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Flashcards in LP IV Deck (74)
1

plane joint

sliding movements. NONAXIAL

ex: intercarpal, intertarsal, vertebrocostal joints

2

hinge joint

one bone fits into the concave surface of another to allow movement in one plane - flexion & extension. UNIAXIAL

ex: elbow & interphalangeal

3

pivot joint

rounted surface of one bone articulates with a shallow depression in another. allows uniaxial rotation UNIAXIAL

ex: proximal radioulnar joint, atlantoaxial joint

4

condyloid joint

oval condyle of one bone fits into an ellipsoidal depression in another, BIAXIAL

ex: radiocarpal (wrist) joint, metacarpophalangeal joint (knuckles)

5

saddle joint

articulating surfaces are saddle-shaped, one surface is convex, the other surface is concave. BIAXIAL.

ex: thumb metacarpal + trapezium of wrist

6

ball & socket joint

ball shaped head of one bone fits into cup like depression of another. allows movement in all directions and pivotal rotation. MULTIAXIAL

ex: shoulder, hip joint.

7

flexion

bending forward at the hip, bending knee or elbow

8

extension

straightening knee or elbow (opposite of flexion)

9

abduction

moving a limb away from the midline - such as fanning movement of fingers or toes when spread apart

10

adduction

movement of a limb toward the midline of the body, like drawing fingers and toes together

11

rotation

ball & socket joints, movement of atlas around odontoid process of the axis

12

circumduction

ball & socket joints like shoulder - proximal end of lib stays stationary, distal end moves in a circle. limb as a whole outlines a cone. condyloid & saddle joints also allow circumduction.

13

pronation

movement of the palm of the hand from anterior to posterior position - distal end of the radius moves across the ulna

14

supination

movement of the palm from a posterior position to an anterior position - radius & ulna are parallel

15

FOOT: inversion

move foot inward toward midline

16

FOOT: eversion

move foot outward away from midline

17

FOOT: dorsiflexion

standing on your heels

18

FOOT: plantar flexion

standing on your toes

19

origin

stationary, immovable, or less moveable attachment

20

insertion

moveable attachment

21

diaphragm location & function

location: floor of thoracic cavity.

performs important function in respiration - as diaphragm contracts, volume of thoracic cavity increases and air is drawn into the lungs. increases volume of thoracic cavity and creates a suction that draws air into the lungs.

22

internal intercostal location & function

location: 11 pairs of muscles lie between the ribs, run at right angles to external intercostals.

draws ribs together to depress rib cage, aid in forced expiration (exhale), antagonistic to external intercostals.

23

external intercostal location & function

location: 11 pairs lie between ribs, run obliquely downward and forward toward sternum.

pulls ribs toward one another to elevate rib cage, aid in inspiration (breathe in)

24

temporalis

closes jaw

25

masseter

prime mover of jaw closure

26

epicranius

raises eyebrows, moves head back

27

orbicularis oculi

closes eyes

28

zygomaticus

smile muscle

29

orbicularis oris

closes lips (kiss/whistle)

30

platysma

main neck muscle, tenses skin of neck

31

sternohyoid

elevates & retracts hyoid bone

32

sternocleidomastoid

flexion of neck forward, rotates neck

33

deltoid

primary mover of arm abduction (away)

34

pectoralis minor

draws scapula forward and inferiorly

35

pectoralis major

prime mover of arm flexion, adducts, medially rotates arm

36

serratus anterior

rotates scapula

37

intercostals

internal - draws ribs together to depress rib cage (expiration)

external - pulls ribs toward one another to elevate rib cage (inspiration)

38

triceps brachii

forearm extensor

39

biceps brachii

flexion of elbow and supination of forearm - turns cork

40

brachialis

major flexor of forearm

41

pronator teres

pronate forearm

42

brachioradialis

synergist in forearm flexion, flexes forearm at the elbow

43

flexor carpi radialis

flexor of wrist, abducts hand

44

palmaris longus

tenses skin and fascia of palm

45

rectus abdominis

flexes/rotates vertebral column

46

external oblique

compresses abdominal wall, trunk rotation & lateral flexion

47

internal oblique

same as external oblique

48

transversus abdominis

compresses abdominal contents

49

iliopsoas

flex trunk on thigh, flex thigh, lateral flexion of vertebral column

50

pectineus

adducts, flexes, and medially rotates thigh

51

tensor fasciae latae

steadies trunk

52

sartorius

flexes, abducts, and laterally rotates thigh, flexes knee

53

adductor longus

adduct and medially rotate and flex thigh

54

gracilis

adducts thigh, flexes and medially rotates leg

55

rector femoris

extends knee and flexes thigh at hip

56

vastus lateralis

extends and stabilizes knee

57

vastus medialis

extends knee

58

fibularis longus

plantar flexion and everts (outward rotation) foot

59

extensor digitorum longus

prime mover of toe extension

60

tibialis anterior

dorsiflexion

61

gastrocnemius

plantar flexes foot

62

soleus

plantar flexion

63

epicranius occipital belly

pulls head back

64

teres major + minor

major: extends, medially rotates, and adducts humerus

minor: rotates arm laterally

65

rhomboid major

stabilize scapula

66

latissimus dorsi

prime mover of arm extension; adducts and medially rotates arm

67

extensor carpi radialis longus

extends and abducts wrist

68

extensor digitorum

prime mover of finger extension

69

gluteus medius

abducts and rotates thigh

70

gluteus maximus

thigh extensor

71

illiotibial tract

IT band- lateral knee stabilization

72

hamstrings - biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus

extends thigh, flexes knee

73

fibularis longus

plantar flexes and everts foot

74

calcaneal (achilles)

hoping, walking, running