Chapters 8 and 9 Test Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapters 8 and 9 Test Deck (90):
1

4 types of mediums

1. television
2. newspapers
3. radios
4. magazines

2

examples of television

CBS, NBC, ABC, CNN, PBS, Fox Network

3

examples of newspapers

new york times, washington post, chicago tribune, los angeles times, wall street journal, christian science monitor, use today

4

examples of radio

nbc, cos, mutual broadcasting system, npr

5

examples of magazines

times, newsweek, us news and world report, the nation, the new republic, the national review

6

how do the mass media help shape the public agenda

they have the power to get the public to focus on a certain issue

7

how do the mass media help shape political campaigns

it has made political campaigns more image conscious and less focused on complex policy debates

8

what is a medium

means of communication

9

(true/false) most of the information that americans have about politics comes from the mass media

true

10

(true/false) television replaced newspapers as the principal source of news in the united states during the 1930s

false

11

(true/false) in recent decades there has been a sharp decline in the number of daily newspapers published in the united states

true

12

which of the following sequences lists the major mass media from most impact to least

television, newspapers, radio, magazines

13

which of the following carried mostly political news in its early days

newspapers

14

the impact of the mass media on the public agenda can best be described as its ability to tell people

what issues to think about

15

what are the 6 factors that shape public opinion

1. family
2. schools
3. mass media
4. peer groups
5. opinion leaders
6. historic events

16

types of information communicated from family

values, how to behave, morals, religious ideologies

17

types of information communicated from the schools

how to get along with others, formal and informal ways of learning

18

types of information communicated from the mass media

politics, public polices; the media gives a platform for opinion leaders

19

types of information communicated from peer groups

reinforces one's opinions or creates one's opinions

20

types of information communicated from opinion leaders

communicate information that people can draw ideas form politics and social issues

21

types of information communicated from historic events

feelings on issues that arise out of events or experiences

22

what does it mean to say that "many publics exists exist in the united states"

many groups of people who weigh in on subjects

23

why are family and school particularly important in shaping people's political views

family and schools shape people who are most impressionable in childhood

24

(true/false) the views of different generations are formed in part by the different historical events that occurred during their lifetimes

true

25

(true/false) each group with a distinct point of view on an issue of public policy can be considered a separate public with regard to that matter

true

26

which two groups have the strongest impact on political socialization in the united states

the family

27

an opinion leader is a person

whose views have more weight than the average person's

28

what are public affairs

include politics, public issues, and the making of public politics - those events and issues that concern the people

29

what are mass media

include those means of communication that reach large, widely dispersed audiences (masses of people) simultaneously

30

what are interest groups

private organizations whose members share certain views and objectives and work to shape the making and the content of public policy

31

what are public opinion polls

devices that attempt to collect information by asking people questions

32

what are straw votes

polls that sought to read the public's mind simply by asking the same question of a large number of people

33

what are samples

a representative slice of the total universe

34

what are random samples

(probability sample) a sample in which each member of the universe and each geographic area within it have a mathematically equal chance of being included

35

what are quota samples

a sample deliberately constructed to reflect several of the major characteristics of a given universe

36

what is public agenda

the societal problems that the nation's political leaders and the general public agree need government attention

37

what are sound bites

snappy reports that can be aired in 30 or 45 seconds or so

38

what is public policy

includes all of the goals that a government pursues in the many areas of the human affairs in which it is involved. examples: seat belt laws, setting speed limits, zoning, planning for flood control, providing old age pensions and the use of military force in international affairs

39

what are the 6 valuable functions of interest groups

1. raise awareness in public affairs
2. represent members on basis of shared attitudes
3. interests provide info. to government
4. vehicles for political participation
5. add element to checks and balances
6. regularly compete with one another

40

what is trade association

segments of the business community that have their own interest groups

41

what is labor union

an organization of workers who share the same type of job of who work in the same industry

42

what is a public interest group

an interest group that seeks to institute certain public policies of benefit to all or most people in this country, whether of not they belong to of support that organization

43

what is propaganda

a technique of persuasion aimed at influencing individual or group behaviors. interest groups that try to create public attitudes they want by using propaganda

44

what is single interest group

a variety of PAC (political action committee) that concentrate their efforts on one issue - for example, gun control, abortion, health care

45

what is lobbying

those activities by which PAC organizations bring pressure to bear on all legislators and the legislative process

46

what are the 8 types of interest groups

1. business groups
2. labor groups
3. agricultural groups
4. professional groups
5. groups that promote causes
6. organizations that promote the welfare of certain groups
7. religious organizations
8. single interest groups

47

what are business groups

looked to government to promote and protect it interests (businesses in America)

examples: US Brewer's association and chamber pf commerce in MB

48

what are labor groups

organization of workers who share the same type of job or who work in the same industry

examples: AFL-CIO (the american fed. of labor - congress of industrial organizations) and retail clerks international union

49

what are agricultural groups

serves interests of farmers and farm workers

examples: national grange and national farmer's union

50

what are professional groups

occupations that require extensive and specialized training, such as medicine, law, and teaching

examples: the american medical association (AMA), american bar association (ABA - lawyers), national education association (NEA)

51

what are groups that promote causes

a large number of groups exist to promote a cause or an idea

examples: american civil liberties union (ACLU) and league of women voters

52

what are organizations that promote the welfare of certain groups

a number of interest groups seek to promote the welfare of certain segments of the population

examples: national association for advancement of colored people (NAACP)

53

what are religious organizations

influence public policy in places like churches

54

what are single interest group

a pack that concentrates on a single issue

55

what is a mandate

instructions of a constituency gives to its elected officials

56

what is an interest group

private organization whose members attempt to share public policy according to their shared view of an issue or issues

57

what is a straw vote

poll that asks a single question to a large, self selected group

58

what is a random sample

sample in which each member of the universe has a mathematically equal chance of being selected

59

what is a quota sample

a sample deliberately constructed to reflect several of the major characteristics of the universe being studied

60

the most accurate means of assessing public opinion is through

scientific polling techniques

61

universe is a term used to refer to

the entire group whose opinions a poll seeks to measure

62

which of the following is a constitutional deliberately erected as a means to block immediate legal changes based on public opinion

guarantees of civil rights and liberties, the doctrine of separation of powers, and the doctrine of checks and balances

63

which are the most important factors in political socialization

family and education

64

a popular movie star who speaks publicly about a political issue may become

an opinion leader

65

if you asked the same question about an upcoming election to many people, you would be conducting a

straw vote

66

the most accurate way to measure public opinion is by

scientific polling

67

which of the mass media has the most impact on american politics

television

68

how has television affected political campaigns

it has made candidates less dependent on political parties

69

the public agenda refers to

the public issues people think and talk about

70

an interest group is a private organization that forms to

promote the interests of its members

71

a positive activity of interest groups is to

get people interest in public affairs, provide information to government, join together people from different parts of the country

72

a single interest group

concentrates on electing or defeating candidates based on one issue

73

a political action committee's purpose is to

raise money for political candidates

74

lobbyist activities are

regulated by law

75

5 ideologies that form the political spectrum

1. radical
2. liberal
3. moderate
4. conservative
5. reactionary

76

5 conservative opinion leaders

1. rush limbaugh
2. bill o' reilly
3. sean hannity
4. megan kelly
5. laura ingram

77

5 liberal opinion leaders

1. oprah
2. michael moore
3. anderson cooper
4. Keith oberman
5. bill mahr

78

3 historic events in your lifetime that shaped public opinion

1. 9/11
2. stock market crash 2008
3. northridge earthquake

79

4 historic events in the 18th, 19th, or 20th century that helped shape public opinion

1. great depression
2. holocaust
3. civil rights movement
4. bombing of pearl harbor

80

5 measures of public opinion

1. elections
2. polls
3. interest groups
4. mass media
5. personal contacts

81

6 forms of mass media

1. billboards
2. television
3. radio
4. magazines
5. newspapers
6. internet

82

what is the difference between straw votes and scientific polling

straw votes are polls that sought to read the public's mind simply by asking the same question of a large number of people. scientific polling is the accuracy of the poll with random sampling and statistics

83

5 steps of the polling process

1. define the universe to be surveyed
2. construct a sample
3. prepare valid questions
4. select and control how the polls will be taken
5. analyze and report their findings to the public

84

what is political spectrum

a line or continuum that shows the range of political opinions that can exist in a society

85

what is ideology

a collection of political, social, and economic beliefs that reveal the type and amount of change a person or group wishes to see in society

86

what is radical

favors extreme and immediate change, willing to use violence, and believes change comes in a new society or system

87

what is liberal

favors progress and reform, works for reform within existing systems, looks to the future for an improve society

88

what is moderate

favors a nonviolent practical approach to solving society's problems, may be "liberal" or "conservative" in outlook depending on given issue

89

what is conservative

favors society as it is or a reform to what society was in the past, opposed to abrupt change, values tradition

90

what is reactionary

favors extreme and immediate change, is willing to use violence, believes that change comes in the form of a restoration of society as it once was