Chapter 3: Integumentary System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 3: Integumentary System Deck (155):
1

What is the largest organ in the body?

skin

2

Where are the sensory receptors located?

Within the middle layer of the skin

3

What dot the sensory receptors detect?

Temperature
Pain
Touch
Pressure

4

What are sweat glands?

They assist body in maintaining internal temperature that creates a cooling effect when sweat evaporates.

5

What are sebaceous glands?

They are oil glands that lubricate the skin surface and produces sebum.

6

How does the skin cool?

Sweat evaporation
Dilate superficial blood vessels to release heat

7

How does the skin conserve heat?

Constrict superficial blood vessels to keep warm blood away from surface.
Continuous fat layer acts as insulation.

8

What are the three layers of the skin?

Epidermis
Dermis
Subcutaneous layer

9

Epidermis

Thin, outer membrane layer composed of flat like cells arranged in strata. Has no blood supply or connective tissue

10

Dermis

Middle, fibrous connective tissue layer composed of connective tissue and collagen fibers, giving it flexible strength. Has very good blood supply.

11

Subcutaneous layer

innermost layer of fatty tissue, composed of lipocytes and acts as insulation for heat/cold.

12

Basal Layer

The deepest layer in the epidermis. Cells continuously grow and push out the old cells toward the surface that shrink die, and fill with keratin.

13

Keratin

a hard protein in dead cells that allow skin to act as a barrier to infection

14

Melanocytes

Special cells of the basal layer that produces melanin which gives skin color and protects against ultraviolet rays.

15

What organs are located in the Dermis?

Hair
Nails
Sweat glands
Sebaceous glands

16

What are the 4 parts of the hair?

Hair follicle
Hair root
Hair shaft
Arrector pili muscle

17

How is the hair shaft formed?

Within the hair follicle, deep cells of hair root force older cells to move upward towards surface

18

What gives hair its color?

melanin

19

Arrector Pili

Slip of smooth muscle that causes hair to "stand up"

20

What are the 6 parts of the nail?

Nail body
Nail bed
lunula
nail root
cuticle
free edge

21

What is the Nail Body?

Flat plate of keratin

22

What is the nail bed?

Connects nail body to underlying tissue

23

What is the cuticle?

Soft tissue that covers nail root.

24

Where does sweat travel to int he sweat gland?

To surface in sweat duct.

25

Apocrine Glands

Found in the pubic or underarm areas that produces an odor when sweating.

26

cutaneous

pertaining to the skin

27

dermal

pertaining to the skin

28

epidermal

pertaining to upon the skin

29

hypodermic

pertaining to under the skin

30

intradermal

pertaining to within the skin

31

subcutaneous

pertaining to under the skin

32

ungual

pertaining to the nail

33

abrasion

friction scraping away skin surface

34

anhidrosis

condition of producing no sweat

35

comedo

hardened sebum in hair follicle; blackhead

36

contusion

injury caused by a blow; causes swelling, pain, and bruising

37

cyanosis

bluish tint to the skin caused by deoxygenated blood

38

cyst

fluid-filled sac under the skin

39

depigmentation

loss of normal skin color

40

diaphoresis

profuse sweating

41

ecchymosis

blood collecting under the skin following blunt trauma; a bruise

42

erythema

red flushing of the skin

43

erythroderma

having reddened or flushed skin

44

eschar

thick layer of dead tissue develops over a deep burn area

45

fissure

crack-like lesion on skin

46

hirsutism

excessive hair growth

47

hyperemia

redness of skin due to increased blood flow

48

hyperhidrosis

excessive sweating

49

hyperpigmentation

abnormal amount of pigmentation

50

ichthyoderma

scaly and dry skin

51

lesion

general term for injury or abnormality

52

leukoderma

white skin from lack of skin pigment

53

lipoma

fatty mass

54

macule

flat, discolored spot on skin

55

necrosis

condition of cell or tissue death

56

nevus

pigmented skin blemish, birthmark, or mole; usually benign

57

nodule

form, solid mass larger than 0.5 cm

58

onychomalacia

softening of nails

59

pailor

abnormal paleness of skin

60

papule

small, solid raised spot smaller than 0.5 cm

61

petechiae

spots from minute hemorrhages under skin

62

photosenitivity

skin reacts abnormally to light

63

pruritus

severe itching

64

purpura

skin hemorrhage due to fragile blood vessels

65

purrlent

infection producing pus; dead bacteria, white blood cells, and tissue debris

66

pustule

raised spot on skin containing pus

67

pyoderma

having pus on or within the skin

68

scleroderma

hardened skin

69

seborrhea

oily discharge

70

suppurative

containing or producing pus

71

ulcer

open sore in skin

72

urticaria

hives; eruption of wheals with severe itching

73

vesicle

small, fluid-filled, raised spot; blister

74

wheal

small, round, swollen area; typical of allergic skin reaction

75

xeroderma

abnormally dry skin

76

abscess

collection of pus in skin

77

acne

inflammation of sebaceous glands and hair follicles with papules and pustules

78

acne rosacea

chronic form of adult acne with redness and tiny pimples, primarily on nose

79

acne vulgaris

common form of teenage acne with comedo, papules, and pustulates

80

albinism

genetic condition; unable to make melanin; white hair and skin, and red eyes

81

basal cell carcinoma

cancerous tumor in basal skin layer; common cancer; rarely metastasizes

82

burn

skin damage caused by fire, electricity, ultraviolet light, or caustic chemicals; percentage of skin burned is estimated by Rule of Nines

83

First Degree Burn

skin reddened and painful; no blisters; damage to epidermis

84

Second degree burn

skin reddened and painful with blisters; damage to epidermis and dermis

85

Third degree burn

skin charred; epidermis and dermis burned away; subcutaneous layer exposed

86

celluitis

diffuse acute infection of connective tissue of skin

87

cicatrix

normal scar

88

decubitis ulcer

open sore caused by pressure over bony prominences; caused by loss of blood flow to skin

89

dermatitis

inflammation of the skin

90

dermatosis

presence of a skin condition

91

dry gangrene

late stages of gangrene; affected area becomes dried, blackened, and shriveled

92

eczema

superficial dermatitis; redness, vesicles, itching, and crusting

93

gangrene

tissue necrosis due to loss of blood flow

94

ichthyosis

skin becomes dry, scaly, and keratinized

95

impetigo

highly infections bacterial infection with pustules that rupture and crust over

96

Kaposi's sarcoma

skin cancer seen in AIDS patients; brownish-purple lesions

97

keloid

thick hypertrophic scar

98

keratosis

condition of excessive growth and thickening of epidermis layer

99

laceration

torn or jagged wound

100

malignant melanoma (MM)

dangerous form of cancer; begins in melanocytes; quickly metastasizes

101

pediculosis

lice infestation

102

psoriasis

chronic inflammatory condition with papules forming "silvery scale" patches

103

rubella

contagious viral infection; german measles

104

scabies

mite infection

105

sebaceous cyst

sebum filled sac forms around sebaceous gland

106

squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)

cancer of epidermis layer; may invade deeper tissue and metastasizes

107

strawberry hemangioma

congenital collection of dilated blood vessels; birthmark

108

systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

chronic disease of connective tissue; injures skin, joints and kidneys; produces red, scaly butterfly rash across face

109

tinea

fungal infection; itching and scaling lesions

110

tinea captis

fungal infection on scalp; ringworm

111

tinea pedis

fungal infection of foot; athlete's foot

112

varicella

contagious viral infection; chickenpox

113

verruca

warts; benign growth caused by a virus

114

vitillgo

disappearance of pigment from skin in patches; causes milk-white lesions

115

wet gangrene

area of gangrene with secondary bacterial infection and pus

116

alopecia

absence or loss of hair; baldness

117

carbuncle

furuncle involving several hair follicles

118

furuncle

bacterial infection of hair follicle; reddened, pain, and swelling; a boil

119

trichomycosis

fungal infection of hair

120

onychia

infected nail bed

121

onychomycosis

fungal infection of nail

122

onychophagia

nail biting

123

paronychia

infection of skin fold around nail

124

Culture and Sensitivity (C&S)

grows bacteria removed from infected area to identify infecting bacteria; then determines sensitivity to various antibiotics

125

biposy

removal of piece of tissue to examine under a microscope; aids in diagnosis

126

exfoliative cytology

scraping cells from tissue to examine under micrscope

127

frozen section

thin piece of tissue is cut from frozen specimen for rapid examination under microscope

128

fungal scrapings

scrapings from lesion is cultured and then examined under microscope

129

skin graft

transfer of skin from one normal area to cover another site

130

allograft

skin graft from one person to another, also called homograft

131

autograft

skin graft from one person's own body

132

xenograft

skin graft from an animal of another species; usually a pig; also called a heterograft

133

dermatome

instrument for cutting sin or for producing thin transplants of skin

134

dermatoplasty

skin grafting

135

cauterization

destruction of tissue by using chemicals, electricity, heat, or freezing

136

cryosurgery

use of extreme cold to freeze and destroy tissue

137

curettage

removal of superficial skin lesion with a scraper

138

debridement

removal of foreign material and dead or damage tissue from wound

139

electrocautery

using an electric current to destroy tissue

140

incision and drainage

making and incision to drain material such as pus

141

onychetomy

surgical removal of a nail

142

chemabrasion

abrasions using chemicals; chemical peel

143

dermabrasion

abrasion using wire brushes or sandpaper; removes scars, tattoos

144

laser therapy

removal of lesion using a laser beam

145

liposuction

removal of fat beneath skin by means of suction

146

rhytidectomy

surgical removal of excess skin to eliminate wrinkles; face lift

147

anesthetic

deaden pain

148

antibiotic

kill bacteria

149

antifungal

kill fungi

150

antiparasitic

kill mites or lice

151

antipruritic

reduce severe itching

152

antispetic

kill bateria

153

anti-viral

treat herpes simplex infection

154

corticosteroid cream

powerful anti-inflammatory

155

What are the organs of the integumentary system?

Skin
Hair
Nails
Sweat Glands
Sebaceous glands