Chapter 2 - Basic Exercise Science: Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Basic Exercise Science: Endocrine System Deck (44):
1

The Endocrine System

A system of glands that secrete hormones into the blood stream to regulate a variety of bodily function
-Control of mood, growth and development, tissue function, metabolism

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Endocrine System Dynamics

Consists of host organs (glands), chemical messengers (hormones), and target (receptor) cells

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Hormone Secreted from Gland

Travels through the bloodstream to target cells designed to receive its message

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Endocrine Glands

-Hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands

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Pituitary Gland

Master Gland because it controls the functions of all other endocrine glands

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3 Sections of Pituitary Gland

Anterior, intermediate, posterior lobes
-Each lobe secretes specific types of hormones

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Anterior Lobe Hormones (6)

-Growth Hormone
-Prolactin
-Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
-Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
-Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
-Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

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Intermediate Lobe Hormone

Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone

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Posterior Lobe Hormones (2)

-Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
-Oxytocin

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Prolactin Function

Stimulate milk production after giving birth

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ACTH Function

Stimulates the adrenal glads

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TSH Function

Stimulates the thyroid gland

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FSH Function

Stimulates testes and ovaries

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LH Function

Stimulates ovaries or testes

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Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone Function

Control skin pigmentation

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ADH Function

Increase absorption of water into the blood by the kidneys

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Oxytocin Function

Contracts the uterus during childbirth and stimulate milk production

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Thyroid Gland Function

Produces hormones that regulate metabolism and affect the growth and rate of function of many other systems in the body

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Adrenal Glands Function

Secrete hormones such as corticosteroids and catecholamines, including cortisol and adrenaline in response to stress

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Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland

Represent an important link between the nervous and endocrine systems

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Blood Glucose

Carbs, specifically glucose, is the primary energy source during vigorous exercise and principal fuel for the brain

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Control of Blood Glucose

Regulated by pancreas, which produces two specific hormones: Insulin and Glucagon

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Insulin Trigger of Release

Released by elevated levels of glucose in the blood (eating a meal)

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Circulating Insulin in Blood

Binds with receptors of its target cells making cell more permeable to glucose
-Glucose then diffuses out of blood and into cell leading to a drop of blood glucose levels

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Insulin Result

Causes cells in the liver, muscle, and fat tissue to take up glucose from the blood, storing it as glycogen in the liver and muscle

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Glucagon Effects

Opposite to that of insulin, as it functions to raise blood glucose levels by triggering the release of glycogen stores from the liver back into glucose

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Glucagon Trigger of Release

Drop in circulating blood glucose levels (Hours after a meal or physical activity)

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Exercise and Control of Blood Glucose

As activity levels increase, glucose uptake by the body's cell also increase due to an increased sensitivity of the cells to insulin, thus leading to a drop of insulin levels during physical activity

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Catecholamines

Epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine are produced by the adrenal glands atop the kidneys

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Catecholamines Function

Prepare the body for activity (fight or flight response)

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Testosterone Production

Produced in the testes of males and in small amount in the ovaries and adrenal glands of females

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Testosterone Functions

The development of male secondary sexual characteristics such as facial and body hair and greater muscle mass
-Large role in growth and repair of tissues

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Estrogen Production

In the ovaries of females and small amounts in the adrenal glands of males

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Estrogen Function

-Give rise of female secondary sexual characteristics such as breast development and regulation of menstrual cycle
-Large influence on fat deposition around hips, buttocks, and thighs

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Cortisol

Associated with tissue breakdown, referred to as a catabolic hormone

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Cortisol Secretion

Secreted by adrenal glands under times of stress

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Cortisol Function

Serves to maintain energy supply through the breakdown of carbs, fats, and proteins

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High Levels of Cortisol

Brought about through overtraining, excessive stress, poor sleep, and inadequate nutrition can lead to significant breakdown of muscle tissue and other potentially harmful side effects

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Growth Hormone Location of Release

Released from pituitary gland in brain and is regulated by hypothalamus

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Growth Hormone Stimulus of Release

Estrogen, Testosterone, deep sleep, and vigorous exercise

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GH Functions

Anabolic hormone responsible for most growth and development during childhood
-Also increases development of bone, muscle tissue, protein synthesis, fat burning, and strengthens immune system

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Thyroid Hormones Area of Release

Released from thyroid gland regulated by the pituitary gland

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Thyroid Hormones Function

Carb, protein, and fat metabolism, basal metabolic rate, protein synthesis, sensitivity to epinephrine, heart rate, breathing rate, and body temperature.

44

Hormones and Effects of Exercise

-Testosterone and GH levels increase after traingin
-Cortisol is indicative of overtraining