Flashcards in Lab Practical 3 - axial and other stuff Deck (52)
What is the difference between thick and thin skin?
Thick skin contains Stratum Lucidum. Also, there are no sebaceous glands in thick skin.
function & location: cutaneous membrane
-protection from mechanical, chemical, thermal and bacterial damage.
-prevents water loss
function & location: mucous membrane
loose connective tissue: lamina propria
line body cavities (hollow organs) that open to the exterior
nasal cavity, mouth, esophagus, lung
function & location: serous membrane
squamous epithelium on areolar connective tissue
line closed ventral cavity, reduce friction as organs slide across one another and against body cavity walls
peritonium, pleura, pericardium
Location & Secretion of eccrine glands
Location: palms, soles, forehead
Secretion: sweat (water, salt, vitamin C, antibodies, dermcidin, metabolic wastes
Location & Secretion of apocrine glands
Location: axillary, anogenital
Secretion: sweat, fatty substances, proteins
Location & Secretion of sebaceous glands
Location: Everywhere except palms and soles
Secretion: sebum (oil, bactericidal, softens hair & skin)
Visceral vs parietal
Visceral is inside, covers organs. Parietal covers the wall.
Hyaline cartilage location
-costal - connects ribs to sternum
-articular - covers bone ends at moveable joints
-laryngeal - constructs larynx
-tracheal & bronchial - reinforce passageways of respiratory system
-nasal - supports external nose
intervertebral discs - cushion bones of spine
-bones that are longer than they are wide, consisting of a shaft with heads at either end.
-composed mostly of compact bone.
-example: femur, phalanges, ulna, radial
-contains more spongy bone than compact bone.
-example: tarsal, carpal
-generally thin, two waferlike layers of compact bone sandwiching a layer of spongy bone
-example: skull, sternum
all other bones.
special type of short bones formed in tendons.
Bone marking function
bulges, depressions and holes which serve as sites of attachment for muscles, ligaments, and tendons; joint surfaces; conduits for blood vessels and nerves
Bone marking categories
-projections or processes that grow out from the bone and serve as sites of muscle attachment or help form joints;
-depressions (or cavities) which are indentations or openings in bone that serve as conduits for nerves and blood vessels.
skull, thoracic cage, vertebral column, sacrum, coccyx
clavicle, scapula, upper (humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, phalanges, metacarpals) and lower limb bones (femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges, talus), pelvic girdle
humerus: deltoid tuberosity
tibia: tibial tuberosity
radius: radial tuberosity
ischium: ischial tuberosity
narrow, prominent ridge
large, blunt, irregular surface
on femur, greater and lesser trochanter
narrow ridge of bone
there are some on femur but not necessary to know
small rounded projection or process
humerus: greater and lesser tubercle
raised area above a condyle
on humerus and femur, medial and lateral epicondyles
sharp, slender process
any bony prominence
the things that stick out on scapula, ulna, radius, processes on vertebrae
rounded articular projection
on tibia & femur, medial and lateral condyle, occipital condyle
bony expansion carried on a narrow neck
humerus, radius, ulna, femur, fibula
smooth, nearly flat articular surface
posterior of kneecap, on axis, superior articular facet
on hip bone, superior pubic ramus, ischial ramus & inferior pubic ramus
external acoustic meatus (ear)
bone cavity, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane
frontal, sphenoid, ethmoidal, maxillary
shallow, basinlike depression
in scapula, supra- and infraspinosus fossa
furrow, linear depression
narrow, slitlike opening
round or oval opening through a bone
jugular foramen, foramen magnum
sella turcica location
superior view, saddle-shaped in sphenoid midline
between parietal bones and frontal bone
between right and left parietal bones
between parietal bones and occipital bone
Chemical composition of bone
Strong, simple, and flexible.
Hardness due to inorganic calcium salts deposited in ground substance.
Flexibility from organic elements of matrix - collagen fibers
between parietal and temporal bones on each side of skull
Heat's effect on bones
Shape is still the same but heat makes bone brittle and responds to gentle pressure by breaking. Organic material is dried out.
Acid's effect on bones
More fibrous, very flexible, removes calcium salt from bones, resembles bones of a child with rickets
What happens in rickets?
Bones are not properly calcified, leads to softening and weakening of bones
Steps of ossification
- fibrous material covering hyaline cartilage model is vascularized and converted to periosteum
- osteoblasts at inner surface of periosteum secrete bone matrix around hyaline cartilage model, forming a bone collar
- cartilage in the shaft center calcifies and hollows out, forming an internal cavity
True vs false ribs
True ribs are attached to sternum by their own cartilage (first 7)
False ribs are indirectly attached to sternum or lack attachment
Of these, ribs 8-10 have indirect cartilage attachments via rib 7 (vertebrochondral)
Last two pairs have no attachment (floating)
Frontal, ethmoidal, sphenoid, maxillary
Male vs female girdle
Female: wider, shallower, lighter, rounder, broader, pubic arch more curved, acetabula smaller, further apart. Coccyx more moveable, outlet broader
Male: narrower, more acute