Chapters 8 and 9 Test Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapters 8 and 9 Test Deck (90):

4 types of mediums

1. television
2. newspapers
3. radios
4. magazines


examples of television

CBS, NBC, ABC, CNN, PBS, Fox Network


examples of newspapers

new york times, washington post, chicago tribune, los angeles times, wall street journal, christian science monitor, use today


examples of radio

nbc, cos, mutual broadcasting system, npr


examples of magazines

times, newsweek, us news and world report, the nation, the new republic, the national review


how do the mass media help shape the public agenda

they have the power to get the public to focus on a certain issue


how do the mass media help shape political campaigns

it has made political campaigns more image conscious and less focused on complex policy debates


what is a medium

means of communication


(true/false) most of the information that americans have about politics comes from the mass media



(true/false) television replaced newspapers as the principal source of news in the united states during the 1930s



(true/false) in recent decades there has been a sharp decline in the number of daily newspapers published in the united states



which of the following sequences lists the major mass media from most impact to least

television, newspapers, radio, magazines


which of the following carried mostly political news in its early days



the impact of the mass media on the public agenda can best be described as its ability to tell people

what issues to think about


what are the 6 factors that shape public opinion

1. family
2. schools
3. mass media
4. peer groups
5. opinion leaders
6. historic events


types of information communicated from family

values, how to behave, morals, religious ideologies


types of information communicated from the schools

how to get along with others, formal and informal ways of learning


types of information communicated from the mass media

politics, public polices; the media gives a platform for opinion leaders


types of information communicated from peer groups

reinforces one's opinions or creates one's opinions


types of information communicated from opinion leaders

communicate information that people can draw ideas form politics and social issues


types of information communicated from historic events

feelings on issues that arise out of events or experiences


what does it mean to say that "many publics exists exist in the united states"

many groups of people who weigh in on subjects


why are family and school particularly important in shaping people's political views

family and schools shape people who are most impressionable in childhood


(true/false) the views of different generations are formed in part by the different historical events that occurred during their lifetimes



(true/false) each group with a distinct point of view on an issue of public policy can be considered a separate public with regard to that matter



which two groups have the strongest impact on political socialization in the united states

the family


an opinion leader is a person

whose views have more weight than the average person's


what are public affairs

include politics, public issues, and the making of public politics - those events and issues that concern the people


what are mass media

include those means of communication that reach large, widely dispersed audiences (masses of people) simultaneously


what are interest groups

private organizations whose members share certain views and objectives and work to shape the making and the content of public policy


what are public opinion polls

devices that attempt to collect information by asking people questions


what are straw votes

polls that sought to read the public's mind simply by asking the same question of a large number of people


what are samples

a representative slice of the total universe


what are random samples

(probability sample) a sample in which each member of the universe and each geographic area within it have a mathematically equal chance of being included


what are quota samples

a sample deliberately constructed to reflect several of the major characteristics of a given universe


what is public agenda

the societal problems that the nation's political leaders and the general public agree need government attention


what are sound bites

snappy reports that can be aired in 30 or 45 seconds or so


what is public policy

includes all of the goals that a government pursues in the many areas of the human affairs in which it is involved. examples: seat belt laws, setting speed limits, zoning, planning for flood control, providing old age pensions and the use of military force in international affairs


what are the 6 valuable functions of interest groups

1. raise awareness in public affairs
2. represent members on basis of shared attitudes
3. interests provide info. to government
4. vehicles for political participation
5. add element to checks and balances
6. regularly compete with one another


what is trade association

segments of the business community that have their own interest groups


what is labor union

an organization of workers who share the same type of job of who work in the same industry


what is a public interest group

an interest group that seeks to institute certain public policies of benefit to all or most people in this country, whether of not they belong to of support that organization


what is propaganda

a technique of persuasion aimed at influencing individual or group behaviors. interest groups that try to create public attitudes they want by using propaganda


what is single interest group

a variety of PAC (political action committee) that concentrate their efforts on one issue - for example, gun control, abortion, health care


what is lobbying

those activities by which PAC organizations bring pressure to bear on all legislators and the legislative process


what are the 8 types of interest groups

1. business groups
2. labor groups
3. agricultural groups
4. professional groups
5. groups that promote causes
6. organizations that promote the welfare of certain groups
7. religious organizations
8. single interest groups


what are business groups

looked to government to promote and protect it interests (businesses in America)

examples: US Brewer's association and chamber pf commerce in MB


what are labor groups

organization of workers who share the same type of job or who work in the same industry

examples: AFL-CIO (the american fed. of labor - congress of industrial organizations) and retail clerks international union


what are agricultural groups

serves interests of farmers and farm workers

examples: national grange and national farmer's union


what are professional groups

occupations that require extensive and specialized training, such as medicine, law, and teaching

examples: the american medical association (AMA), american bar association (ABA - lawyers), national education association (NEA)


what are groups that promote causes

a large number of groups exist to promote a cause or an idea

examples: american civil liberties union (ACLU) and league of women voters


what are organizations that promote the welfare of certain groups

a number of interest groups seek to promote the welfare of certain segments of the population

examples: national association for advancement of colored people (NAACP)


what are religious organizations

influence public policy in places like churches


what are single interest group

a pack that concentrates on a single issue


what is a mandate

instructions of a constituency gives to its elected officials


what is an interest group

private organization whose members attempt to share public policy according to their shared view of an issue or issues


what is a straw vote

poll that asks a single question to a large, self selected group


what is a random sample

sample in which each member of the universe has a mathematically equal chance of being selected


what is a quota sample

a sample deliberately constructed to reflect several of the major characteristics of the universe being studied


the most accurate means of assessing public opinion is through

scientific polling techniques


universe is a term used to refer to

the entire group whose opinions a poll seeks to measure


which of the following is a constitutional deliberately erected as a means to block immediate legal changes based on public opinion

guarantees of civil rights and liberties, the doctrine of separation of powers, and the doctrine of checks and balances


which are the most important factors in political socialization

family and education


a popular movie star who speaks publicly about a political issue may become

an opinion leader


if you asked the same question about an upcoming election to many people, you would be conducting a

straw vote


the most accurate way to measure public opinion is by

scientific polling


which of the mass media has the most impact on american politics



how has television affected political campaigns

it has made candidates less dependent on political parties


the public agenda refers to

the public issues people think and talk about


an interest group is a private organization that forms to

promote the interests of its members


a positive activity of interest groups is to

get people interest in public affairs, provide information to government, join together people from different parts of the country


a single interest group

concentrates on electing or defeating candidates based on one issue


a political action committee's purpose is to

raise money for political candidates


lobbyist activities are

regulated by law


5 ideologies that form the political spectrum

1. radical
2. liberal
3. moderate
4. conservative
5. reactionary


5 conservative opinion leaders

1. rush limbaugh
2. bill o' reilly
3. sean hannity
4. megan kelly
5. laura ingram


5 liberal opinion leaders

1. oprah
2. michael moore
3. anderson cooper
4. Keith oberman
5. bill mahr


3 historic events in your lifetime that shaped public opinion

1. 9/11
2. stock market crash 2008
3. northridge earthquake


4 historic events in the 18th, 19th, or 20th century that helped shape public opinion

1. great depression
2. holocaust
3. civil rights movement
4. bombing of pearl harbor


5 measures of public opinion

1. elections
2. polls
3. interest groups
4. mass media
5. personal contacts


6 forms of mass media

1. billboards
2. television
3. radio
4. magazines
5. newspapers
6. internet


what is the difference between straw votes and scientific polling

straw votes are polls that sought to read the public's mind simply by asking the same question of a large number of people. scientific polling is the accuracy of the poll with random sampling and statistics


5 steps of the polling process

1. define the universe to be surveyed
2. construct a sample
3. prepare valid questions
4. select and control how the polls will be taken
5. analyze and report their findings to the public


what is political spectrum

a line or continuum that shows the range of political opinions that can exist in a society


what is ideology

a collection of political, social, and economic beliefs that reveal the type and amount of change a person or group wishes to see in society


what is radical

favors extreme and immediate change, willing to use violence, and believes change comes in a new society or system


what is liberal

favors progress and reform, works for reform within existing systems, looks to the future for an improve society


what is moderate

favors a nonviolent practical approach to solving society's problems, may be "liberal" or "conservative" in outlook depending on given issue


what is conservative

favors society as it is or a reform to what society was in the past, opposed to abrupt change, values tradition


what is reactionary

favors extreme and immediate change, is willing to use violence, believes that change comes in the form of a restoration of society as it once was