Lab Practical 3 - axial and other stuff Flashcards Preview

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1

What is the difference between thick and thin skin?

Thick skin contains Stratum Lucidum. Also, there are no sebaceous glands in thick skin.

2

function & location: cutaneous membrane

keratinizing epithelium

-protection from mechanical, chemical, thermal and bacterial damage.
-prevents water loss
-insulation
-cushion

-skin

3

function & location: mucous membrane

loose connective tissue: lamina propria

line body cavities (hollow organs) that open to the exterior

nasal cavity, mouth, esophagus, lung

4

function & location: serous membrane

squamous epithelium on areolar connective tissue

line closed ventral cavity, reduce friction as organs slide across one another and against body cavity walls

peritonium, pleura, pericardium

5

Location & Secretion of eccrine glands

Location: palms, soles, forehead

Secretion: sweat (water, salt, vitamin C, antibodies, dermcidin, metabolic wastes

6

Location & Secretion of apocrine glands

Location: axillary, anogenital

Secretion: sweat, fatty substances, proteins

7

Location & Secretion of sebaceous glands

Location: Everywhere except palms and soles

Secretion: sebum (oil, bactericidal, softens hair & skin)

8

Visceral vs parietal

Visceral is inside, covers organs. Parietal covers the wall.

9

Hyaline cartilage location

-costal - connects ribs to sternum
-articular - covers bone ends at moveable joints
-laryngeal - constructs larynx
-tracheal & bronchial - reinforce passageways of respiratory system
-nasal - supports external nose

10

Fibrocartilage location

intervertebral discs - cushion bones of spine
pubic symphosis
knee joints

11

Elastic Cartilage

external ear
epiglottis

12

Long bone

-bones that are longer than they are wide, consisting of a shaft with heads at either end.
-composed mostly of compact bone.
-example: femur, phalanges, ulna, radial

13

Short bones

-cube shaped
-contains more spongy bone than compact bone.
-example: tarsal, carpal

14

Flat bone

-generally thin, two waferlike layers of compact bone sandwiching a layer of spongy bone
-curved generally
-example: skull, sternum

15

Irregular bones

all other bones.
example: vertebrae

16

Sesamoid bones

special type of short bones formed in tendons.
example: patella.

17

Bone marking function

bulges, depressions and holes which serve as sites of attachment for muscles, ligaments, and tendons; joint surfaces; conduits for blood vessels and nerves

18

Bone marking categories

-projections or processes that grow out from the bone and serve as sites of muscle attachment or help form joints;
-depressions (or cavities) which are indentations or openings in bone that serve as conduits for nerves and blood vessels.

19

axial skeleton

skull, thoracic cage, vertebral column, sacrum, coccyx

20

appendicular

clavicle, scapula, upper (humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, phalanges, metacarpals) and lower limb bones (femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges, talus), pelvic girdle

21

tuberosity

rounded projection

ex
humerus: deltoid tuberosity
tibia: tibial tuberosity
radius: radial tuberosity
ischium: ischial tuberosity

22

crest

narrow, prominent ridge

iliac crest

23

trochanter

large, blunt, irregular surface

on femur, greater and lesser trochanter

24

line

narrow ridge of bone

there are some on femur but not necessary to know

25

tubercle

small rounded projection or process

humerus: greater and lesser tubercle

26

epicondyle

raised area above a condyle

on humerus and femur, medial and lateral epicondyles

27

spine

sharp, slender process

on scapula

28

process

any bony prominence

the things that stick out on scapula, ulna, radius, processes on vertebrae

29

condyle

rounded articular projection

on tibia & femur, medial and lateral condyle, occipital condyle

30

head

bony expansion carried on a narrow neck

humerus, radius, ulna, femur, fibula

31

facet

smooth, nearly flat articular surface

posterior of kneecap, on axis, superior articular facet

32

ramus

armlike bar

on hip bone, superior pubic ramus, ischial ramus & inferior pubic ramus

33

meatus

canal-like passageway

external acoustic meatus (ear)

34

sinus

bone cavity, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane

frontal, sphenoid, ethmoidal, maxillary

35

fossa

shallow, basinlike depression

in scapula, supra- and infraspinosus fossa

36

groove

furrow, linear depression

37

fissure

narrow, slitlike opening

38

foramen

round or oval opening through a bone

jugular foramen, foramen magnum

39

sella turcica location

superior view, saddle-shaped in sphenoid midline

40

coronal suture

between parietal bones and frontal bone

41

Sagittal suture

between right and left parietal bones

42

Lamboid suture

between parietal bones and occipital bone

43

Chemical composition of bone

Strong, simple, and flexible.

Hardness due to inorganic calcium salts deposited in ground substance.
Flexibility from organic elements of matrix - collagen fibers

43

Squamous suture

between parietal and temporal bones on each side of skull

44

Heat's effect on bones

Shape is still the same but heat makes bone brittle and responds to gentle pressure by breaking. Organic material is dried out.

45

Acid's effect on bones

More fibrous, very flexible, removes calcium salt from bones, resembles bones of a child with rickets

46

What happens in rickets?

Bones are not properly calcified, leads to softening and weakening of bones

47

Steps of ossification

- fibrous material covering hyaline cartilage model is vascularized and converted to periosteum
- osteoblasts at inner surface of periosteum secrete bone matrix around hyaline cartilage model, forming a bone collar
- cartilage in the shaft center calcifies and hollows out, forming an internal cavity

48

True vs false ribs

True ribs are attached to sternum by their own cartilage (first 7)
False ribs are indirectly attached to sternum or lack attachment
Of these, ribs 8-10 have indirect cartilage attachments via rib 7 (vertebrochondral)
Last two pairs have no attachment (floating)

49

Sinus locations

Frontal, ethmoidal, sphenoid, maxillary

FESM

50

Male vs female girdle

Female: wider, shallower, lighter, rounder, broader, pubic arch more curved, acetabula smaller, further apart. Coccyx more moveable, outlet broader

Male: narrower, more acute

51

Arches of the foot

Medial
Lateral
Transverse