Unit 5 - Chapter 23 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 5 - Chapter 23 Deck (58)
1

Septicemia

presence of pathogens and/or toxins produced by pathogens in the blood

2

Sepsis

SIRS
____ infection releases _________ mediators into ______

Must exhibit at least 1 of 3 symptoms

systemic inflammatory response syndrom (SIRS) caused by a focal infection that releases inflammatory mediators into the bloodstream. MUST exhibit at least 2 of the following conditions: 1. fever, 2. rapid heart or respiratory rates, 3. high count of white blood cells.

3

Septic shock
lymphangitis

severe drop in BP resulted from sepsis that can no longer be controlled by addition of fluid, lymphangitis (inflamed walls of the vessels become visible as red streaks)

4

Gram Negative sepsis

pathogen
also called:
_____ in cell wall of gram (-) bac are released when _________ dies
causes:
antibiotics tricky because:

mostly likely caused by gram-neg bacteria, thus often called gram negative sepsis or endotoxic shock. Endotoxins (lipid A) in the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria are released when bacteria die, which causes an extreme drop of blood pressure. Antibiotic treatments can be tricky as MORE endotoxins may be released when bacteria die.

5

Gram Positive sepsis

more/less common cause of sepsis
pathogens (3)
components to cause septic shock:

More common cause of sepsis, pathogens are: enterococci, group B strep, staph. Bacterial components that lead to septic shock in gram+ bacteria are not known with certainty

6

Gram +: enterococci

responsible for:
generally inhabitants of:
frequently contaminate:
Enterococcus __________ and Enterococcus _____ are leading cause of _________ of ______ & _____ ____
Resistance

responsible for many nosocomia infections; are generally inhabitants of the human colon and frequently contaminate skin. Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis are the leading causes of nosocomial infections of wounds and urinary tract. Have a natural resistance to penicillin and have rapidly acquired resistance to other antibiotics. There are some vancomycin-resistant strains. TSS (toxic shock syndrome)

7

Gram +: group B strep (GBS)

Most common cause of:
________ ____ should be tested for _______ ___ and offered _______ if positive

most common cause of neonatal sepsis. CDC recommends that pregnant women be tested for vaginal GBS and that women with GBS be offered antibiotics during labor

8

Puerperal sepsis/puerperal fever/childbirth fever

_____ _____ of ________
result of _________ or _____
Pathogen
common?

nosocomial infection of uterus as a result of childbirth or abortion. Strep. pyogenes (group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus) is most frequent cause. Not as common these days because of modern hygienic practice.

9

endocarditis

bacterial infections of the heart

10

subacute bacterial endocarditis pathogen

pathogen mostly alpha hemolytic streptococci

11

subacute bacterial endocarditis

bacteria lodge into _____ _____ and may cause ____ ____
how infection occurs
microbes enter what and find way to where?
predisposing factors

bacteria lodge into the heart valves and may cause fatal damage; infection arises from another infection, such as a tooth extraction or tonsillectomy. Microbes enter blood & find way to heart; preexisting heart abnormalities are predisposing factors

12

acute bacterial endocarditis pathogen

S. aureus

13

acute bacterial endocarditis

causes _____ ___________ of _______ ______

rapid destruction of heart valves

14

pericarditis pathogen

Strep. pyogenes

15

pericarditis what it affects and the speed of progression

affects the sac surrounding the heart; rapidly progressive

16

Rheumatic fever pathogen

group A beta hemolytic streptococci

17

Rheumatic fever symptoms

initially arthritis & fever, then subcutaneous nodules at joints (2nd elbow joint)

18

rheumatic fever description

antibodies against ___________ react with _________ deposited in ____ which causes:
OR cross-react with _____ ______ causing:

can follow _____ infection such as:
_______ treatment of _____ ________ can reduce incidence of rheumatic fever
______ administered as a ______ ______ against:

autoimmune complication of streptococcal infections--antibodies against group A beta-hemolytic streptococci react w/ streptococcal antigens deposited in joints (causing arthritis) or heart valves or cross-react w/ heart muscle (causing permanent heart damage); can follow streptcococal infection such as a sore throat; prompt treatment of strep infections can reduce incidence of rheumatic fever; penicillin administered as preventative measure against subsequent strep infections

19

anthrax pathogen

bacillus anthracis

20

anthrax description

where endospores occur
what it infects
________ is most dangerous
human contact by handling ______________

endospores occur in soil (survives up to 60 years) and infects grazing animals, proliferating in blood.

Inhalation of endospores causes an especially dangerous type;

human contact anthrax by handling hides from infected animals

21

anthrax endospores enter through what means?

entry through _______ results in _____ that can progress to _____
entry through _______ ______ results in _____ _____

endospores enter through cuts in the skin, respiratory tract, or mouth; entry through skin results in pustule that can progress to sepsis. entry through respiratory system can result in septic shock

22

Gangrene disease

soft tissue death from ischemia (loss of blood supply)

23

gangrene pathogen

Clostridium perfringes (forms endospores)

24

gangrene growth

microbes grow on nutrients released from ______ ___
especially susceptible to growth of ______ _____ such as _________ ______ which can invade walls of ______ during _____ ______ _________

Microbes grow on nutrients released from gangrenous cells; especially susceptible to the growth of anaerobic bacteria such as Clostridium perfringes which can invade walls of uterus during improperly performed abortions;

25

gangrene treatment (3)

treatment involves surgical removal of necrotic tissue, hyperbaric chambers, amputation

26

cat scratch fever pathogen

Bartonella henselae

27

cat scratch fever symptoms

swelling of lymph nodes, system infection with prolonged fever, can be fatal

28

Bubonic Plague pathogen

Yersinia pestis

29

Bubonic Plague vectors

usually rat flea; resevoirs include European rats and NA rodents

30

Bubonic plague signs

bruises on skin, enlarged lymph nodes (buboes);

31

Bubonic plague

mode of transmission: bacteria enters ______ and causes _____ _____
treatment: ______ are effective, must be administered ______________

bacteria enters lung and causes pneumonic plague; antibiotics are effective but must be administered promptly after exposure to the disease

32

Lyme disease pathogen

Borrelia burgdorferi

33

Lyme disease vector

tick (Ixodes scapularis), found in areas of high deer population

34

Lyme disease resevoir

field mice - maintains the spirochete in the tick population. The nymphal form, which is most likly to infect humans feeds on mice; deer are less likely to carry nymphs and support bacteria, although ticks feed and mate on them

35

Lyme disease symptoms

bull's eye rash

36

Ehrlichosis pathogen

Ehrlichia spp.

37

Ehrlichosis
caused by
"HE"

tickborne flulike disease caused by rickettsias; human granulocytic ehrlichosis (HE) can be fatal.

38

Rocky Mt. Spotted Fever pathogen

Rickettsia rickettsii

39

Rocky Mt. Spotted Fever
caused by
symptoms

caused by Dermacentor anderosoni ticks,

symptoms: rash, fever, headache; can be fatal

40

Infectious mononucleosis pathogen

epstein-barr virus (EBV)

41

infectious mononucleosis description

Multiplies in & Present in
Causes proliferation of
Transmitted by what secretions of what age group?

virus multiplies in parotid glands and is present in saliva;

causes proliferation of atypical lymphocytes;

a mild disease transmitted by oral secretions in young people

42

American trypanosomiasis (chagas disease) pathogen

Trypansoma cruzi

43

American trypanosomiasis (chagas disease)

vector; damages

vector: reduviid bug (kissing bug);

damages heart muscle or peristaltic movement in esophagus and colon

44

Toxoplasmosis pathogen

Toxoplasmosis gondii

45

Toxoplasmosis

human contraction;
Immunocompetent people;
complications with pregnancy and people with AIDS

humans contract this by eating undercooked meat from an infected animal or contact with cat feces;

a mild disease in immunocompetent adults;

may cause severe fatal damage if initial infection occurs during pregnancy;

reactivation in AIDS patients causes serious illness

46

Malaria pathogen

Plasmodium spp.

47

Malaria

__________-borne
common in what areas,
characterized by what symptoms

mosquito-borne;

common in hot climates;

characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, headaches at 2-3 day intervals

48

Leishmania pathogen

leishmania spp.

49

Leishmania

transmission;
reproduction where;
cutaneous form called what;
symptoms

transmitted by sandflies;

protozoan reproduces in liver, spleen, and kidneys;

cutaneous form called "oriental sore";

papule forms at the bite site after weeks of incupation -- it ulcerates and after healing, forms a prominent scar.

50

Schistosomiasis pathogen

helminthic; schistosoma spp.

51

Schistosomiasis

Eggs produced by what, lodge where, produce damaging what?

eggs produced by schistosomes lodge in tissue and produce damaging inflammation

52

Swimmers itch pathogen

larvae of shistosomes of nonhumans

53

Swimmers itch reaction

allergic reaction in skin to parasite

54

Life cycle of plasmodium

mosquito bites human
sporozoite migrates through bloodstream to liver
sporozoite undergoes shizogony in liver; merozoites produced
merozoites released into bloodstream, infects new RBCs
merozoite develops into ring stage in RBC
ring stage grows, divides, producing merozoites
Merozoites released when RBC ruptures
Some infect new RBCs, others develop into male/female gametocytes
Mosquito bites infected human, ingests gametocytes
gametocytes form zygote in mosquito's digestive tract
forms sporozites which migrate to saliva glands of mosquito
repeat.

55

Life cycle of ixodes scapularis

uninfected six-legged larva hatches from egg and develops
larva feeds on small animal (field mouse), becoming infected with Borrelia burgdorferi.
larva dormant
larva develops into 8-legged nymph
nymph feeds on animal/human
nymph develops into adult tick
adult ticks feed on deer and mate
female tick lays eggs
repeat.

56

Life cycle of dermacentor

infected adult female tick lays eggs
eggs hatch, 6-legged larvae develop
takes blood meal from small mammal, infects it, develops into 8-legged nymph
takes blood meal from human, infects, develops into adult tick
takes another blood meal and mates
repeat.

57

Life cycle of toxoplasmosis gondii

immature oocyte is shed in cat feces
mature oocyst develop by sporogony and contain 2 sporocysts, each with 4 infective sporozites
oocyst infects many hosts: mice, domestic animals, humans (via ingestion of undercooked meat)
sporozites from ingested oocytes invade animal tissue and develop into bradyzoites in tissue cysts
cat ingests bradyzoites (usually mice)
repeat.

58

Life cycle of schistosoma

adult female fluke lay eggs
eggs reach body of water after being excreted in human feces or urine
egg becomes miracidia
miracidum penetrates snail (intermediate host)
reproduces in snail, forming several cercariae
cercariae released from snail; penetrate human skin, lose tail
cercariae travel through circulatory system to intestinal blood vessels, where they mature to adults
repeat.