of brain produced: medulla oblongata

66

5 main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - CEREBRUM: central sulcus

aka fissure of rolando, separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe

67

5 main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - CEREBRUM: cerebral medulla

white matter that makes up part of the cerebrum

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5 main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - CEREBRUM: circular sulcus

separates the insula (island of reil) from the frontal, parietalm and temporal lobes

69

5 main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - CEREBRUM: frontal lobe

anterior portion of each cerebral hemisphere; association areas carry on higher intellectual processes for concentrating, planning, complex problem solving, and judging the consequences of behavior. Motor areas control movement of voluntary skeletal muscles.

70

5 main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - CEREBRUM: gyri

ridges / convolutions separated by grooves, marks the cerebrum's surface

71

5 main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - CEREBRUM: lateral sulcus

fissure of sylvius, separates the frontal and parietal lobes from the temporal lobe

72

5 main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - CEREBRUM: insula

aka island of reil, a lobe deep within the lateral sulculs and is covered by parts of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes

73

5 main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - CEREBRUM: longitudinal fissure

separates the cerebrum into the right & left cerebral hemispheres that are connected by transverse fibers that are collectively called the corpus callosum.

74

5 main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - CEREBRUM: occipital lobe

most posterior part of cerebrum, sensory areas are responsible for vision. Association areas combine visual images with other sensory experiences.

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5 main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - CEREBRUM: parietal lobe

posterior to frontal lobe, sensory areas provide sensations of temperature, touch, pressure, and pain involving the skin. Association areas function in understanding speech and in using words to express thoughts & feelings

76

5 main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - CEREBRUM: parieto-occipital fissure

separates the parietal lobe from the occipital lobe; seen only on the medial surface

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5 main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - CEREBRUM: sulci

a shallow to somewhat deep groov

78

5 main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - CEREBRUM: temporal lobe

inferior to frontal & parietal lobes, sensory areas are responsible for hearing; association areas interpret sensory experiences and remember visual scenes, music, and other complex sensory patterns.

79

5 main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - CEREBRUM: transverse fissure

separates cerebrum from cerebellum.

80

main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - CEREBRAL CORTEX

thin layer of gray matter that covers cerebrum & cerebellum, divded into left & right hemispheres. Constitutes the outermost portion of the cerebrum.

81

main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - BASAL NUCLEI (GANGLIA)

masses of gray matter deep within the cerebral hemispheres. Produce inhibitory neurotransmitter dopamine. Neurons of basal nuclei interact with other brain areas, including motor cortext, thalamus, and cerebellum. Facilitates voluntary movement

82

main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - DIENCEPHALON

developes from the posterior forebrain and is located between the cerebral hemispheres and superior to the brainstem. Contains thalamus, hypothalamus.

83

main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - CEREBELLUM: arbor vitae

tree-like pattern of white matter surrounded by gray matter.

84

main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - CEREBELLUM: cerebellar cortex

gray matter cobering white matter

85

main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - CEREBELLUM: peduncles

nerve tracts, 3 pairs, communciates w/ other parts of the CNS

86

main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - CEREBELLUM: vermis

connects the cerebellar hemispheres at the midline.

87

main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - BRAIN STEM: cerebral peduncles

two prominent bundles of nerve fibers on the underside of the midbrain

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main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - BRAIN STEM: corpora quadrigemina

2 pairs of rounded knobs on the superior surface of the midbrain.

89

main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - BRAIN STEM: corpus callosum

mass of white matter in brain composed of nerve fibers connecting right & left cerebral hemispheres

90

main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - BRAIN STEM: inferior colliculus

part of midbrain, receives input from auditory pathway & auditory cortex.

91

main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - BRAIN STEM: infundibulum

conical process behind the optic chiasma to wich the pituitary gland is attached. Part of the diencephalon

92

main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - BRAIN STEM: mammilary body

two rounded structures behind the infundibulum. Part of the diencephalon

93

main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - BRAIN STEM: medulla oblongata

enlarged continuation of spinal cord, extending from foramen magnum to the pons. Controls heart rate increase/decrease, controls blood vessel contraction/dialation, and rhythm & rate of breathing

94

main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - BRAIN STEM: midbrain

short section of brainstem between the diencephalon and the pons. Contains bundles of myelinated nerve fibers that join lower parts of the brain stem & spinal cord with higher parts of the brain.

95

main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - BRAIN STEM: optic chiasma

part of the diencephalon, formed by the optic nerve fibers crossing over

96

main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - BRAIN STEM: optic nerve

aka cranial nerve 2, transmits visual info from retina to brain.

97

main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - BRAIN STEM: pineal gland

forms as a cone-shaped evagination from the roof of the diencephalon

98

main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - BRAIN STEM: pituitary gland

hangs from floor of hypothalamus

99

main regions of brain & subparts - location & function - BRAIN STEM: pons

rounded bulge on underside of brainstemps where it separates the brain from the medulla oblongata

100

structure of a nerve: endoneurium

small amount of loose connective tissue, surrounds individual nerve fibers.

101

structure of a nerve: epineurium

outermost layer of connective tissue, dense & includes many collagenous fibers

102

structure of a nerve: nerve fiber

inside the endoneurium

103

structure of a nerve: neurilemma

outermost layer of the schwann cell.

104

structure of a nerve: perineurium

covers a bundle of nerve fibers in a sleeve. Fascicle

105

name, function, and whether it is sensory, motor, or mixed: Cranial nerve I

olfactory - sensory - smell

106

name, function, and whether it is sensory, motor, or mixed: Cranial nerve II

optic - sensory - vision

107

name, function, and whether it is sensory, motor, or mixed: Cranial nerve III

oculomotor - motor - raises eyelids, move eyes, controls amount of light entering eyes, focuses lenses

108

name, function, and whether it is sensory, motor, or mixed: Cranial nerve IV

trochlear - motor - moves eyes

109

name, function, and whether it is sensory, motor, or mixed: Cranial nerve V

trigeminal - mixed - has an opthalmic (sensory on surface of eyes, tearglands, scalp, forehead, upper eyelids), maxillary (sensory on upper teeth, upper gums, upper lip, lining of palate, skin of face), and mandibular (sensory on scalp, skin of jaw, lower teeth, lower gum, lower lip) divisions. motor fibers transmit impulses to muscles of mastigation and muscles in the floor of mouth.

110

name, function, and whether it is sensory, motor, or mixed: Cranial nerve VI

abducens - motor - moves the eyes

111

name, function, and whether it is sensory, motor, or mixed: Cranial nerve VII

facial - mixed - sensory: taste receptors on anterior tongue; motor: muscles of facial expression, tear glands, salivary glands.

112

name, function, and whether it is sensory, motor, or mixed: Cranial nerve VIII

vestibulocochlear - sensory - assiociated w/ equilibrium and sense of hearing

113

name, function, and whether it is sensory, motor, or mixed: Cranial nerve IX

glossopharyngeal - mixed - sensory fibers transmit impulses from pharynx, tonsils, posterior tongue, and catorid arteries. Motor fibers transmit impulses to salivary glands and to muscles of the pharynx used in swallowing.

114

name, function, and whether it is sensory, motor, or mixed: Cranial nerve X

vagus - mixed - somatic fibers transmit impulses associated w/ speech & swallowing; autonomic motor fibers transmit impulses to viscera of thorax & abdomen. Sensory fibers transmit impulses from pharynx, larynx, esophagus, and viscera of thorax & abdomen

115

name, function, and whether it is sensory, motor, or mixed: Cranial nerve XI

accessory - motor - transmit impulses to muscles of the soft palate, pharynx, and larynx. Also transmit impulses to neck & back.

116

name, function, and whether it is sensory, motor, or mixed: Cranial nerve XII

hypoglossal - motor - transmit impulses to muscles that move the tongue (chewing, speaking, swallowing)

117

major nerve plexus & related nerves: axillary nerve

muscles and skin of anterior, lateral, and posterior regions of the arm.

118

major nerve plexus & related nerves: brachial plexus

anterior branches of the lower 4 cervical nerves and the first thoracic nerve - deep in the shoulders between neck & armpit. Major branches: musculocutaneous, ulnar, median, radial, and axillary nerves

119

major nerve plexus & related nerves: cervical nerves

C1 - C8 - arise in first 8 vertebrae

120

major nerve plexus & related nerves: cervical plexus

deep in neck on either side, formed by anterior branches of the first 4 cervical nerves. Supply muscles and skin of neck.

121

major nerve plexus & related nerves: coccygeal nerves

last nerve of the spinal nerve, associated w/ coccyx bone.

122

major nerve plexus & related nerves: common peroneal (fibular) nerve

branches from the sciatic nerve, supply muscles and skin in thigh, legs & feet

123

major nerve plexus & related nerves: femoral nerve

muscles of anterior thigh, sensory from skin of thighs & legs

124

major nerve plexus & related nerves: intercostal nerves

supply motor impulses to the intercostal muscles and the upper abdominal wall muscles.

125

major nerve plexus & related nerves: lumbar nerves

arise in lumbar region of spine

126

major nerve plexus & related nerves: lumbosacral plexus

last thoracic nerve & the lumbar, sacral and coccygeal nerves. Give rise to motor & sensory fibers associated w/ the lower ab wall, external genitalia, butt, thighs, legs & feet.

127

major nerve plexus & related nerves: median nerve

muscles of forearms and muscles and skin of hands

128

major nerve plexus & related nerves: musculocutaneous nerve

muscles of arm on anterior side and skin of forearms

129

major nerve plexus & related nerves: obturator nerve

adductor muscles of the thighs

130

major nerve plexus & related nerves: phrenic nerve

muscle fibers of the diaphragm

131

major nerve plexus & related nerves: radial nerve

muscles of arm on posterior side and skin of forearms and hands

132

major nerve plexus & related nerves: sacral nerve

arise in sacral region

133

major nerve plexus & related nerves: sciatic nerve

largest & longest nerves in body, pass downward into butt and descend into thighs where they divide into tibial and fibular nerves.

134

major nerve plexus & related nerves: thoracic nerve

arise in throracic region of the spine

135

major nerve plexus & related nerves: tibial nerve

branches from sciatic nerve, muscles and skin in the thighs, legs and feet.

136

major nerve plexus & related nerves: ulnar nerve

forearm muscles and hand skin & muscles

137

sympathetic nervous system in terms of location, structure, physiology, and chemical transmitters

centers are in the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord, prepares body for energy-expending, stressful, or emergency situations. ganglia are located in paravertebral chain (lateral to vertebral column) and collateral (closer to the effector organ than the paravertebral ganglia). preganglionic neurons are very short & myelinated, post are very long and unmelinated. secrete epinephrine & norepinephrine & ACh.

138

parasympathetic nervous system in terms of location, structure, physiology, and chemical transmitters

Most active under ordinary, non-stressful situations. Counterbalances the effects of sympathetic division and restores the body to a resting state following a stressful experience. Ganglia are located near or within the organ supplied and are called terminal ganglia. axons of preganglionic neurons are very long and myelinated, postganglionic are very short and unmyelinated. secrete Ach.

139

distinguish between adrenergic and cholinergic fibers

cholinergic: secrete ach (acetylcholine). Adrenergic: secrete norephinephrine.

140

components of autonomic reflex: collateral ganglion

in the abdomen, closely associated with certain large blood vessels.

141

components of autonomic reflex: paravertebral ganglion

nerve cell tissue mass (ganglia) lateral to vertebral column

142

components of autonomic reflex: postganglionic fiber

a PRE-ganglion fiber is the axon of brain or spinal cord cell. It leaves the CNS and synapses with one or more neurons whose cell bodies are within an autonomic ganglion (postganglion)

143

components of autonomic reflex: posterior / dorsal root

afferent sensory root of spinal nerve. Goes into the spinal cord.

144

components of autonomic reflex: posterior /dorsal root ganglion

nodule on dorsal root of the spine that carries signals from sensory organs toward the appropriate integration center. AFFERENT

145

components of autonomic reflex: preganglionic fiber

the axon of brain or spinal cord cell - leaves CNS and synapses w/ one or more neurons whose cell bodies are within a postganglion fiber

146

components of autonomic reflex: spinal ganglion

aka dorsal root ganglion

147

components of autonomic reflex: spinal nerve

provide 2-way communication between the spinal cord and parts of the upper & lower limbs, neck, trunk.

148

components of autonomic reflex: sympathetic ganglion

located in chains along the sides of the vertebral column. These ganglia, with the fibers that connect them, comprise the sympathetic trunks.

149

components of autonomic reflex: sympathetic trunk

sympathetic ganglia and the fibers that connect them

150

components of autonomic reflex: anterior root

fibers of motor neurons that exit the spinal cord on the ventral (anterior) surface.