Chapter 2-3: The Constitution Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2-3: The Constitution Deck (93):
1

4 building blocks of the US government

1. colonial experience - colonists would build on knowledge and experiences they had gained from colonization periods
2. constitutionalism - the founding fathers and colonists were committed to a written plan of government
3. republicanism - the colonists and founding fathers wanted government that was of by and for the people. the people would elect delegates to represent them in their law making body (legislature) and this representative government
4. enlightenment principles - the colonists and founding fathers have been heavily influenced by enlightenment. writings from thomas hobbes and john locke

2

what did the delegates of the second continental congress decide to do close to the end of revolutionary war

the delegates decided that the 13 independent states should form a league of friendship

3

what does the word "article" refer to

different parts of the document (13 articles)

4

describe the congress of confederation

each state was to send one representative to the congress and each state had only one vote

5

list some powers (6) of the congress according to the articles of confederation

1. ask each of the states for money to help run the central government
2. declare war, make peace, and raise an army and navy
3. control the relations of the US with other nations
4. arrange for mail service
5. manage indian affairs
6. borrow money to pay necessary government expenses

6

why did some states at first refuse to accept the articles of confederation

these states had no claims to land west of the Appalachian mountains and refused to join with the larger states

7

at what time were the articles of confederation finally accepted

1781

8

what was a reason why the articles of confederation did not work well (2 reasons)

1. did not give central government enough power
2. did not want a powerful national government that would interfere in local affairs and they would not give up their newly won independence

9

what level of government did not have enough power under the articles of confederation

federal/national government

10

why was the government losing the respect of other nations

the weak government was losing the respect of other nations because the confederation borrowed money from France and the Netherlands

11

by 1785, the situation was critical...the 13 states were far from ______, people were _______, _________ was suffering, men openly _________ their government, ________ was growing everywhere, the national government had no ________ abroad and the states were constantly _________

united, poor and hungry, trade, defied, discontent, respect, among themselves

12

that stronger union come with a new document:

the constitution

13

what was the first attempt of the colonies at organized government among all the colonies

articles of confederation

14

once the war was over and freedom had been won, what became difficult

it became difficult for people to give up their own individual freedoms for the sake of a national government

15

(central government or no central government) to declare war and negotiate peace

central government had power

16

(central government or no central government) to regulate trade and commerce

central government did not have power

17

(central government or no central government) to borrow money

central government had power

18

(central government or no central government) to raise an army and navy

central government had power

19

(central government or no central government) to levy taxes

central government had no power

20

(central government or no central government) to prohibit states from issuing their own money

central government had no power

21

(central government or no central government) to act directly against individuals or states

central government had no power

22

(central government or no central government) to establish post offices

central government had power

23

due to the federal government lacking some of the above powers, what happened

articles of confederation simply did not work

24

the articles of confederation was the ______ of the newly formed government

first constitution

25

what is a confederation

loose alliance

26

3 features of the articles of confederation

1. created a unicameral (one house) legislature
2. each state received one vote
3. only power delegated to congress was law making

27

quarreling began over _______ (land beyond the appalachians) and ________

the new territory, tariffs between states

28

the new government __________ and soldiers who fought _________, yet they had no power to raise money or force the states to pay the taxes owed to the federal government. (there was _______ to enforce laws)

owed huge debts to other nations, had not been paid, no executive branch

29

what did the economic depression do to the colonists

it left many farmers and merchants with great personal debts and no way of repaying them

30

weaknesses of the articles of confederation

1. congress had no power to levy taxes
2. congress had no power to regulate trade
3. each printed its own currency
4. in order to pass laws, 9/13 states had to approve the law
5. amending the articles required unanimous approval of all 13 states
6. federal government had no executive branch
7. no federal court system

31

the _________ that established an organized system for settling western frontier lands (beyond the appalachian mountains)

land ordinance of 1785

32

the _______ that set up a 3 step system for adding new states to the union

northwest ordinance of 1787

33

to approve

ratified

34

single chambered congress

unicameral

35

needed to pass a law

approval of 9 of 13 states

36

needed to amend or change articles

consent of all 13 states

37

yield territory claims

cede

38

under the articles of confederation, the plan for the central government did NOT include

an executive branch

39

according to the articles of confederation, this was the main purpose of congress

lawmaking

40

shays's rebellion was caused by this problem

economic depression

41

this caused many americans to agree to a strong national government

shays's rebellion

42

what level of government had the most power under the articles of confederation

states government

43

what will the congress do to the articles of confederation in 1785

revise/update the articles of confederation

44

what word means representative democracy

republic

45

a written plan of government is called a

constitution

46

how many votes were needed to pass a law under the articles of confederation

9/13 states

47

what right was congress not given under the articles of confederation

the right to officially tax

48

what type of principles was the articles of confederation based upon

enlightenment

49

after the american revolution, each state printed its own _______

currency

50

what level of government had the least amount of power under the articles of confederation

federal government

51

what is the word for a person that has administrative authority

executive

52

know the old northwest map

6 states, 5 great lakes, ohio and mississippi rivers

53

the northwest ordinance of 1787 set aside land as the

Northwest territory

54

a ________ is a group of people who make laws

legislature

55

__________ was the capital of the northwest territory

cincinnati

56

the northwest territory included land that is now the states of

ohio, michigan, indiana, illinois, wisconsin, and part of minnesota

57

land ordinance of 1785

1. divided land into squares called townships (36 townships)
2. land was set aside for schools
3. prohibited slavery

58

northwest ordinance of 1787

3 step system for admitting states
1. congress appointed governor and 3 judges
2. when territory got to 5000 votes, they can send delegate to congress (some representation)
3. 60,000 people = apply for statehood

59

one section of a township

640 acres for one township

1/2 = 320 acres
1/4 = 160 acres
1/8 = 80 acres
1/16 = 40 acres

60

how much does land cost in the township

$1 an acre

61

the northwest ordinance of 1787 and land ordinance of 1785 were considered successes of the ________ government

articles of confederation

62

what section of a township was for the purpose of education

16

63

each township was divided into _____ sections

36 sections

64

a township was _______ mile(s) long and ______ mile(s) wide

6x6

65

what was prohibited in the northwest territory

slavery

66

why were schools built close to the center of the township

easy access

67

how many square miles are in 1 township

36

68

a section of a township is a square of land ______ mile(s) long and _____ mile(s) wide

1 mile by 1 mile

69

after a territory's constitution was approved, it could become a ______

state

70

describe the structure of the government set up by the articles of confederation

league of friendship, unicameral congress, and only one branch (law making, legislative). each state had one vote in congress

71

3 congressional powers granted to congress under the articles of confederation

1. make war and peace
2. make treaties
2. set up money system
3. establish post offices

72

what obligations did states have to one another

treat each other fairly, surrender fugitives to one another

73

why obligations did states have to citizens

protect property and promote welfare

74

what powers did congress not have

regulate trade (citizens wanted to do this)

75

what government action took place in response to shays' rebellion

the Massachusetts legislature eventually passed laws to ease the burden of debtors

76

what was the goal of the constitutional convention

revise the articles of confederation

77

(true/false) every one of the 13 states had to ratify the articles of confederation

true

78

(true/false) economic issues first motivated americans to get together to discuss the effectiveness of the articles of confederation

true

79

describe the geographical description of the old northwest

1. north of the ohio river
2. east of the mississippi river
3. west of the appalachians
4. south of the great lakes

80

(true/false) as far as congress was concerned, the main purpose for the 1787 convention in Philadelphia was to revise the articles of confederation

true

81

the main reason that no amendments were ever added to the articles of confederation was that

amendments needed the consent of all 13 state legislatures

82

which of the following was NOT a reason for changing the articles

the articles allowed slavery to continue

83

the main concern of the rebels who carried out shays' rebellion was to protest

the loss of their properties to tax collectors

84

(true/false) the articles of confederation formed a strong central government

false

85

(true/false) every state had one vote in congress no matter what number of delegates represented it

true

86

(true/false) when congress asked the states for money to pay national debts, the states did what the congress asked

false

87

(true/false) every state did what they wanted

true

88

(true/false) the articles of confederation was america's first constitution

true

89

(true/false) the continental congress wrote the articles during the revolutionary war

true

90

a synonym for law

ordinance

91

why was the northwest ordinance one of the most important laws ever passed by any government

the ordinance of 1787 not only guided the states which were formed from the northwest territory, but it was also the model which was followed by all other states which subsequently came into the union

92

what rights were guaranteed the people living in a territory

the right to worship as they wished, the right of freedom of speech, the right to a jury trial, and protection from cruel and unusual punishment

93

what influence did this ordinance have on the government of later territories

the laws passed in the ordinance became a model that was followed by other states who came into the union