Chapter 8: Digestive System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 8: Digestive System Deck (245):
1

What are the organs of the gastrointestinal tract?

Oral Cavity
Pharynx
Esophagus
Stomach
Small Intestine
Colon

2

What are the accessory organs of the Digestive System?

Pancreas
Liver
Gallbladder
Salivary glands

3

What are the organs of the continuous gut tube in order?

Oral Cavity
Pharynx
Esophagus
Stomach
Small Intestine
Colon

4

What are accessory organs connected to gut tube by?

Ducts

5

What happens while digesting food

physical & chemical breakdown of large food particles
Produces nutrient molecules

6

What nutrient molecules are produced while digesting food?

Glucose
Triglycerides
Amino Acids

7

What happens when nutrients are being absorbed during digestion?

Molecules are absorbed from intestine
Used for growth and repair of cells, tissues, and organs

8

Feces

Expelled from body as solid waste

9

What is the roof of the oral cavity?

Palate

10

Uvula

Hangs down the soft palate
speech production

11

What is the location of the gag reflex?

Uvula

12

Cheeks

Lateral walls

13

Lips

Anterior opening

14

What is the entire oral cavity lined with?

Mucous membrane

15

Where does digestion begin?

When food enters the mouth

16

Tongue

Moves food within mouth

17

Saliva

Digestive enzymes
Lubricates

18

Taste buds

on the tongue surface
Detects bitter, sweet, salty, sour flavors

19

What are the cutting teeth?

Incisors
Cuspids

20

What are the grinding teeth?

Bicuspids (premolars)
Molars
Wisdom tooth

21

What is the third molar?

Wisdom tooth

22

Gums

mucous membrane + connective tissue
seals off teeth in socket

23

What is the tooth divided into?

Crown
Root

24

Crown

above gum

25

Root

below gum

26

Enamel

Outer covering
In crown only
Hardest substance

27

Dentin

Under enamel
In crown and root
Bulk of tooth

28

Pulp cavity

In crown & root canal
Blood vessels, nerves

29

Cementum/Periodontal Ligaments

Anchors root in jawbone

30

What are the 2 sets of teeth?

deciduous
Permanent

31

Deciduous teeth

First set, baby teeth

32

How many teeth erupt between the ages of 6-28months?

20

33

Permanent teeth

Second set, adult teeth

34

Where does the swallowed food enter?

Oropharynx

35

After entering the oropharynx, where does swallowed food go?

Into the laryngopharynx

36

Epiglottis

Covers larynx and trachea
Shunts food away from lungs and into esophagus

37

Peristalsis

Pushes food through entire gut tube

38

Stomach

Muscular organ that collects and churns food to form chyme.

39

While in the stomach, what is mixed with the food?

Hydrochloric acid

40

Chyme

Watery mix of food and digestive juices

41

What are the 3 regions of the stomach?

Fundus
Body
Antrum

42

Fundus

Upper part of the stomach

43

Body (Stomach)

Main pat of the stomach

44

Antrum

Lower part of the stomach

45

Rugae

Folds in the stomach lining

46

Sphincters

muscular valves that control flow of food

47

Lower Esophageal Sphincter

Keeps food from backing up into esophagus

48

Pyloric Sphincter

Allows highly acidic chyme to enter small intestine

49

What is the longest portion of the alimentary canal?

Small Intestine

50

Where is the small intestine?

Between pyloric sphincter and colon

51

What are the 3 sections of the small intestine?

Duodenum
Jejunum
Ileum

52

Duodenum

First section of the small intestine
Starts at pyloric sphincter

53

Jejunum

Second section of the small intestine

54

Ileum

Third section of the Small intestine
Connects colon at ileocecal valve

55

Where is the colon?

extends from ileocecal valve to anus

56

What is the purpose of the colon?

Fluid that remains after digestion and absorption enters colon to be reabsorbed into body

57

What are the regions of the colon?

Cecum
Appendix
Ascending colon
Transverse colon
Descending colon
Sigmoid Colon

58

Rectum

Area for storage of feces

59

Anus

external opening of alimentary canal

60

Defacation

feces are evacuated

61

Salivary Glands

Produces saliva

62

Saliva

Allows food to be swallowed without choking

63

What does saliva contain?

amylase

64

Saliva + Food =

Bolus

65

Amylase

Begins digestion of carbohydrates

66

What are the 3 pairs of salivary glands?

Parotid glands
Sublingual Glands
Submandibular Glands

67

Liver

Processes nutrients
Detoxifies harmful substances
Produces bile

68

Where is the liver located?

RUQ

69

Emulsification

Breaks up large fat globules into smaller droplets

70

Where is the Gallbladder located?

RUQ
under the liver

71

Gallbladder

Stores bile produced by liver

72

Common Bile Duct

Carries bile to Duodenum in the Gallbladder

73

Pancreas

Holds the digestive juices Buffers and Enzymes

74

Buffers (Pancreas)

Digestive Juice that neutralizes acidic chyme

75

Enzymes

Digestive juices that digest carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins

76

cutane/o

skin

77

hem/o

blood

78

hemat/o

blood

79

nas/o

nose

80

orth/o

straight

81

ven/o

vein

82

-al

pertaining to

83

-algia

pain

84

-centesis

process of removing fluid

85

-eal

pertaining to

86

-ectomy

Surgical removal

87

-gram

record

88

-ic

pertaining to

89

-itis

inflammation

90

-logy

study of

91

-oma

tumor

92

-osis

abnormal conditioning

93

-graphy

process of recording

94

-ostomy

create new opening

95

-otomy

cutting into

96

-ous

pertaining to

97

-pexy

surgical fixation

98

-plasty

surgical repair

99

-plegia

paralysis

100

-ptosis

drooping

101

-scope

instrument to view

102

-scopy

process of viewing

103

-tic

pertaining to

104

a-

without

105

an-

without

106

anti-

against

107

brady-

slow

108

dys-

abnormal

109

endo-

within

110

hyper-

excessive

111

hypo-

under

112

intra-

within

113

per-

through

114

peri-

around

115

poly-

many

116

post-

after

117

retro-

backwards

118

sub-

under

119

trans-

across

120

anal

pertaining to the anus

121

buccal

pertaining to the cheeks

122

buccolabial

pertaining to the cheeks and lips

123

cecal

pertaining to the cecum

124

Cholecystic

pertaining to the galbladder

125

Colonic

pertaining to the colon

126

colorectal

pertaining to the colon and rectum

127

dental

pertaining to the teeth

128

duodenal

pertaining to the duodenum

129

enteric

pertaining to the small intestine

130

esophageal

pertaining to the esophagus

131

Gastric

Pertaining to the stomach

132

gingival

pertaining to the gums

133

glossal

pertaining to the tongue

134

hepatic

pertaining to the liver

135

hypoglossal

pertaining to under the tongue

136

ileal

pertaining to the ileum

137

jejunal

pertaining to the jejunum

138

nasogastric

pertaining to the nose and stomach

139

oral

pertaining to the mouth

140

pancreatic

pertaining to the pancreas

141

pharyngeal

pertaining to the pharynx

142

pyloric

pertaining to the pylorus

143

rectal

pertaining to the rectum

144

sigmoidal

pertaining to the sigmoid colon

145

sublingual

pertaining to under the tongue

146

anorexia

loss of appetite with other conditions; different from anorexia nervosa

147

aphagia

being unable to swallow or eat

148

ascites

collection of fluid in peritoneal cavity

149

bradypepsia

having a slow digestive system

150

cachexia

loss of weight and wasting occurring during chronic disease

151

cholecystalgia

gallbladder pain

152

constipation

difficult or infrequent defecation

153

dentalgia

tooth pain

154

diarrhea

frequent, watery bowel movements

155

dysorexia

having an abnormal, usually diminished appetite

156

dyspepsia

indigestion; having an upset stomach

157

dysphagia

having difficulty swallowing or eating

158

emesis

vomiting

159

gastralgia

stomach pain

160

hematemesis

vomiting blood

161

hematochezia

passing bright red blood in stools

162

hyperemesis

excessive vomiting

163

jaundice

yellow cast to skin; caused by deposit of bile pigment; often caused by liver disease

164

melena

passage of dark tarry stool, due to digested blood

165

nausea

urge to vomit

166

Obesity

weight above healthy levels

167

polyphagia

excessive eating

168

pyrosis

stomach acid splashing into esophagus; heartburn

169

regurgitation

backflow of stomach contents into mouth

170

aphthous ulcers

ulcers in the mouth; commonly called canker sores

171

cleft lip

congenital anomaly where upper lip and jaw fail to fuse in the midline, leaving a gap

172

cleft palate

congenital anomaly where hard palate fails to fuse in the midline, leaving an opening in the nasal cavity

173

dental caries

decay of tooth due to bacterial infection; tooth cavity

174

gingivitis

inflammation of the gums

175

herpes labialis

herpes simplex virus type 1 infection; fever blisters or cold sores

176

periodontal disease

isease of supporting structures around the teeth; especially the gums; most common cause of tooth loss

177

sialadenitis

inflammation of a salivary gland

178

esophageal varices

varicose veins in the esophagus; hemorrhaging occurs if rupture

179

gastroesophageal reflux disease

acid from stomach flows backward up into esophagus causing inflammation and pain

180

pharyngoplegia

paralysis of the throat muscles

181

gastric carcinoma

malignant tumor iin stomach

182

gastroenteritis

inflammation of the stomach and small intestine

183

gastritis

inflammation of the stomach

184

hiatal hernia

protrusion of stomach through diaphragm into thoracic cavity; also called diaphragmatocele

185

peptic ulcer disease

ulcer in the lower portion of esophagus, stomach, and/or duodenum; caused by high acid of stomach juices

186

anal fistula

abnormal passageway from surface directly into rectum; around anal opening

187

appendicitis

inflammation of the appendix

188

bowel incontinence

inability to control defacation

189

colorectal crcinoma

malignant tumor in the colon or rectum

190

Crohn's Disease

Chronic inflammatory bowel disease, primarily in ileum and/or colon; results in scarring

191

diverticulitis

inflammation of the diverticulum, an outpouching off the colon; results from food being trapped inside

192

dysentery

diarrhea with mucus and blood, severe abdominal pain, and fever; caused by contaminated food or water

193

enteritis

inflammation of the small intestine

194

hemorrhoids

varicose veins in the anal region

195

ileus

severe abdominal pain, inability to defecate, abdominal distension; caused by intestinal blockage

196

inguinal hernia

protrusion of a loop of bowel through abdominal muscle and into groin region; may become incarcerated or strangulated if muscle pinches the loop of bowel

197

intussusception

one part of intestine slips or telescopes into another section

198

irritable bowel syndrome

disturbance in function of intestine for unknown reason; causes abdominal cramping and alternating diarrhea and constipation

199

polyposis

having polyps, tumor with a stem-like attachment, growing on the mucus membrane of the colon; may become cancerous

200

proctoptosis

prolapse or drooping rectum

201

ulcerative colitis

chronic inflammatory condition with numerous small ulcers on the lining of the colon

202

volvulus

bowel twists upon itself causing an obstruction

203

cholecystitis

inflammation of gallbladder; commonly caused by gallstones

204

cholelithiasis

presence of gallstones; may or may not cause systoms

205

cirrhosis

chronic liver disease due to liver failure

206

hepatitis

inflammation of liver; due to a viral infection

207

hepatoma

tumor in the liver

208

pancreatitis

inflammation of the pancreas

209

laparoscopy

process of visually examining inside of abdominal caity

210

sigmoidoscope

instrument used to visually examine the sigmoid colon

211

sigmoidoscopy

process of visually examining inside of sigmoid colon

212

paracentesis

insertion of needle into abdominal cavity to withdraw fluid

213

bridge

dental appliance attached to adjacent teeth to replace missing teeth

214

crown

artificial tooth to replace original crown

215

denture

partial or complete set of artificial teeth

216

extraction

removing teeth

217

implant

prosthetic device in jaw to anchor a tooth

218

root canal

drilling out of pulp cavity of a tooth; used to save a tooth that is badly infected

219

gavage

placing liquid nourishment directly into stomach via a nasogastric tube

220

lavage

washing out stomach using a nasogastric tube

221

nasogastric intubation

flexible catheter inserted into nose and down esophagus into the stomach

222

total parenteral nutrition

providing 100% of patient nutrition; used when patient is unable to eat

223

anastomosis

surgical creation of a connection between 2 organs; like joining together 2 sections of colon

224

appendectomy

surgical removal of appendix

225

bariatric surgery

surgical procedures to treat morbid obesity; like stomach stapling

226

cholecystecomy

surgical removal of gallbladder

227

choledocholithotripsy

surgical crushing of a gallstone in the common bile duct

228

colectomy

surgical removal of the colon

229

colostomy

surgical creation of an opening into some portion of colon through abdominal wall

230

diverticulectomy

surgical removal of diverticula

231

Exploratory Laparotomy

surgical removal to examine the abdominal organs

232

fistulectomy

removal of a fistula

233

gastrectomy

surgical removal of the stomach

234

gastric stapling

procedure to close off large section of stomach with rows of staples; results in much small stomach

235

gastrostomy

surgical procedure to create a new opening into the stomach through the abdominal wall

236

hemorrhoidectomy

surgical removal of hemorrhoids

237

hernioplasty

surgical repair of a hernia

238

ileostomy

surgical creation of a new opening into the ileum

239

laparoscopic cholecystectomy

surgical removal of gallbladder through a laparoscopic incision

240

laparotomy

to cut into the abdominal cavity

241

liver transplant

implantation of a donor liver

242

palatoplasty

surgical repair of the palate

243

pharyngoplasty

surgical repair of the pharynx

244

proctopexy

surgical fixation of the rectum and anus

245

What is the function of the digestive system?

Digesting Food
Absorbing nutrients
Eliminating waste