Chapter 5: Cardiovascular System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 5: Cardiovascular System Deck (74):
1

What are the organs of the Cardiovascular system?

Heart
Arteries
Capillaries
Veins

2

What is the cardiovascular system divided into?

Pulmonary Circulation
Systemic Circulation

3

Systemic Circulation

Between heart and cells of body

4

In the systemic circulation, how is oxygenated blood carried?

Away from the left side of heart to body

5

In the systemic circulation, how is deoxygenated blood carried?

From the body to the right side of the heart.

6

Pulmonary Circulation

Between Heart and Lungs

7

In the pulmonary circulation, how is deoxygenated blood carried?

Away from the right side of the heart to lungs

8

In the pulmonary circulation, how is oxygenated blood carried?

From lungs to the left side of the heart

9

What happens when the heart contracts?

Blood is ejected from the heart
Pushed throughout body within blood vessels

10

What is the heart made of?

Cardiac muscle fibers

11

Where is the heart located?

In the mediastinum directly behind the sternum

12

Apex

Tip of heart at lower edge

13

What are the 3 layers of the heart?

Endocardium
Myocardium
Epicardium

14

Endocardium

Inner layer that lines the heart chambers. Smooth, thin layer that reduces friction as the blood passes through heart chambers

15

Myocardium

Middle layer made of thick muscle.
Contraction of this layer develops the pressure required to pump blood through blood vessels

16

Epicardium

Outer layer that forms the visceral layer of pericardial sac
Fluid between layers of pericardial sac reduces friction as heart beats

17

What are the chambers of the heart?

Atria
Ventricles

18

What are the heart chambers divided by?

Septum

19

Atria

Left and right upper chambers
Receiving chambers
blood returns to atria in veins

20

What veins are in the atria?

Pulmonary veins

21

Ventricles

Left and right lower chambers
pumping chambers
blood exits into arteries

22

What are the 4 valves of the heart

tricuspid
pulmonary
mitral
aortic

23

What are heart valves?

Controls direction of blood flow
Found at exit and entrances of ventricles

24

Tricuspid Valve

Atrioventricular valve
Between right atrium and ventricle
Prevents blood in ventricle from flowing back into atrium

25

How many leaflets/ cusps does the tricuspid valve have

3

26

Pulmonary Valve

A semilunar valve
Between right ventricle and pulmonary artery
Prevents blood in artery from flowing back into ventricle

27

Semilunar

Valve looks like half moon

28

Mitral Valve

Atrioventricle valve
Between left atrium and ventricle
Prevents blood from flowing back into atrium

29

How many cusps does the Mitral valve have?

2

30

Bicuspid valve

has 2 cusps

31

Aortic Valve

A semilunar valve
between left ventricle an aorta
Prevents blood in aorta from flowing back into ventricle

32

What are the 2 large veins in the right atrium?

Superior vena cava
Inferior Vena Cava

33

Diastole

Relaxation phase of the heart chambers

34

systole

Contraction phase of the heart chambers

35

Sinoatrial node (SA)

Pacemaker

36

What are the 3 types of blood vessels?

Arteries
Capillaries
Veins

37

Lumen

channel within blood vessels

38

Arteries

Large vessels in which the walls contain smooth muscle and can dilate or constrict

39

Arterioles

smaller vessels branched from arteries

40

What carries blood away from the heart?

Arteries

41

What do coronary arteries supply?

myocardium

42

Capillary bed

thin-walled vessels that form capillaries

43

Venules

smallest veins

44

What carries blood towards the heart?

Veins

45

Blood Pressure

Measurement of force exerted by blood against walls of a vessel

46

What characteristics can affect blood pressure?

Volume of blood
Amount of resistance to blood flow

47

What happens during ventricular systole?

Blood is under great pressure
Give highest pressure

48

What happens during ventricular diastole

Blood isn't being pushed from the heart
Blood pressure is at the lowest point

49

aortic

pertaining to the aorta

50

arterial

pertaining to an artery

51

arteriole

a small artery

52

atrial

pertaining to the atrium

53

cardiac

pertaining to the heart

54

coronary

pertaining to the heart

55

interatrial

pertaining to between the atria

56

interventricular

pertaining to between the ventricles

57

myocardial

pertaining to the heart muscle

58

valvular

pertaining to a valve

59

vascular

pertaining to a blood vessel

60

venous

pertaining to a vein

61

ventricular

pertaining to a ventricle

62

venule

a small vein

63

angitis

inflammation of a vessel

64

angiospasm

involuntary contraction of smooth muscle in wall of a vessels; narrows the vessel

65

angiostenosis

narrowing of a vessel

66

bradycardia

a slow heart rate, typically below 60 beats per minute

67

embolus

obstruction of blood vessel by blood clot that has broken off a thrombus in another site

68

infarct

area of necrotic tissue due to loss of blood supply

69

ischemia

local and temporary deficiency of blood supply due to a circulatory obstruction

70

murmur

sound, in addition to normal heart sounds; may or may not indicate an abnormality

71

orthostatic hypotension

sudden drop in blood pressure when standing up suddenly

72

palpitations

pounding, racing heartbeats

73

plaque

yellow; fatty deposits of lipids in an artery; hallmark of atherosclerosis

74

What are the functions of the cardiovascular system?

Distribute blood
Delivery of needed substances to cells
Removal of Wastes