Chapter 2: Body Organization Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Chapter 2: Body Organization > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 2: Body Organization Deck (96):
1

cytology

the study of cells and their function

2

What function do cells perform for the body?

reproduction
hormone secretion
energy production
excretion

3

What are the functions for special cells?

muscle contraction
electrical impulse transmission

4

What makes up a cell?

nucleus
cytoplasm
cell membrane

5

histology

the study of tissue

6

How are tissues formed?

When like cells are grouped together to perform an activity

7

What are the 4 types of tissue?

Muscle
Epithelial
Connective
Nervous

8

Muscle tissues

composed of muscle fibers and produces movement in the body by contracting

9

What are the 3 types of basic muscles?

skeletal
smooth
cardiac

10

Skeletal muscle

attached to the bones

11

Smooth muscle

internal organs like intestine and uterus

12

cardiac muscle

only in the heart

13

Epithelial Tissue

Found as a lining for internal organs and covering for the skin

14

What and where are the different functions for epithelial tissue?

Form a protective barrier - skin
absorb - lining of intestine
secrete - sweat glands
excrete wastes - kidney tubules

15

What is the purpose of connective tissue?

to support and protect

16

name the 4 forms of connective tissue

adipose
bone
cartilage
tendons

17

Nervous tissue

composed of neurons that allows for conduction of electrical impulses between brain and rest of the body

18

What does the nervous tissue form?

brain
spinal cord
nerves

19

What 3 types of tissue does the stomach contain?

muscle fibers
nerve tissue
epithelial tissue

20

What is the purpose of an integumentary system?

A 2 way barrier and regulates temperature

21

What organs are in the integumentary system?

skin
Hair
Nails
Sweat glands
Sebaceous glands

22

What is the purpose of a musculoskeletal system?

To support and protect body. Form blood cells and stores minerals. And produces movement

23

What organs are in the musculoskeletal system?

Bones
Joints
Muscles

24

What is the purpose of the cardiovascular system?

pumps blood to transport nutrients, oxygen, and wastes

25

What organs are in the cardiovascular system?

Heart
Arteries
Veins

26

What is the function of the blood (hematic) system

transports oxygen, protects, and controls bleeding

27

What organs are in the blood system?

plasma
erythrocytes
leukocytes
platelets

28

What is the purpose of the lymphatic system?

Protects body

29

What organs are in the lymphatic system?

Lymph nodes
Lymphatic vessels
Spleen
Thymus gland
tonsils

30

What is the purpose of the respiratory system?

obtains oxygen and removes carbon dioxide

31

What organs are in the respiratory system?

Nasal cavity
Pharynx
Larynx
Trachea
Bronchial tubes
Lungs

32

What is the purpose of the gastrointestinal system?

To ingest, digest, and absorb nutrients

33

What organs are in the gastrointestinal system?

oral cavity
pharynx
esophagus
stomach
small intestine
colon
liver and gallbladder
pancreas

34

What is the function of the urinary system?

filters waste and removes from body

35

What organs are in the urinary system?

kidneys
ureters
urinary bladder
urethra

36

What is the purpose of the female reproductive system?

Provides eggs and provides place for baby

37

What organs are in the female reproductive system?

ovaries
fallopian tubes
uterus
vagina
vulva
breast

38

What is the male reproductive system

produces sperm

39

What organs are in the male reproductive system?

testes
epididymis
vas deferens
penis
seminal vesicles
prostate glands
bulbourethral glands

40

What is the purpose of the endocrine system?

Regulates metabolic activity

41

What organs are in the endocrine system?

Pituitary glands
pineal gland
thyroid gland
parathyroid glands
thymus gland
pancreas
adrenal glands
ovaries and testes

42

What is the purpose of the nervous system?

Receives sensory information and coordinates response

43

What organs are in the nervous system?

Brain
Spinal Cord
Nerves

44

cardiovascular

pertaining to the heart and blood vessels

45

muscular

pertaining to the muscles

46

lymphatic

pertaining to lymph

47

hematic

pertaining to blood

48

gastroenterology

study of stomach and small intestine

49

gynecology

study of the female body

50

ophthalmology

study of the eye

51

dermatology

study of the skin

52

Sagittal Plane

Divides body into left and right

53

frontal Plane

Divides the body into front and back

54

Transverse Plane

Divides body into upper and lower portions

55

Cephalic

Head

56

Cervical

Neck

57

Brachial

arm

58

crural

leg

59

What are the regions of the anterior trunk?

Thoracic
Abdominal
Pelvic
Pubic

60

What are the regions of the posterior trunk?

dorsum
vertebral
gluteal

61

What are 2 dorsal cavities?

Cranial
Spinal

62

What are ventral cavities?

Thoracic
Abdominopelvic

63

What does the cranial cavity contain?

Brain

64

What does the spinal cavity contain?

spinal cord

65

What does the thoracic cavity contain?

2 lungs
mediastinum

66

What does the mediastinum contain?

Heart
Aorta
Esophagus
Trachea
Thymus gland

67

What does the abdominopelvic cavity contain?

digestive organs
excretory organs
reproductive organs

68

What is the abdominopelvic and thoracic cavity divided by?

diaphragm

69

What are the 2 layers in the viscera encases in sac?

Parietal layer
visceral layer

70

What is the viscera called in the thoracic cavity?

pleura

71

What is the viscera called in the abdominopelvic cavity?

peritoneum

72

What are the subdivisions of the pleura?

Pleural cavity
pericardial cavity

73

Pleural cavity

surrounds the lungs

74

pericardial cavity

surrounds the heart

75

What are int he upper row regions of the abdomen?

Hypochondriac
Epigastric

76

What are in the middle row regions of the abdomen?

Lumbar
Umbilical

77

What are in the lower row regions of the abdomen?

Inguinal
Hypogastric

78

What is in the RUQ?

Majority of liver
gallbladder
small portion of pancreas
small intestine
colon

79

What is in the RLQ?

Small intestine
colon
right ovary
right fallopian tube
appendix
right ureter

80

What is in the LUQ?

Small portion of liver
spleen
stomach
majority of pancreas
small intestine
colon

81

What is in the LLQ?

small intestine
colon
left ovary
left fallopian tube
left ureter

82

Superior

More toward head

83

Inferior

More towards feet

84

Anterior

More towards front

85

Posterior

More towards back

86

Medial

More towards middle

87

lateral

more towards side

88

proximal

nearer to the point of attachment to body

89

distal

farther away from point of attachment to body

90

apex

tip or summit of organ

91

base

bottom or lower part of an organ

92

superficial

more towards surface of body

93

deep

further away from surface of body

94

Supine

lying face up

95

Prone

lying face down

96

What are the 5 levels of the body?

Cells
Tissues
Organs
Systems
Body