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Flashcards in endocrine upload Deck (103)
1

Endocrine gland

secrete hormones into the bloodstream from the interstitial fluid. Then, acts on cells (target cells).

2

Exocrine gland

enter tubes or ducts that lead to body surfaces. EX: stomach acid reaching the lumen of the digestive tract; sweat released at the skin_s surface.

3

5 chemical classes of hormones: amines

formed from amino acids _ examples: norepinephrine, epinephrine.

4

5 chemical classes of hormones: peptides

formed from amino acids _ examples: ADH, OT, TRH, SS, GnRH

5

5 chemical classes of hormones: proteins

formed from amino acids _ examples: PTH, GH, PRL

6

5 chemical classes of hormones: glycoproteins

formed from protein & carbs _ examples: FSH, LH, TSH

7

5 chemical classes of hormones: steroids

formed from cholesterol _ examples _ estrogens, testosterone, aldosterone, cortisol.

8

Sequence of steroid hormone

_ Endocrine gland secretes steroid hormone.
_ Steroid hormone diffuses through target cell membrane & enters cytoplasm or nucleus.
_ Hormone combines w/ receptor molecule in cytoplasm or nucleus.
_ Steroid hormone-receptor complex binds to DNA & promotes transcription of messenger RNA.
_ Messenger RNA enters cytoplasm and directs protein synthesis.
_ Newly synthesized proteins produce hormone_s specific effects.

9

Sequence of nonsteroid hormone

_ Endocrine gland secretes nonsteroid hormone.
_ Body fluid carries hormone to its target cell.
_ Hormone combines w/ receptor site on membrane of its target cell, activating G protein.
_ Adenylate cyclase molecules are activated in target cell_s membrane.
_ Adenylate cyclize circulates ATP into cyclic AMP.
_ Cyclic AMP activates protein kinases.
_ Protein kinases activate protein substrates in the cell that change metabolic processes.
_ Cellular changes produce the hormone_s effects.

10

Control of hormonal secretions by negative feedback

o Hypothalamus controls the anterior pituitary gland_s release of tropic hormones, which stimulate other endocrine glands to release hormones. Hypothalamus constantly receives information about the internal environment from neural connections about the internal environment from neural connections & cerebrospinal fluid, made possible by its location near the thalamus and the third ventricle.
o Nervous system directly stimulates some glands. Adrenal medulla secrets its hormones (epinephrine & norepinephrine) in response to preganglionic sympathetic nerve impulses. Secretory cells replace postgang sympathetic neurons, which would normally secrete norepinephrine alone as a transmitter.
o A change in the composition of the internal environment is another source to which another group of hormones directly response. Ex: when blood glucose level rises, the pancreas secretes insulin, and when the blood glucose level falls, it secretes glucagon.

11

Identify and locate adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary)

looks like a pair of balls, this one is in the front

12

Identify and locate adrenal cortex

makes up bulk of the adrenal gland, 3 layers- zona glomerulosa, faciculata, reticularis. Adrenal medulla is inside

13

Identify and locate adrenal gland

shaped like pyramids - consists of cortex & medulla, on top of kidney

14

Identify and locate adrenal medulla

inner part of adrenal gland

15

Identify and locate follicle-thyroid

capsule of connective tissue covering the thyroid gland, secretes hormones that may be stored inside the thyroid gland (colloid) or released into nearby capillaries.

16

Identify and locate hypophysis

aka pituitary gland

17

Identify and locate infundibulum

atttaches the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus (stalk)

18

Identify and locate islets of langerhans

clusters inside pancreas which secrete hormones

19

Identify and locate neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary)

looks like a pair of balls, this one is in the back

20

Identify and locate ovary

little balls attached to fallopian tubes

21

Identify and locate pancreas

next to small intestine, looks like a comma

22

Identify and locate parathyroid gland

little beans on the thyroid gland

23

Identify and locate pituitary gland

the balls, made up of the adenohypophysis (front ball) and the neurohypohysis (back ball)

24

Identify and locate pineal gland

near roof of 3rd ventricle, in the brain

25

Identify and locate testis

inside scrotum

26

Identify and locate thymus

sternum, between lungs

27

Identify and locate thyroid gland

below larynx, anterior to trachea

28

Identify and locate zona faciculata

middle layer of adreanl cortex

29

Identify and locate zona glomerulosa

outer layer of adrenal cortex

30

Identify and locate zona reticularis

inner layer of adrenal cortex

31

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) - functions, target organs, where it is produced, how it is regulated

Posterior lobe of the pituitary gland

o Action: causes kidneys to reduce water excretion; in high concentration, raises blood pressure.
o Source of control: Hypothalamus in response to changes in blood water concentration & blood volume.

32

Oxytocin (OT) - functions, target organs, where it is produced, regulation

Posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
o Action: contracts muscles in uterine wall and those associated w/ milk-secreting glands
o Source of control: Hypothalamus in response to stretch in uterine and vaginal walls and stimulation of breasts.

33

Growth hormone (GH) - function, target organ, regulation

o Action: Stimulates increase in size and rate of division of body cells, enhances movement of amino acids through membranes; promotes growth of long bones.
o Source of control: Secretion inhibited by somatostatin (SS) and stimulated by growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) from the hypothalamus.
o Target organ: all body cells

34

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) - function, target organ, regulation

o Action: Controls secretion of hormones from the thyroid gland
o Source of control: thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus.
o Target organ: thyroid

35

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) - function, target organ, regulation

o Action: controls secretion of certain hormones from the adrenal cortex
o Source of control: corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus.
o Target organ: adrenal glands

36

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) - function, target organ, regulation

o Action: Development of egg-containing follicles in ovaries; stimulates follicular cells to secrete estrogen; in males, stimulates production of sperms.
o Source of control: gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus.
o Target organ: gonads (ovaries; testes)

37

Luteinizing hormone (LH) - function, target organ, regulation

o Action: Promotes secretion of sex hormones; releases egg cell in females.
o Source of control: Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
o Target organ: gonads

38

Acromegaly - over/underproduction from which hormone

natural OVERsecretion of growth hormone. Happens in adults after the epiphyses of the long bones have ossified, but soft tissue continues to enlarge. Bones thicken, producing long tongue, nose, hands and feet, and protruding jaw. Associated w/ pituitary tumor.

39

Dwarfism- over/underproduction from which hormone

insufficient secretion of human growth hormone (HGH) in children - body proportions and mental development are normal, affects other hormones - e.g., adult sexual features do not develop unless they receive hormone therapy.

40

Gigantism- over/underproduction from which hormone

oversecretion of growth hormone in children, they become super tall. Caused by a tumor of the pituitary gland, which secretes excess hormones including GH.

41

Thyroxine (T4) - storage, release, transported, regulated

o Action: Increases rate of energy release from carbs, increases rate of protein synthesis, accelerates growth, stimulates activity in nervous system
o Source of control: TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) from anterior pituitary gland
o Target organ: all body cells

42

Triiodothyronin (T3) - storage, release, transported, regulated

o Action: Same as above, but 5x more potent than thyroxine!
o Source of control: Same as above.
o Target: all body cells

43

Calcitonin - storage, release, transported, regulated

o Action: Lowers blood calcium & phosphate ion concentrations by inhibiting release of calcium & phosphate ions fromb ones and by increasing the rate at which calcium and phosphate ions are deposited into bones; increases excretion of calcium by kidneys
o Source of control: elevated blood calcium ion concentration; digestive hormones.
o Target organ: Osteoclasts & osteoblasts in bone & kidney

44

Thyroid disorder: cretinism

infantile hypothyroidism: stunted growth, abnormal bone formation, mental retardation, low body temp, sluggish

45

Thyroid disorder: endemic goiter

also called simple goiter, deficiency of thyroid hormones due to iodine deficiency; because no thyroid hormones inhibit pituitary release of TSH, thyroid is overstimulated and enlarges but functions below normal (hypothyroidism)

46

Thyroid disorder: exophthalmos

eyes bulge out of face from graves disease

47

Thyroid disorder: graves disease

autoantibodies bind TSH receptors on thyroid cell membranes, mimicking action of TSH, overstimulating glad (hyperthyroidism); exopthalmia (eyes bulge) and goiter

48

Thyroid disorder: hyperthyroidism

high metabolic rate, sensitiveity to heat, restlessness, hyperactivity, weight loss, protruding eyes, goiter

49

Thyroid disorder: hypothyroidism

low metabolic rate, sensitivity to cold, sluggishness, poor appetite, swollen tissues, mental dullness

50

Thyroid disorder: myxedema

adult hypothyroidism

51

Thyroid disorder: toxic goiter

caused by hyperthyroidism

52

Function of parathormone (PTH) aka parathyroid hormone, how it's produced, and how secretion is regulated.

o Action: regulates the concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions in the blood by 1. Stimulating bone osteoclast activity and inhibiting bone osteoblast activity; 2. Stimulating kidneys to conserve calcium and excrete phosphate; and 3. Stimulating vitamin D activation, which stimulates intestinal absorption of calcium.
o Control: stimulated by a decrease in blood calcium level and inhibited by an elevated blood calcium level.
o Target cells: osteoclasts and osteoblasts in bone, kidneys, and intestines

53

PTH disorders: hyperparathyroidism cause & effect

caused by tumor, effect: fatigue, muscular weakness, painful joints, altered mental functions, depression, weight loss, bone weakening, increased PTH secretion overstimulates osteoclasts

54

PTH disorders: hypoparathyroidism cause & effect

caused by inadvertent surgical removal, injury; effect: muscle cramps & seizures, decreased PTH secretion reduces osteoclast activity, diminishing blood calcium ion concentration

55

2 main parts of adrenal gland & subparts

adrenal medulla (inside) & adrenal cortex (outer layers) - glomerulosa (outer), fasciculata (middle), reticularis (inner)

56

Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone) - function, regulation

_ Actions: 1. increases blood sodium and water levels; 2. decreases blood potassium levels.
_ Control: stimulated by 1. A decrease in blood sodium levels; and 2. A decrease in blood pressure, or 3. An increase in blood potassium levels.
_ Target organ: kidneys

57

Glucocorticoids (cortisol) - function, regulation

o Glucocorticoids (ex. Cortisol) produced in a zona fasciculate
_ Actions: 1. Inhibits protein synthesis and thus causes an increase in amino acid concentration in the blood stream. 2. Promotes an increase in the release of fatty acids from adipose tissue and their usage as an energy source and decreases the usage of glucose as an energy source; and 3. Promotes the synthesis of glucose from non-carb sources, such as circulating amino acids and glycerol, thus increasing blood glucose concentration.
_ Control: corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus which, in turn, stimulates ACTH production and release by the anterior pituitary
_ Target organ: all body cells

58

Estrogen & testosterone - function, regulation

o Estrogen & testosterone _ produced by the zona reticularis; supplement the sex hormones from the gonads; target organs--estrogen: ovaries, uterus, mammary glands; testosterone: all body cells

59

Addison's disease

the adrenal cortex does not secrete hormones sufficiently due to immune system attack (autoimmunity) or an infection such as tuberculosis. Signs and symptoms: decreased blood sodium increased blood potassium, low blood glucose level (hypoglycemia), dehydration, low blood pressure, frequent infections, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, and increased skin pigmentation. Without treatment: death from severe disturbances in electrolyte balance.

60

Cushing's syndrome

an adrenal tumor or oversecretion of ACTH by the anterior pituitary causes hypersecretion of glucocorticoids (cortisol). May also result from taking corticosteroid drugs for many years, such as to treat asthma or rheumatoid arthritis. Tissue protein level plummets, due to muscle wasting and loss of bone tissue. Blood glucose level remains elevated, excess sodium is retained. Tissue fluid increases, blood pressure rises, skin appears puffy. Skin appears thin due to inhibition of collagen synthesis by excess cortisol.

61

Melatonin function

secreted by pineal gland, helps regulate the menstrual cycle by decreasing gonadotropin secretion

62

Thymosin function

secreted by thymus, plays an essential role in the maturation of T-lymphocytes to enhance the functions of the immune mechanisms

63

Major events in stress response & clinical applications

1. In response to stress, nerve impulses are transmitted to the hypothalamus.
2. Sympathetic impulses arising from the hypothalamus increase blood glucose concentration, blood glycerol concentration, blood fatty acid concentration, heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate. They dilate air passages, shunt blood into skeletal muscles, and increase secretion of epinephrine from the adrenal medulla.
3. Epinephrine intensifies & prolongs sympathetic actions
4. Hypothalamus secretes CRH, which stimulates secretion of ACTH by the anterior pituitary gland.
5. ACTH stimulates release of cortisol by adrenal cortex
6. Cortisol increases concentration of blood amino acids, releases fatty acids, and forms glucose from noncarb sources
7. Secretion of glucagon from the pancreas and growth hormone from the anterior pituitary increase.
8. Glucagon & GH aid mobilization of energy sources and stimulate uptake of amino acids by cells.
9. Secretion of ADH from the posterior pituitary increases.
10. ADH promotes retain of water by kidneys, which increases blood volume.
11. Renin increases blood levels of angiotensin II, which acts as a vasoconstrictor and also stimulates aldosterone secretion by adrenal cortex.
12. Aldosterone stimulates sodium retention by the kidneys.

64

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway

hormone system that regulates blood pressure and water (fluid) balance. When blood volume is low, special cells in the kidney secrete renin into circulation. Plasma renin then carries out the conversion of angiotensiongen released by the liver to angiotensin I. Angiotensin I is converted to Angiotensin II by the angiotensin converting enzyme found in the lungs. When Angiotensin II reahces the adrenal cortex, it stimulates the release of ACTH. Aldosterone acts on the kidney to convserve sodium ions and water. Blood pressure and/or sodium ion concentration return twoard normal, inhibiting further secretion of renin.

65

Site of production & target organ of adrenocorticotropic hormone

FROM anterior pituitary, TO adrenal glands

66

Site of production & target organ of aldosterone (mineralocorticoid)

FROM adrenal cortex (glomerulosa), TO kidneys

67

Site of production & target organ of angiotensinogen

FROM liver, TO none (inactive)

68

Site of production & target organ of angiotensin

FROM blood, TO blood vessels & adrenal gland

69

Site of production & target organ of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

FROM hypothalamus, TO kidneys and blood vessels

70

Site of production & target organ of calcitonin

FROM thyroid TO osteoclasts & osteoblasts in bone & kidney

71

Site of production & target organ of catecholamines

norepinephrine & epinephrine

72

Site of production & target organ of corticotropin releasing hormone

FROM hypothalamus TO anterior pituitary

73

Site of production & target organ of cortisol

FROM adrenal cortex (fasciculata) TO all body cells

74

Site of production & target organ of epinephrine (adrenalin)

FROM adrenal medulla TO all body cells

75

Site of production & target organ of estrogen

FROM ovaries and adrenal cortex (reticularis) TO ovaries, uterus, and mammary glands

76

Site of production & target organ of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

FROM anterior pituitary TO gonads

77

Site of production & target organ of follicule stimulating hormone releasing hormone (FSHRH)

AKA luteinizing hormone - anterior pituitary TO gonads

78

Site of production & target organ of glucagon

FROM pancrease TO liver

79

Site of production & target organ of glucocorticoids

FROM adrenal cortex TO all body cells

80

Site of production & target organ of gonadotropic releasing hormone (GnRH)

FROM hypothalamus TO anterior pituitary

81

Site of production & target organ of growth hormone (GH) or somatropin (STH)

FROM anterior pituitary TO all body cells

82

Site of production & target organ of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH)

FROM hypothalamus TO anterior pituitary

83

Site of production & target organ of growth inhibiting hormone (GIH) or somatostatin (SS)

FROM hypothalamus TO anterior pituitary

84

Site of production & target organ of insulin

FROM pancreas TO all body cells

85

Site of production & target organ of interstitial cell stimulating hormone (ICSH)

male luteinizing hormone, FROM anterior pituitary TO gonads

86

Site of production & target organ of luteinizing hormone

FROM anterior pituitary TO gonads

87

Site of production & target organ of melatonin

FROM pineal gland TO anterior pituitary

88

Site of production & target organ of oxytocin (OT)

FROM posterior pituitary TO kidneys and blood vessels

89

Site of production & target organ of parathyroid hormone (PTH)

FROM parathyroids TO osteoclasts and osteoblasts in bone, kidney, and intestines

90

Site of production & target organ of prolactin (PRL)

FROM anterior pituitary TO mammary glands

91

Site of production & target organ of prolactin release inhibiting hormone (PIH)

FROM hypothalamus TO anterior pituitary

92

Site of production & target organ of prolactin releasing factor (PRF)

FROM hypothalamus TO anterior pituitary

93

Site of production & target organ of renin

an enzymee, not a hormone - FROM kidney TO blood

94

Site of production & target organ of tetraiodothyronine (thyroxine or T4)

aka thyroxine FROM thyroid TO all body cells

95

Site of production & target organ of testosterone

FROM testes and adrenal cortex (zona reticularis) TO all body cells

96

Site of production & target organ of thymosin

FROM thymus TO lymphatic organs

97

Site of production & target organ of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) or thyrotropin

FROM anterior pituitary TO thyroid

98

Site of production & target organ of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)

FROM hypothalamus TO anterior pituitary

99

Site of production & target organ of triiodothyronine

FROM thyroid TO all body cells

100

Glucagon function, site of release

FROM pancreas (alpha cells) TO liver

101

Insulin function, site of release

FROM pancreas (beta cells) TO all body cells

102

Somatostatin function, site of release

FROM pancreas (delta cells); hypothalamus TO pancreas; anterior pituitary

103

diabetes symptoms

acidosis: increased acidity in the blood and other body tissue, dehydration, diabetic coma, hyperglycemia (too much blood sugar), hypoglycemia (too little blood sugar), and loss of weight