Chapters 10, 11, and 12 Test Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapters 10, 11, and 12 Test Deck (236):
1

each term of congress starts on _________ of odd numbered years and lasts for ___ years

january 3, 2

2

each term of congress is divided into two _____, or meetings

sessions

3

congressional sessions often last from after christmas (january) to ____________

november or next xmas holiday

4

congress remains in session until its members vote to ________

adjourn

5

house membership = _______ members that serve _____ terms

435, 2 year

6

senate membership = __________ members that serve ____ terms

100, 6 year

7

census - ________________ that occurs every ____ years

official count of population, 10

8

what is reapportionment

the act of redistributing the 435 representative seats every 10 years after the census

9

_________ occurs every 10 years, after the completion of census

reapportionment

10

re-districting - the process of ____________

realigning the districts after the reapportionment takes place

11

historically, legislatures have abused their power when re-districting...why?

in order to gain advantage for their party. this is called gerrymandering

12

what is gerrymandering

the political party controlling the state government draws a district's boundaries to GAIN AN ADVANTAGE in elections

13

what is packing

drawing the lines so one's district includes as many of the opposing party's voters as possible

14

what is cracking

dividing an opponent's voters into other districts

15

most members of congress are knowledgable at _________/_________

business, law

16

other __________ member include law, agriculture, education, public service, etc

occupations of congress

17

_________ - one who is already in a public office

incumbents

18

PACs = ___________

political actions committees

19

4 reasons why incumbents are often reelected

1. easy to raise campaign funds
2. district has been gerrymandered in their party's favor
3. have name recognition
4. use their position in office to solve problems for their constituents

20

how long is a term in the house of representatives

2 years

21

the number of house members representing each state is recalculated every

10 years

22

when congress adjourns, it

ends a session

23

what does it mean to reapportion seats in the house of representatives

the number of house seats for each state is changed based on population changes

24

a house district drawn to give an advantage one political party is

a gerrymander

25

how many senators are up for reelection every two years

one third

26

because a majority of senators are always experienced, the senate is said to be

a continuous body

27

a member of congress who votes based on the wishes of his or her constituents operates in which of the following roles

delegate

28

to run for senate, a person must be at least how old

30

29

what is the historical reason for americans choosing a bicameral system

the british parliament and most colonial legislatures were bicameral

30

what is a practical reason for americans choosing a bicameral system

bicameralism settled the conflict between the virginia and new jersey plans of 1787 and reflected american federalism

31

what is a term of congress

the length of time elected officials served after being elected (every 2 years)

32

what is a session of congress

the regular period of time during which congress performs legislative work

33

how many sessions are there in a term of congress

two

34

(true/false) a term is a length of time between elections in congress

true

35

why is congress at the heart of the most basic governmental function of our democratic system

because congress makes the nation's laws

36

which of the following is NOT a reason why the constitution established a bicameral legislature

many countries have bicameral legislatures

37

which of the following is the main reason that the president rarely has to call congress into special session

congress now meets nearly year round anyway

38

the house (size)

435

39

the senate (size)

100

40

the house (term length)

2 years

41

the senate (term length)

6 years

42

the house (date of elections)

tuesday following the first monday in november of each even numbered year

43

the senate (date of elections)

tuesday following the first monday in november of each even numbered year

44

the house (age)

at least 25 years

45

the senate (age)

30 years

46

the house (residence)

inhabitant of the state

47

the senate (residence)

inhabitant of the state

48

the house (originally)

by voters in district (direct election)

49

the senate (originally)

appointed by state legislature

50

the house (today)

by voters in district

51

the senate (today)

direct election

52

the senate is a _____________, that is, all of its seats are never up for election at the same time

continuous body

53

(true/false) a senator is required to meet the same requirements for office as a member of the house

false

54

(true/false) like the house, all the senate seats are up for election at the same time

false

55

(true/false) if a new state joins the nation, the total number of senators in the senate will remain the same

false

56

(true/false) the words continuous body, as applied to the senate, mean that all of its seats are never up for election at the same time

true

57

why is the senate called the upper house

it has stricter qualifications than the house, more prestige, a longer term of office, and has been a stepping stone to higher political office

58

why do members of the senate serve 6 years, whereas members of the house serve only 2

senators should not be as concerned with the pressures of election campaigns, so that they can focus on the "big picture" of government

59

before the adoption of the 17th amendment in 1913, who chose senators

state legislatures

60

legislator: what does a legislator do?

make laws

61

committee member: what do members do as part of the congressional committee

screen proposals that are referring to the committee in a chamber

62

trustee: how does a member of congress act as a trustee

call all issues a they see them

63

delegate: how does a member of congress act as a delegate

chooses solutions based on the agents of those who elected them

64

partisan: how does a member of congress act as a partisan

duty bound to cast votes in line with party platform and views of party leaders

65

politico: how does a member of congress act as a politico

attempt to combine basic elements of the trustee, delegate, and partisan roles. balancing conflicting factors

66

list5/6 roles of a congress person

1. legislator
2. committee member
3. trustee
4. delegate
5. partisan
6. politico

67

non salary compensation: what are some fringe benefits for members of congress

tax deductions, travel allowance, lo cost health insurance, pension plan, money for offices and staffs, franking privilege

68

what is constituency

a body of voters in a specified are who elect a representative to a legislative body

69

what is oversight function

the process by which congress, through its committees, checks to see that the various agencies in the executive branch are working effectively and acting in line with the policies that congress has set by law

70

what is franking privilege

benefit to members of congress, allowing them to mail letters postage free

71

what is oversight function

job of checking to see if agencies in the executive branch are working efficiently and according to law

72

what is trustee

congress member who decides issues on merit alone

73

what is partisan

role of a member of congress as a follower of party leadership

74

what is politico

congress member who balances conflicting factors

75

which of the following is NOT a duty of a member of congress

to run a department of the executive branch

76

all of the following are non salary compensation for members of congress EXCEPT

free lunches

77

which of the following places a limit on the level of congressional pay

voter backlash

78

why does the constitution guarantee that the courts may not prosecute members of congress, no matter what they say in the house or senate

freedom of speech is vital to legislative debate

79

what is term

a two year period of time during which congress meets each term lasts for two years and is numbered consecutively (currently the 114th congress of the us)

80

what is session

a one year period of time during which congress assembles and conducts business; there are two sessions to each term of congress - one each year

81

what is adjourn

to suspend (by congress) until the next session

82

what is prorogue

to end; discontinue (a session of congress); this is a power of the president - but only when the two houses cannot agree on a date for adjournment

83

what is special session

a meeting to deal with some emergency situation (only the president may call special session of congress)

84

what is apportion

to distribute; the act of distributing house seats among the states (each state is guaranteed at least one seat in the house no matter how small its population)

85

what is reapportion

to redistribute; the act of redistributing the 435 representative seats among the 50 states (each 10 years after the census)

86

what is off year election

those congressional election years that occur in nonresidential years ex) 2006-2010-2014-2018

87

what is gerrymander

drawing the redistricting lines to the advantage of the political party that controls the state legislature

88

what is continuous body

all of the senate's seats are never up for election at the same time; in 2010 - 34 seats; in 2012 - 33 seats; in 2014 - 33 seats

89

what is trustee

members of congress who believe that each question they face must be decided on its merits; conscience and independent judgment are their guides; they call issues as they see them, regardless of the views held by their constituents or by any of the other groups that seek to influence their decisions

90

what are partisans

lawmakers who owe their first allegiance to their political party; they feel duty bound to vote in line with the party platform and the wishes of their party's leaders

91

what is politico

one who attempts to combine the basic elements of the trustee, delegate, and partisan roles

92

what is oversight function

the process by which congress, through its committees, check toes that the various agencies in the executive branch are working effectively and acting in line with the policies that congress has set by law

93

construction of the constitution (strict - definition)

narrow, literal interpretation of the constitution

94

construction of the constitution (liberal - definition)

broad interpretation of the constitution

95

construction of the constitution (strict - major proponent)

jefferson (states rights advocate/anti-federalist)

96

construction of the constitution (liberal - major proponent)

hamilton (federalist)

97

construction of the constitution (liberal - attitude toward implied powers)

use often and energetically

98

construction of the constitution (strict - attitude toward national power)

should be restrained and limited, except for defense

99

construction of the constitution (liberal - attitude toward national power)

should be strong and allowed to grow

100

construction of the constitution (strict attitude toward state power)

should remain strong and keep most power

101

construction of the constitution (liberal - attitude toward state power)

should be restrained

102

the constitution gives powers to the congress in three ways: through the __________, or clearly stated powers

expressed

103

the constitution gives powers to the congress in three ways: through the __________, powers (powers deducted from the clearly stated powers)

implied

104

the constitution gives powers to the congress in three ways: through the __________, those possessed by all sovereign states

inherent

105

(true/false) strict constructionists believed that congress should exercise only its expressed powers and those powers absolutely necessary to carry out those expressed powers

true

106

(true/false) liberal constructionism was linked to a strong national government

true

107

(true/false) implied powers are those reasonably deduced from the expressed powers

true

108

which of the following is NOT a type of power that congress derives from the constitution

divine right

109

which level of government has been MOST valued by the strict constructionists

state

110

which of the following has been a value of liberal constructionists

the constitution must be interpreted broadly, with an eye toward change

111

which of the following is a reason why liberal construction of the constitution prevailed

wars and economic crises called for national action, spectacular advances transportation and communication impacted the scope of the government, and the people themselves demanded more and more services from government

112

what is direct tax

must be paid by the person on whom it is imposed

113

what is legal tender

money that a creditor must by law accept in payment of debt (ex: debit card, silver coin, cash, checks, visa card, master card)

114

what is bankruptcy

legal proceeding in which someone's assets are distributed among those to whom a debt is owed

115

what is indirect tax

first paid by one person, but then passed on to another

116

what is public debt

all the money that the federal government has borrowed and not repaid

117

which constitutional principle was involved in the gibbons v ogden case in 1824

the national government, not individual states, has the right to regulate interstate commerce

118

which of the following is NOT an expressed power of congress

power to set a minimum wage

119

what is eminent domain

right to take private property for public use

120

what is patent

sole right to make or sell a new invention

121

what is copyright

exclusive right to publish or sell written or creative work

122

what is naturalization

making a non citizen into a citizen

123

who has the constitutional power to declare war

only congress

124

which of the following is NOT an expressed power of congress

commanding the armed forces

125

which of the following does congress have the right to manage and control

federal military installations, the district of columbia, and national parks

126

congress's power to create federal courts is an example of

constitutional checks and balances

127

(true/false) the necessary and proper clause is often called the elastic clause because it caused the powers of congress to snap

false

128

(true/false) congress can appropriate money to different departments of the federal government

true

129

(true/false) implied powers gives the federal government the authority to do anything on behalf of the general welfare and public interest

false

130

which of the following is an expressed power

power to raise an army and navy

131

which of the following is an implied power

power to establish federal aid to education programs

132

which of the following is another name for the necessary and proper clause

elastic clause

133

what is impeach

bring charges against

134

what is successor

the next in line, the replacement

135

which of the following issues of recent years is congress more vinously pursing to call a national convention to amend the constitution

congressional term limits

136

after the house has impeached a president, what must happen next ignorer to remove the president from office

the senate must convict the president

137

which institution has the responsibility of confirming or rejecting presidential appointees and treaties

the senate

138

what are the 5 non legislative powers of congress

1. investigate - look into anything that falls within its scope
2. amendments - proposed amendments; call convention to propose amendments
3. electoral - elect a president (house) and vice president (senate) if no winner in election
4. impeachment - bring charges against federal officials (house), try impeachment cases (senate)
5. executive - give "advice and consent," approve presidential appointments, approve treaties

139

what are expressed powers

those deflated powers granted by the constitution that are spelled out explicitly - in its specific wording; aka enumerated powers

140

what are implied powers

those powers granted by the constitution that are suggested by the expressed powers set out in the constitution; those powers "necessary and proper" to carry out the expressed powers

141

what are inherent powers

those powers granted by the constitution that are presumed to be delegated to the national government because it is the government of a sovereign state - the united states

142

what is strict constructionist

one who argues a narrow interpretation of the constitution's provisions, in particular those granting powers to the federal government; the constitutional interpretation ideology of thomas jefferson

143

what is consensus

general agreement

144

what is tax

a charge levied by government on persons or property to raise money to meet public needs

145

what is direct tax

a tax that must be paid directly to the government by the person on whom it is imposed. ex: sales tax

146

what is indirect tax

a tax that is first paid by one person but then passed on to another ex: income tax

147

what is public debt

all of the money borrowed by the federal government over the years but on yet repaid + the accumulated interest on that money

148

what is deficit financing

funding government spending by borrowing to make up the difference between spending and revenue (the government regularly spends more than it takes in each year)

149

what is bankruptcy

the legal proceeding in which the bankrupt's assets are distributed among those to whom debt is owed

150

what is naturalization

the process by which a citizen of one country becomes a citizen of another country

151

what is copyright

the exclusive right of an author to reproduce, publish, and sell his or her creative work

152

what is patent

grants a person the sole right to manufacture, use, or sell "any new and useful art, machine, manufacture or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof"

153

what is eminent domain

the inherent power of government to take private property to sell for public use

154

what is appropriate

assigns to a particular use

155

what is necessary and proper clause

constitutional clause that give the congress the power to make all laws "necessary and proper" for executing its power

156

what is successor

a replacement; someone to fill the vacancy; the vice president is subject to a majority vote in both houses of congress; a person who inherits a title or office

157

what is censure

a formal condemnation of behavior issued by the majority of the members of the senate

158

the expressed powers of congress are

state directly in the constitution

159

the consensus of american opinion favors

liberal interpretation of the constitution

160

the commerce power of congress allows it to

regulate trade and business

161

the power that allows congress to take private property for such uses as an interstate highway system or a national park is

the power of eminent domain

162

the exclusive legal right an author has to his or her own work is protected by

a copyright

163

a store must accept us dollar bills in payment because the dollar bill is

legal tender

164

the power of the house of representatives to officially charge an official with wrongdoing is the power of

impeachment

165

if no presidential candidate wins a majority of the electoral votes, the president is chosen in

the house of representatives

166

which of the following must approve presidential appointments

the senate

167

the most powerful leader in the house is the

speaker of the house

168

the chairman of congressional committees are chosen by

seniority

169

the president of the senate is

the vice president

170

which is a joint committee

a conference committee

171

the major job of the floor leaders is to

gather party members' votes for upcoming bills

172

in the steps of the legislative process, the event that would happen last in the house is

debate on the floor

173

which of the following has the force of the law although it does not become a law

a joint resolution

174

who is the speaker of the house

paul ryan

175

who is the majority floor leader of the house

kevin mccarthy

176

who is the minority floor leader of the house

nancy pelosi

177

who is the president of the senate

joe biden

178

who is the president pro tempore

orrin hatch

179

who is the majority floor leader of the senate

mitch mcconnell

180

who is the minority floor leader of the senate

harry reid

181

what is speaker of the house

the elected presiding officer of the house and the acknowledged leader of its majority party

182

what is president of senate

the senate's presiding officer

183

what is the president pro tempore

serves in the vice president's absence. elected by the senate itself and is always a leading member of the majority party - usually its longest serving members

184

what are liberal constructionists

one in favor of a liberal interpretation of the constitution, particularly those granting powers of the federal government; the constitutional interpretation ideology of alexander hamilton

185

what is a standing committee

deal with issues of permanent legislative concern

186

what are the committees' functions

standing committees investigate, evaluate, and sift through proposed bills

187

give 3 examples of stand committees (name at least 1)

house ways and means; senate finance, house national security

188

what is a select commitee

deals with temporary issues, investigations

189

what does a select committee do

select committees investigate some current matter for possible new laws or for special issues

190

give 2 examples of a select committee from 1987 (one example)

house select committee to investigate (over arms transactions with iran, senate select committee on secret military assistance to iran and the nicaraguan opposition)

191

what is a joint committee

consist of members of both houses usually created to deal with a specific issue

192

what does a joint committee do

investigates and issues reports; deals with issues common to both houses; some have routine duties

193

what is a conference committee

a conference committee is temporary and composed of members of both houses

194

what does a conference committee do

irons out differences between similar bills in the house and senate and produces compromise bills

195

(true/false) a standing committee is a permanent group

true

196

(true/false) select committees are set up for a specific purpose for a limited time

true

197

(true/false) the main job of a standing committees or their subcommittees is to conduct investigations

true

198

which of the following is not a standing committee in the house

convert arms transactions with iran

199

why must a conference committee meet on a compromise bill even if both houses pass similar bills

the bill must be identical when it goes to the president to sign

200

why are party politics so important in congressional organization

the majority party always holds the chairmanship and a majority of the seats on each committee

201

the main difference between a joint committee and a conference committee is

joint committees to perform investigative or housekeeping duties; conference committees iron out differences in bills from both houses

202

most bills are introduced in congress by

the executive branch, interest groups, private citizens

203

a joint resolution is like a bill because

it has force of law

204

five courses of action a committee may take on a bill are:

1. report bill favorably
2. refuse to report the bill
3. report bill in amended form
4. report bill with an unfavorable recommendation
5. report a committee bill

205

five types of votes in the house are

1. voice votes
2. standing vote
3. 1/5 quorum votes
4. roll call vote
5. record vote

206

what is resolution

voted on by either house, but has no force of law

207

what is rider

provision attached to an important measure

208

what is quorum

majority of the full membership of either house

209

which of the following has the possibility of gaining the force of law

joint resolution

210

the following are methods of taking a floor vote, EXCEPT

mail in vote

211

____________ usually deal with individual places or people

private bills

212

__________ apply to the entire station. they may be controversial, dealing with such issues as ________, ________, or _________

public bills, raising taxes, national health issues, abortion

213

_____________ deal with internal matters of only one house of congress

resolution

214

when both houses of congress agree, they may pass a ___________, for example to correct an error in an ________ or to ____________ for a special purpose

joint resolution, earlier law, appropriate money

215

_________, on the other hand, do not have the force of law and do not require the president's signature. yet, to take effect, ________ of congress must pass them

concurrent resolutions, both houses

216

fewer than 5% of the bills introduced in congress become public laws. three reasons that so few bills become laws are (only name 2):

1. law making process is extremely long, complicated, and expensive
2. many compromises are necessary to get most bills passed

217

the ideas for new bills may come from _______, _________, __________, or officials in the ________ branch

private citizens, interest groups, president, executive

218

to introduce a bill in the house, a member must

place bill in hopper

219

to introduce a bill in the senate

the presiding officer must recognize the senator and the senator presents the bill

220

what are hearings

sessions in which congressional committees listen to testimonies for bills

221

what are interest groups

groups of people who are interested in an issue before congress

222

what is quorum

number of people necessary to vote

223

what is voice vote

hearing "aye's" or "nay's" to approve/disapprove of meetings and topics

224

what is standing vote

a member stands to indicate their support for a vote

225

what is teller vote

indicating one's vote by walking down a certain aisle or exiting a certain door

226

what is record vote

electronic voting where a membership uses an electronic device to indicate an "ay" or "nay"

227

what is role-call vote

when the people's names are read alphabetically aloud and state their vote

228

what is veto

president rejects a bill

229

what is pocket veto

president doesn't act on a bill and lets it sit for 10 days

230

what is line-item veto

presidential power to veto a sentence or line in a veto

231

how a bill becomes a law through the house of representatives

1. bill is introduced
2. bill is read by title, numbered, and printed
3. printed for the committee
4. have hearings where changes could be added, it can be approved, or it can die
5. sent to the house floor for debate
6. bill passed by the house

232

how a bill becomes a law through the senate

1. titled, numbered, printed
2. sent to a committee
3. have hearings where changes are added, there are approvals, or death of a bill
4. sent to senate floor for debate
5. amended bill passed by senate

233

who is in conference committee

members from both houses

234

what is in conference committee

work out a compromise bill that both houses will accept

235

what does the president do when a bill becomes a law

sign it becoming a law, veto it, or can pocket veto

236

what is party caucus

a closed meeting of the members of each party in each house