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Flashcards in Constitutional Convention Deck (122):
1

articles of confederation (year written)

1781

2

articles of confederation (main author)

ben franklin

3

articles of confederation (nation name)

usa

4

articles of confederation (organization)

confederation

5

articles of confederation (government type)

republic

6

articles of confederation (judicial)

no judicial

7

articles of confederation (executive)

no executive

8

articles of confederation (legislative)

unicameral

9

articles of confederation (name)

congress

10

articles of confederation (law approval)

9/13 states

11

articles of confederation (amendments)

13

12

articles of confederation (representation)

1 vote (equal)

13

articles of confederation (commerce)

federal government (difficulty)

14

articles of confederation (currency)

state and federal currency

15

articles of confederation (taxes)

federal government asked but states refused

16

articles of confederation (sovereignty)

states

17

articles of confederation (supporters)

anti-federalists/states rights advocates

18

constitution (year written)

1787

19

constitution (main author)

james madison

20

constitution (nation name)

usa

21

constitution (organization)

union of all states

22

constitution (government type)

republic

23

constitution (judicial)

supreme court

24

constitution (executive)

president

25

constitution (legislative)

bicameral

26

constitution (name)

congress (house of representatives and senate)

27

constitution (law approval)

2 house vote

28

constitution (amendments)

2/3 vote of both houses/3/4 vote of state legislature

29

constitution (representation)

senate: equal representation; HOR: population

30

constitution (commerce)

congress

31

constitution (currency)

federal government

32

constitution (taxes)

congress can levy taxes

33

constitution (sovereignty)

federal government

34

constitution (supporters)

federalists

35

6 problems under the articles of confederation

1. unicameral congress - each state had one vote
2. there was no executive branch
3. there was no common currency
4. each colony was selfish
5. there was no federal supreme court
6. each colony was claiming land west of the Appalachians

36

the constitutional convention took place in ___________

philadelphia

37

what is compromise

each side in a dispute has to give up a little in order to forge an agreement among the disagreeing parties

38

what is the new jersey plan

(william patterson) proposed that there should be equal representation in congress

39

what is the virginia plan

(edmund randolph) proposed that representation in congress be based on population

40

what is the connecticut compromise

(aka great compromise) a bicameral (two house legislature) would be formed

41

north - ___________ in population. slaves can count OR only if __________ paid for them

slaves should not count, taxes

42

south - _________ in population

slaves should count

43

what is the 3/5 compromise

in the population count, each slave would count as 3/5 of a person. (this meant 5 "other" persons would = 3 free white citizens)

44

what did the north (federalists) want

they wanted the federal government to have ultimate power or say. this later formed the federalist party

45

what did the south (states rights) want

wanted the states to maintain governmental power. (like things were under the articles of confederation). later formed the democratic party and later the democratic/republican party

46

what is the commerce and slave trade compromise

congress could not stop the slave trade until 1808

47

how will the president be chosen

the founding fathers set up at the constitutional convention the electoral college

48

what was the compromise for the president's term

the executive would serve 4 year terms with no term limits. (the first president george washington served for 8 years)

49

many other decisions [about the president's term] were made during the long ___________

constitutional convention

50

what is the virginia plan

madison's plan for a national government with greatly expanded powers

51

what is the new jersey plan

paterson's plan for a national government, which greatly resembled the articles of confederation

52

what is the connecticut compromise

a combination of virginia and new jersey plans

53

what is the three fifths compromise

a plan to satisfy southerners' desire to inflate the population count of their states

54

what is the commerce and slave trade compromise

a plan to satisfy southern fears that the federal government might be funded through export duties

55

although the constitution is often called a "bundle of compromises," nearly all of the delegates were dedicated to the concept of

popular sovereignty, separation of powers, and checks and balances

56

to whom did the three-fifths compromise refer

enslaved people

57

which of the following was NOT a major source of ideas for the constitution

spanish colonial law

58

what is alexander hamilton's plan

alexander hamilton of new york presented a 3rd plan that was modeled on the british government, which he admired

59

what are the 7 articles (1787)

article I. establishment of legislative branch (law making)
article II. establishment of executive branch (enforce laws)
article III. establishment of judicial branch (interpret laws)
article IV. relationship between states
article V. amendment process
article VI. declaration of constitutional supremacy
article VII. ratification (formal approval) of constitution

60

what was the purpose of amendments

make the constitution a "living document"; so that the document can grow and change overtime just as the nation would grow and change

61

what is the bill of rights (1791)

first ten amendments modeled after the english bill of rights - the goals of listing freedoms and natural rights of citizens

62

what are amendments (1791-present)

continuation of constitutional changes that have occurred between 1791-present

63

legislative (federal level)

congress

64

legislative (state level)

CA state legislature (state assembly and senate)

65

legislative (local level)

city council

66

executive (federal level)

president

67

executive (state level)

governor

68

executive (local level)

mayor or city manager

69

judicial (federal level)

US supreme court

70

judicial (state level)

california supreme court

71

judicial (local level)

LA county municipal courthouse (in Inglewood)

72

the power to _________ is given to a ________ made up of two chambers to represent different interests: a ___________ to represent the states; a ___________ to be more responsive to the people's will

make laws, legislature, upper house (senate), lower house (HOR)

73

which states favored the new jersey plan

small population states

74

representation based on population was which plan

virginia

75

what was the last name of the man proposing the great compromise

sherman

76

which plan suggested equal representation

new jersey

77

which legislative body has an equal number of representatives

senate

78

which man proposed the virginia plan

edmund randolph

79

which man proposed the new jersey plan

william paterson

80

why were the southern states willing to count every slave

more people = more representation = more power in congress

81

why did the north want every slave to be counted

so that there would be more taxation

82

explain how the 3/5 compromise worked

the debate was over whether slaves would be counted when determining a state's total population for legislative representation and tax purposes. the number would then be used to determine the number of seats that a state would have in the HOR. the effect was to give the southern states a third more seats in congress and a third more electoral votes than slaves had been ignored

83

do you think the 3/5 compromise worked

no it was not fair because i believe that the slaves were 100% people and slaves were as good as anyone else and the government should count them as human beings

84

what city selected as the site of the constitutional convention

philadelphia

85

who was chosen to preside over the convention meetings

george washington

86

debates occurred over _________ in congress

representation

87

edmund randolph's ___________ plan favored large states

virginia plan

88

william paterson's new jersey plan favored _______ states

smaller population

89

what plan favored representation based on population

virginia plan

90

what plan favored equal representation

new jersey plan

91

what compromise settled the issue of representation

great compromise/connecticut plan

92

this compromise settle the conflict between ___ and _____ states

large population and small population

93

one compromise dealt with electing the president. what body was formed to choose the nation's leader

electoral college

94

what compromise established a method for cutting slaves

3/5 compromise

95

one compromise resulted in the decision that the president would serve __ year terms in office

4 years

96

if the total number of slaves in the south was 20,000 how many would be counted in the population

12,000 votes

97

if the total number of slaves in the south was 39,500 how many would count in the population

23,700 votes

98

a representative government _________

serves the people

99

the first national government for the united states was

the second continental congress

100

which of the following was a plan of government for the states during the war of independence

the articles of confederation

101

the connecticut compromise called for a legislature

made up of two houses. in the smaller house all states would be represented equally; in the larger house, representation would be decided by population

102

what were the positions of the federalists toward ratification

favored ratification/constitution

103

what were the positions of the anti-federalists toward ratification

opposed ratification/constitution

104

who became the new nation's first president

george washington

105

james madison was a ________

federalist

106

3 issues involved in the ratification debate

1. absence of words slavery and god
2. bill of rights
3. number of states to ratify

107

(true/false) the absence of a bill of rights was cause for many people to oppose ratification of the constitution

true

108

(true/false) most opponents of ratification believed the new constitution gave too little power to the national government

false

109

which of the following was NOT an objection to the new constitution

the constitution did not incorporate principles of natural law

110

what was the significance of the Federalist's papers

it was a convincing commentary on the meaning of the constitution

111

which of the following are rights the constitution explicitly guaranteed during the ratification process

no freedom of speech, press, or religion (no bill of rights)

112

the idea that government and its officers are always subject to-never above- the law is described as the ______

rule of law

113

the principle of ______ expresses the concept that government must be conducted according to constitutional principles

constitutionalism

114

judicial review is the power to declare a government action that violates some provision of the constitution to be _______

unconstitutionalism

115

the _______ is the brief introduction that begins the constitution

preamble

116

what is judicial review

the power of the courts to decide whether the government acts are constitutional

117

what is unconstitutional

illegal; null and void; of no force and effect

118

what is federalism

the division of power between a central government and several regional governments

119

what is separation of powers

a governmental system having basic political powers distributed among three distinct and independent branches

120

which of the following principles holds that government may do only those things that the people have given it power to do

limited government

121

the principle of popular sovereignty means that

people are the only source for governmental power

122

which of the following constitutional principles was devised as a compromise between a powerful central government and a loose confederation of states

federalism