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Flashcards in Chapter 2-1 and 2-2 Deck (102):
1

the earliest English settlers brought them knowledge of a political system that had been developing for centuries in England. What did it establish?

laws, customs, practices, and constitutions

2

what is ordered government

orderly regulation of their relationships with one another (government)

3

what is a representative government

the idea that government should serve the will of the people

4

what is a limited government

the idea that government is not all powerful

5

what is the magna carta (1215)

a document written in 1215 that introduced the rights of trial by jury and due process of law.

6

what is petition of right (1628)

limited the king's power in several ways. the document demanded that the king no longer imprison or otherwise punish any person but by lawful judgments of his peers, or by the law of the land. also insisted that the king not impose marital law on people

7

list 4 key elements of the english bill of rights

1. right to a fair trial
2. freedom from excessive bail
3. free from cruel and unusual punishment
4. free elections

8

what are royal colonies and list an example

were subject to the direct control of the crown. has bicameral legislature

includes New Hampshire, Massachusetts, NY, New Jersey, VA, N. Carolina, S. Carolina, and Georgia.

9

what are proprietary colonies and list an example

organized by a proprietor, a person to whom the king had made to control land. has unicameral body

includes Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware

10

what are charter colonies and list an example

governors are elected each year by white, male proprietary owners. charters were also called self governing colonies

includes Connecticut and Rhode Island

11

what is the difference between bicameral and unicameral legislature

bicameral consists of two houses, as in legislature while unicameral consists of one house, as in a legislature

12

the shape of american government is based on the english political idea of

ordered government, representative government, and limited government (all of the above)

13

Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware were

proprietary colonies

14

which of the following was a characteristic of the royal colonies

the governors and their council shared the power to tax and spend

15

the colonies were settled for all of the following reasons except

to provide a homeland for native americans

16

what is an act

law

17

what is boycott

refusal to buy

18

what is duty

tax on imported goods

19

what is embargo

ban on trade

20

what is intolerable

unacceptable, unbearable

21

what is liberty

freedom, independence

22

what are mercenaries

hired soldiers

23

what is a militia

everyday citizens who are trained as soldiers

24

what are minute men

colonial militia in Boston

25

what is levy

a tax; to tax

26

what is revenue

government funding that comes from taxes

27

what is tyranny

oppression

28

what are hessians

german mercenaries

29

what is a loyalist/tory

(conservative) against the war, maintain allegiance to britain

30

what is a neutralist

didn't choose a side

31

what is a patriot/rebel

(liberal, extremists) in favor of the war

32

what are redcoats

british soldiers (lobster backs)

33

what are sons of liberty

radical patriot group from boston

34

what is the sugar act (1764)

a tax on sugar and molasses

not just to regulate trade but to produce revenue for Britain. smugglers would be tried in admiralty courts without juries

35

what is the stamp act (1765)

a tax on all printed materials

Englishman isaac barre warned his fellow parliamentarians "americans are sons of liberty and won't surrender their rights without a fight."

36

what are the townshend acts (1764)

a tax on led, glass, paper, tea, and paint

37

what is the quartering act (1765)

a law that forced the colonists to house british soldiers in their private homes

38

what is the tea act (1764)

a tax on tea and made British East India company a monopoly

39

what are the intolerable acts (1773)

5 laws enacted against Boston as a punishment for Boston Tea party

40

what is the albany plan of union (1754)

early plan of governing colonies that was presented by Ben Franklin

41

what is the french and indian war (1756-1763)

(7 years war) war between France and native americans and england and native americans

42

what is the treaty of paris of 1763

treaty that ended french and indian war

43

what is the boston tea party (1773)

colonists dumped tea into harbor in protest of tea act (dressed as indians)

44

what is the boston massacre (1770)

altercation between red coats and colonists in which british opened fire and 5 colonists were killed

45

what is the first continental congress (1774)

first time colonists came together. each colony should form a militia

46

what is common sense (1775)

pro war pamphlet written by thomas paine

47

what is the second continental congress (1775)

washington was commander in chief. prepared for war

48

what is shot heard around the world (1775)

first shot fired in war at lexington, MA

49

what is the battle of concord (1775)

first official battle of revolution

50

what is the declaration of independence (1776)

july 4, 1776 - declared independence from britain

51

what is the battle of yorktown (1781)

place where cornwallis surrendered to bring end to revolution

52

what is the treaty of paris 1783

treaty that ended the american revolution

53

what printed materials are taxed prior the revolution

newspapers, bibles, playing cards, birth certificates

54

who said the british were coming

paul revere

55

where was the shot heard around the world

lexington

56

what does the rebel flag look like

13 stars and red and white stripes

57

where did the soldiers seize arsenal

concord

58

where did the soldiers chase the redcoats back to

boston

59

what did the shot heard around the world signify

beginning of the american revolution

60

who was the colonel at bunker hill

colonel prescott

61

who were the colonists' allies

spain and france

62

what did spain and france do

loaned them ships and guns

63

what happened at yorktown

british could not retreat and cornwallis surrendered

64

what are the 8 causes of the american revolution

1. england's neglect of the colonies
2. taxation without representation
3. limitation of individuals rights
4. taxation
5. mercantilism
6. trade restrictions
7. free enterprise
8. economic power

65

what is the declaratory act?

passed this act after stamp act was repealed. parliament could make laws binding colonies "in all cases whatsoever."

66

know map of 13 british colonies

- need to know Mississippi River, Ohio River, and St. Lawrence River
- 5 lakes, Atlantic ocean, gulf of Mexico
- 13 colonies (new england, middle, and southern)

67

2 advantages held by France

1. the French had built a strong network of forts from Quebec, along the St. Lawrence River, the Great Lakes, and the Mississippi
2. the French enlisted the support of many powerful Indian tribes. the Hurons, in particular, were strongly allied to the French

68

2 advantages held by England

1. the English had a much larger population in America than the French and the people were much closer together
2. The English had a great many material resources (food, weapons, etc.) readily available in the colonies

69

What are the four provisions of the Treaty of Paris of 1763?

1. England received Canada and all French territory east of the Mississippi River
2. France was allowed to keep two small islands off the coast of Newfoundland as bases of her fishing fleets
3. By secret treaty France had ceded the Louisiana Purchase to Spain
4. Spain ceded Florida to England in return for the island of Cuba

70

what happened at the second continental congress

(1774-1775) the british government continued to refuse compromise. it reacted to declaration of rights as it had other expressions of colonial discontent. this is where they established the american military force and established george washington as commander in chief.

71

describe "taxation without representation"

they objected the taxes imposed on them and they believed they had no representation on american soil to protect their individual rights

72

define confederation

a joining of several groups for a common purpose

73

define delegates

representatives that have the power to raise military, make war and peace, trade, and collect custom duties

74

define repealed

withdrawn or canceled

75

list and briefly describe the 4 common features of state constitution

1. popular sovereignty - government can exist and function only with the consent of the governed
2. limited government - power delegated to government were granted reluctantly and had many restrictions
3. civil rights and liberties - hold alienable rights by the people
4. separation of powers and checks and balances - executive, legislative, and judicial restrain actions of other branches in government

76

true or false: self government in the early days of the colonies was made possible by the great distance between north america and england

true

77

who created the albany plan of the union

benjamin franklin

78

true or false: the colonists' unhappiness with taxation without representation, expressed in the declaration of rights, came as a surprise to the british king

false

79

which of the following served as the first national government of the US

second continental congress

80

which of the following was NOT an example of early colonial attempts at unity

the french and indian war

81

who wrote the declaration of independence

thomas jefferson

82

which of the following defines the principle of popular sovereignty

government exists and functions only with the consent of the governed; people hold political power

83

who sailed to america in 1620

pilgrims

84

what ship did the pilgrims sail on

mayflower

85

where did the pilgrims land

plymouth rock

86

were the pilgrims still loyal to the king

at this point, the pilgrims were missing their mother england and they swore their loyalty till the very end

87

who was the king during this time

george III

88

what did the king do to the colonists

he taxed their property and did not give them a choice or voice (taxation without representation)

89

what were the french planning on taking over

Great Lakes region

90

what is the large french fort at the present day site of Pittsburgh, PA

Fort Duquesne

91

what english fort did george washington establish near fort duquesne

fort necessity

92

who was the general who led the battle at fort duquesne

edward braddock

93

who took over England's war effort in 1757

william pitt

94

what happened in 1643

the MA bay, plymouth, new haven, and connecticut settlements formed the new england confederation; formed "league of friendship"

95

what happened in 1765

stamp act congress met to prepare protest - declaration of rights and grievances *first time colonies joined to opposed government

96

what happened on march 5, 1770

boston massacre

97

what happened on december 16, 1773

boston tea party

98

what happened on september 5, 1774

delegates met in philadelphia for first continental congress meeting to discuss worsening situation with england

99

what happened on april 19, 1775

lexington and concord (first battle of revolutionary war) took place

100

what happened on july 4, 1776

declaration of independence was adopted - proclaiming US as an independent nation

101

what happened in 1754

ben franklin proposed the albany plan of union. this was an early plan for government but was rejected

102

colonists pre-revolutionary war beliefs

left - rebel (patriots)
middle - neutralist
right - loyalist