Chapter 5,6,7 Test Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5,6,7 Test Deck (188):
1

selecting candidates; the activity that sets political parties apart from other political groups

nominating

2

informing and activating supporters; inform people and activate their interests in public affairs; parties share this function with ______________ and __________ groups

media, interest

3

governing; helps _______ and executive branches work together; most appointments to executive branches are made on basis of ______, or allegiance to a political party

legislative; partisanship

4

____________; party that is ________________ criticizes the party that controls the government; the loyal opposition urges votes to _________

watchdog; out of power, throw the rascals out

5

all _________ can be defined as groups of persons who join together because they want to gain control of the government through winning elections

political parties

6

allegiance to a political party is known as __________

partisanship

7

in the united states, the major ____________ are the Democrats and the Republicans

parties

8

the party that controls the executive branch is known as

party in power

9

(true/false) the two major parties in the united states and election oriented rather than issue oriented

true

10

(true/false) most federal appointments to executive offices are made on a partisan basis

true

11

a political party is a group of persons who join together in order to

gain control of the government through the electoral process

12

broadly based parties like those in the united state tend to reduce and moderate

encouraging conflicting groups to agree to compromise solutions

13

5 roles/functions of political parties

1. nominating candidates for public office
2. inform/activate supporters
3. establish issues and set goals for government
4. to serve as watchdogs of the government/keep eye on other party
5. provide day to day leadership in government

14

what is consensus

general agreement

15

what is pluralistic society

culture composed of many distinct subgroups

16

the two party system in america goes back to the

ratification of the constitution

17

the statement that "americans are an ideologically homogeneous people" refers to the fact that

americans share basic political ideals

18

multiparty systems tend to produce

political instability

19

which of the following groups would be most likely to support the democratic party

people whose parents supported the democratic party

20

in the 1996 presidential election, president bill clinton was the (in the 2012 election, barack obama was the same)

incumbent

21

which of the following was supported by the democratic-republicans

polices designed to help farmers and planters

22

what are the names of the two major political parties in the united states

democrats and republicans

23

the smaller political parties are usually called __________ parties

third (minor/independent) parties

24

people who don't want to register as a member of a political party can register as

nonpartisan (independent)

25

name three things that activate party members do during a campaign to get votes for their candidate

1. make phone calls
2. knock on doors
3. film videos for friends
4. work to register voters
5. drive people to polling parties

26

what are the 4 minor parties

1. ideological parties
2. single issue parties
3. economic protest parties
4. splinter parties

27

what are ideological parties and list an example

based on a particular set of beliefs - a comprehensive view of social, economic, and political matters

examples: libertarian party

28

what are single issue parties and list an example

focus on only one public policy matter

examples: right to life party

29

what are economic protest parties and list 2 examples

they have proclaimed their disgust with the major parties and demanded better times, and have focused their anger on such real or imagined enemies as the monetary system, "wall street bankers," the railroads, or foreign imports

examples: the populist party and tea party

30

what are splinter parties and list an example

those trial have split away from one of the major parties

examples: "bull moose" progressive party of 1912 (t. roosevelt)

31

what tends to happen to single issue parties

fade away into history, themes fail to attract voters

32

which type of minor party has been the longest lived

ideological parties

33

what useful functions have minor parties performed in american history

national conventions; draw attention to problems ignored by major parties

34

(single issue party, economic protest party, or splinter party) the "free choice" party is formed by people intent on legalizing the use of marijuana for medical purposes

single issue party

35

(single issue party, economic protest party, or splinter party) a group of democrats, dissatisfied with the party's moderate nominee, decides to form a new "people's rights" party to back their more liberal leader, henry j smith

splinter party

36

(single issue party, economic protest party, or splinter party) a group of angry midwestern farmers and laborers forms the "working people's" party, calling for higher tariffs, higher farm subsidies, and congressional term limitations

economic protest party

37

(single issue party, economic protest party, or splinter party) the "socialist justice" party calls for a complete overhaul of the american political, economic, and legal systems

ideological party

38

(single issue party, economic protest party, or splinter party) the "equity" party works for an end to affirmative action programs

single issue party

39

libertarian party

ideological party

40

democratic party

major party

41

populist party

economic protest party

42

bull moose party

splinter party

43

prohibition party

single issue party

44

the free soil party, the "know nothing" party, and the right to life party are all examples of

single issue parties

45

which of the following is a TRUE statement about splinter parties

most of the important minor parties in the nation's history have been splinter parties

46

unlike major parties, minor parties

take clear cut stands on controversial issues

47

what is a political party

a group of persons who seek to control government through the winning of elections and the holding of public office

48

what are major parties

includes republican and democratic party (since 1884)

49

what is party in power

the party that controls the executive branch of government - the presidency at the national level of the governorship at the state level

50

what is plurality

the largest number of votes cast for the office, election includes 2 or more people

51

what is bipartisan

two major parties find common ground and work together

52

what is pluralistic society

one consisting of several distinct cultures and groups

53

what is consensus

a general agreement among various groups - on fundamental matters

54

what is multiparty

a system in which several major and many lesser parties exit, seriously competing for, and actually win, public offices

55

what is an incumbent

current officeholder

56

what is an electorate

people eligible to vote

57

what are ideological parties

those based on a particular set of beliefs - a comprehensive view of social, economic, and political matters

58

what are single issue parties

focus on only one public-policy matter

59

what are economic protest parties

have been rooted in periods of economic discontent

60

what are splinter parties

those that have split away from one of the major parties

61

what is party out of party

party that doesn't control the executive branch

62

constitution 1789

white male property owners over 21

63

constitution 1850 (dropped religious and property qualifications)

almost all adult white males

64

constitution 1870 (15th amendment)

adult males including african males

65

constitution 1920 (19th amendment)

women given the right to vote

66

constitution 1971 (26th amendment)

include 18,19,20 year old meant and women

67

during the last 200 years, americans have broader the right to vote by eliminating barriers based on ________ belief, ____________ ownership, _____________ payment, race, and ______________

religious, property, tax, sex

68

the right to vote

franchise and suffrage

69

the potential voting population

electorate

70

(true/false) in the first decades after ratification of the constitution, some states denied voting rights to people based on their religious beliefs

true

71

(true/false) the 23rd amendment allowed residents of the district of columbia to vote in presidential elections

true

72

the fifth and latest expansion of the american electorate came in 1971 when suffrage was extended to

persons 18 and above

73

under the constitution, the power to set suffrage qualifications belongs to

the states

74

the voting rights act of 1965 was an effort to ensure voting rights for

african americans

75

who can vote today

eighteen, citizen, resident of state, and registered

76

groups of citizens who could vote in 1800

white men over 21 who owned property

77

what is an electorate

the body of persons entitled to vote in an election

78

what is ratified

to approve

79

what is poll tax

a fee paid to vote

80

14th amendment

white men who don't own property

81

15th amendment

black men over 21

82

19th amendment

women

83

23rd amendment

residents of washington dc

84

26th amendment

18 to 20 year olds

85

what are the two reasons that states adopted residency requirements

1. to prevent the importing of enough people to fix the outcome of an election
2. to ensure that voters have time to inform themselves about candidates and issues

86

what is the oldest minimum age a state can set for voters

18

87

what kinds of information are voters usually asked to give when they register to vote

name, age, place of birth, present address, length of residence

88

why were literacy tests abolished

they were used to discriminate against people based on their race

89

in what region of the country was the poll tax once used? why was it abolished?

in the south; because it was used to discourage african americans from voting

90

what groups of persons are widely barred from voting

people in mental hospitals, those who are legally found to be mentally incompetent, and those conceited of serious crimes

91

__________ is the ability to read or write

literacy

92

_________ was a sum of money that had to be paid by the voter at the time he or she cast a ballot

poll tax

93

election officials are regularly supposed to _______ their ________ of the names of those who no longer meet voting requirements

purge, poll books

94

what is registration

procedure of voter identification

95

what is literacy

ability to read or write

96

what is transient

person who lives in a state for a short time

97

what are poll books

list of a precinct's registered voters

98

what is purge

remove from a list of legal voters

99

no states allows ___ to vote

mentally incompetent persons

100

the youngest age at which qualified citizens are allowed to vote in primary elections is

17

101

voter registration laws have been criticized in recent years for

discouraging poor and uneducated persons from voting

102

literacy tests were banned by ____ because they were ____

congress; used to discriminate against african americans

103

the _______ was ratified in 1870. it states that no citizen can be denied suffrage on the basis of ____, color, or previous condition of ______

15th amendment, race, servitude

104

the _________ forbade discriminatory _________ requirements

civil rights act of 1964, registration or literacy

105

the ___________ attacked the use of the __ tax and _____ tests

voting rights act of 1965, poll, literacy

106

in 1975 the law was extended to cover states and counties in which more than 5% of the adult population belongs to the following groups

hispanics, asian americans, native americans, inactive americans

107

(true/false) today ballots must be printed in a second language in areas where language minorities make up more than 5% of the population

true

108

the law that made the 15th amendment a truly effective part of the constitution was the

voting rights act of 1965

109

the law that outlawed discrimination in job related matters and banned the discriminatory use of registration requirements was the

civil rights act of 1964

110

(true/false) about 75% of those eligible to vote did so in the 2000 presidential election

false

111

(true/false) the "time zone fallout" problem has to do with the fact that polls on the eastern seaboard often close before most people leave work in the evening

false

112

(true/false) independents are people who have strong party affiliation

false

113

(true/false) this process by which people gain their political attitudes and opinions is known as political socialization

true

114

the largest of the following groups that cannot vote is

resident aliens

115

which of the following persons is most likely to vote

a 48 year old college professor in chicago

116

in the long term, ____ account(s) for how an individual votes most of the time, but in a given election, _____ may be more important

party identification, candidates and issues

117

what is registration

the process of officially filling out the paperwork and signing up to vote. (procedure of voter identification intended to prevent fraudulent voting)

118

what is purging (the voter registration records)

the removal of registered voters that are no longer eligible to vote, should happen every 2-4 years in order to remove those who have moved, died, or is convicted of a felony and sent to prison

119

what are poll books

the official lists of qualified voters in each precinct

120

what is off year election

the elections that take place in even numbered years between presidential when congressional elections take place (2014, 2018 off year)

121

what is political socialization

the process by which people gain their political attitudes and opinions

122

what is party identification

the loyalty of people to a particular political party (party identification is the single most significant predictor of how a person will vote)

123

what is straight ticket voting

the practice of voting for candidates of only one party in an election

124

what is split ticket voting

the practice of voting for candidates of more than one party in an election (cross over voting)

125

what is an independent

a term regularly used to identify those people who have no party affiliation

126

what is political action committees (PACs)

the political arms of special interest groups

127

what are subsidies

grants of money from federal and/or state treasuries

128

what is soft money

money given to state and local party organizations for such "party building activities" as voter registration or party mailings and advertisements; money given to state and local organizations for voting related activities

129

what is hard money

money that is subject to reporting requirements and amount limits; campaign money that is subject to regulations by the FEC

130

the nominating process

narrows the field of possible candidates for an election

131

voters select government officials during the

general election

132

in a closed primary

generally only registered party members may vote (CA is a closed primary)

133

the election process is largely governed by

state law

134

congress has set the day for national elections as

the tuesday after the first monday in november in even numbered years

135

the place at which voters actually vote is a

polling place

136

an australian ballot

is printed at the public's expense, lists the names of all candidates, and is given out only at the polls

137

which of the following is an example of soft money

money given to a major party for a television ad about the party's goals

138

self announcement

a candidate files paperwork officially with the intent of running for office; candidate themselves or friend notifies the public

139

convention

elected delegates select party's nominees

140

direct primary

party members vote for candidates from their party on a ballot that has both parties

141

closed primary

only declared parties members can only vote for candidates of their own party

142

open primary

qualified voters in/out of a party can vote

143

why is the nominating process particularly important in a two party system

narrows person's choices from 17 to 1

144

(true/false) nomination means the naming of candidates who will seek office

true

145

(true/false) in a nonpartisan election, candidates are not identified by party

true

146

what is nomination

naming of candidates for office

147

what is caucus

like minded group that meets to select candidates for office

148

what is blanket primary

primary in which a voter may vote to nominate a candidate from either party

149

what is open primary

primary in which any qualified voter can take part

150

what is closed primary

primary in which a voter may vote only for those candidates within the party of which he or she is a member

151

write in candidates use the nominating process of

self announcement

152

the most recently developed method of selecting candidates for office is

the direct primary

153

national convention (term or when it takes place)

every 4th year in presidential election

154

national convention (role)

to nominate the party's presidential and vice presidential candidates, adoption of party s rules and the writing of its platform

155

national committee (role)

handles party's affairs, staging party's national convention, and prepares next national convention

156

national chairperson (term or when it takes place)

4 year term

157

congressional campaign (term and when it takes place)

2 year term

158

congressional campaign (role)

reelect incumbents, makes sure that seats given up by retiring party members remain in the party unseat incumbents of any party

159

the party out of power operates at a disadvantage because it has no leader comparable to

president

160

in recent years, there has been a sharp rise in the number of voters who identify themselves as

independents

161

what is ward

a unit into which cities are often divided for the election of city council members

162

what is precinct

smallest unit of election administration; voters in each report to 1 polling place

163

what is split ticket voting

voting for candidates of different parties for different offices at the same election

164

(true/false) split ticket voting has increased in recent decades

true

165

(true/false) wards are the units into which states are divided for the election of congressional representatives

false

166

(true/false) in recent decades, there has been a sharp increase in the number of voters who regard themselves as independents

true

167

the automatic leader of the party in power is the

president

168

between elections, the affairs of both major parties are handled by each party's

national committee

169

Main Idea A

candidates spend a great deal of money on political campaigns

170

main idea A (2 examples)

- the presidential election eats up by far the largest share of campaign dollars
- television accounts for the largest share of spending, with other money spent on etc

171

main idea B

private donors come in many different shapes and sizes

172

main idea B (2 examples)

- non party groups, such as PACs and temporary fund raising groups
- temporary organizations formed for the specific campaign

173

main idea C

laws that the federal election commission (FEC) enforces cover four areas

174

main idea C (2 examples)

- limits on campaign contributions
- limits on campaign expenditures

175

main idea D (there are three major loopholes in campaign finance laws) (2 examples)

- soft money contributions can easily be filtered into presidential and congressional campaigns
- campaign money can be spent on issue ads that plug a candidates viewpoint without mentioning the candidates name

176

(true/false) by far the largest sum spent in political campaigns goes to buying television time

true

177

(true/false) neither corporations nor labor unions are allowed to make direct contributions to candidates for federal office

true

178

(true/false) soft money operates as a loophole in election laws because it is given to political parties rather than to political candidates

true

179

most of the money used in political campaigns comes from

large donations by private givers

180

political action committees (PACs) are

special interest groups that have a major stake in public policy

181

list 3 reasons why do many citizens choose not to exercise their right to vote

- citizens do not care
- they do not feel represented by any candidate or party
- citizens believe their vote doesn't count

182

the right to vote is also known as

suffrage

183

4 voting requirements in california

1. US citizen
2. resident of california
3. 18 years or older on election day
4. not currently imprisoned or on parole or mentally incompetent

184

3 reasons why some groups were denied the right to vote

1. had mental illness
2. currently imprisoned
3. on parole

185

voters should be well-___________ of the issues and candidates before the vote

informed

186

6 sources you could use to gather information to decide how you will vote

1. internet (candidate's website)
2. social media
3. mail
4. speeches
5. debates
6. books

187

pick 2 sources and explain why you consider those sources reliable

I consider the speeches and candidate's website 2 sources that are reliable. for one, the speeches serve as information coming directly from the candidate and their websites is a platform that informs people on what they stand for

188

national chairperson (role)

directs work of the party's headquarters and its small staff in washington, strengthen party and its fortunes leader of national committee