Chapter 7: Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 7: Respiratory System Deck (128):
1

What are the 6 organs of the respiratory system?

Nasal cavity
Pharynx
Larynx
Trachea
Bronchial tubes
Lungs

2

What other system does the respiratory system work with?

Cardivascular system

3

What are the 3 parts of the respiration system?

Ventilation
Inhalation
Exhalation

4

Ventilation

Flow of air between outside environment and lungs

5

Inhalation

Flow of air into lungs
Brings fresh oxygen into air sacs

6

Exhalation

Flow of air out of lungs
Removes carbon dioxide from body

7

External Respiration

Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in lungs

8

What does oxygen do in the external respiratory?

Leaves air sacs and enters blood stream

9

What does carbon dioxide do in the external respiratory?

Leaves blood stream and enters air sacs

10

Internal Respiration

Oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange at cellular level

11

What does oxygen do in the internal respiration?

Leaves blood stream and is delivered to tissue
Used immediately for metabolism

12

What does carbon dioxide do in internal respiration?

Waste product of metabolism
Leaves tisue and enters blood stream

13

Nasal Cavity

Air enters through nares

14

What is the nasal cavity divided by?

Nasal Septum

15

Palate

Roof of mouth separates nasal cavity above from mouth below

16

Cilia

Small hairs line opening to nasal cavity
Filter out large dirt particles before they can enter lungs

17

What are the walls of the nasal cavity and nasal septum made of?

Cartilage

18

What covers the walls of the nasal cavity and nasal septum?

Mucous membrane

19

Mucus

Thick and sticky secretion of membrane that cleanses air by trapping dust and bacteria

20

What is the purpose of Capillaries in the mucous membrane?

Warms and humidifies air

21

Paranasal sinuses

Located within facial bones
Echo chamber for sound protection
Gives resonance to voice

22

Pharynx

Throat
Air enters trachea while food/liquid enters esophagus

23

What systems uses the pharynx?

Respiratory
Digestive

24

What are the 3 parts of the pharynx?

Nasopharynx
Oropharynx
Laryngopharynx

25

Nasopharynx

Upper section by nasal cavity

26

Oropharynx

Middle section by oral cavity

27

Laryngopharynx

Lower section by larynx

28

Tonsils

Lymphatic tissue that removes pathogens in air and food

29

What are the 3 pairs of tonsils?

Adenoids
Palatine
Lingual

30

Where is the auditory tube?

Nasopharynx

31

Auditory Tube

Tube opens with each swallow
Equalizes air pressure between middle ear and outside atmosphere

32

Larynx

Voice box
Muscular tube between pharynx and trachea that contains vocal cords

33

What are the walls of the larynx?

Composed of cartilage plates
Held in place by ligaments and muscles

34

What forms the adam's apple?

Thyroid cartilage

35

Vocal Cords

Folds of membraneous tissue that vibrates to produce sounds as air passes through opening between folds

36

Epiglottis

Flap of cartilage that sits above glottis
Covers larynx and trachea during swallowing

37

Trachea

Windpipe
Carries air from larynx to main bronchi

38

What is the trachea composed of?

Smooth muscle
Cartilage rings
Lined with mucous membrane and cilia

39

Bronchial Tubes

Distal end of trachea divides into branches to form secondary and tertiary bronchi

40

Alveoli

Bronchiole terminates into

41

Bronchioles

Bronchi continue to branch to form into

42

Pulmonary capillaries

encases each alveolus

43

What forms the respiratory membrane?

Alveoli wall and the capillary wall

44

Respiratory membrane

External respiration takes place across respiratory membrane

45

Lungs

Total collection of bronchi, bronchioles, and aveoli

46

How many lobes does the right lung have?

3

47

How many lobes does the left lung have?

2

48

What are the 3 parts of the lung?

Apex
Base
Hilum

49

Apex

Pointed superior portion

50

Base

Broad lower area of lung

51

Hilum

Entry and exit point of lung
Bronchi, blood vessels, nerves

52

What protects the lungs?

Ribs

53

What protects the lungs internally?

Pleura

54

What are the 2 parts of the pleura?

Parietal
Viceral

55

Parietal Pleura

Outer membrane that lines wall of chest cavity

56

Visceral Pleura

Inner membrane that adheres to surface of lungs

57

Pleura

Folded to form a pleural cavity
Serious fluid between 2 pleural layers reduces friction when 2 layers rub together during ventilhation

58

Pleural cavity

Pleura is folded to form a sac around each lung

59

Respiratory Therapist

Measures lung volumes
Pulmonary function tests

60

Tidal Volume

Volume of air moving in and out of lungs in a single relaxed breath

61

Inspiratory Reserve Volume

Volume of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal exhale

62

Expiratory Reserve Volume

Volume of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal exhale

63

Residual Volume

Volume of air remaining in lungs after a forced exhale

64

Inspiratory Capacity

Tidal Volume + Inspiratory reserve volume

65

Functional residual Capacity

Expiratory reserve volume + residual volume

66

Vital Capacity

Inspiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + expiratory reserve volume

67

Total Lung Capacity

Inspiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + expiratory reserve volume + residual volume

68

What respiratory muscles are used for inhalation?

Diaphragm
Intercostal Muscles

69

Intercostal muscles

Located between the ribs that increases negative pressure while enlarging thoracic cavity

70

What needs to happen in order to have an unforced exhale?

Diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax
Thoracic cavity becomes smaller
Creates positive thoracic pressure
Air flows out of lungs to equalize pressure

71

What is the respiratory rate dependent on?

Level of CO2 in blood

72

alveolar

pertaining to the alveoli

73

bronchial

pertaining to the bronchus

74

bronchiolar

pertaining to a bronchiole

75

diaphragmatic

pertaining to the diaphragm

76

epiglottic

pertaining to the epiglottis

77

laryngeal

pertaining to the larynx

78

nasal

pertaining to the nose

79

pharyngeal

pertaining to the pharynx

80

pleural

pertaining to the pleura

81

pulmonary

pertaining to the lung

82

septal

pertaining to the nasal septum

83

thoracic

pertaining to the chest

84

tracheal

pertaining to the trachea

85

anosmia

lack of the sense of smell

86

anoxia

unable to obtain oxygen from inhaled air

87

apnea

not breathing

88

asphyxia

lack of oxygen; can lead to unconsciousness and death

89

aspiration

withdrawing fluid using suction; removing phlegm from patient's airway; inhaling food or liquid into trachea

90

bradypnea

breathing too slowly; low respiratory rate

91

bronchiectasis

having dilated brochi

92

bronchospasm

involuntary contraction of smooth muscle in bronchial walls

93

Cheyne-Stokes respiration

abnormal breathing pattern with long periods of apnea followed by deep and rapid breathing

94

Clubbing

abnormal widening & thickening of fingers due to chronic oxygen deficiency

95

crackles

abnormal crackling sound during inspiration; indicates fluid or mucus in airway; also rales

96

cyanosis

blue skin caused by low oxygen in blood

97

dysphonia

difficulty producing sound

98

dyspnea

difficult or labored breathing

99

epistaxis

a nosebleed

100

eupnea

normal breathing and respiratory rate

101

hemoptysis

cough up blood or blood-stained sputum

102

hemothorax

presence of blood in the chest cavity

103

hypercapina

ecessive carbon dioxide in the body

104

hyperpnea

taking deep breaths

105

hyperventilation

breathing too fast and too deep

106

hypocapnia

insufficient levels of carbon dioxide in the blood

107

hypopnea

taking shallow breaths

108

Hypoventilation

Breathing too slow and too shallow

109

hypoxemia

having insufficient amount of oxygen from inhaled air

110

laryngoplegia

paralysis of the muscles controlling the larynx

111

orthopnea

difficulty breathing made worse by lying flat; patient breaths better sitting up

112

pansinusitis

inflammation of all the paranasal sinuses

113

patent

open or unblocked

114

phlegm

thick mucus secreted by respiratory tract

115

pleural rub

grating sound made when layers of pleura rub together during respiration

116

pleurodynia

pleural pain

117

pyothorax

presence of pus in teh chest cavity

118

rhinitis

inflammation of the nasal cavity

119

rhinorrhagia

rapid flow of blood from the nose

120

rhinorrhea

fluid discharge from the nose; runny nose

121

rhonchi

musical sound during expiration; caused by bronchial tube spasms

122

shortness of breath

indicates the patient is having difficulty breathing; also called dyspnea

123

sputum

phlegm coughed up from respiratory tract

124

stridor

harsh, high pitched breath sound; indicates obstruction in the airway

125

tachypnea

breathing fast; high respiratory rate

126

thoracalgia

chest pain; not angina pectoris

127

tracheostenosis

narrowing of the trachea

128

What are the functions of the respiratory system?

Inhales fresh air into lungs
Exchange oxygen for carbon dioxide
Exhale stale air