Chapter 4: Musculoskeletal System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4: Musculoskeletal System Deck (296):
1

What are the organs of the skeletal system?

Bones of the skeleton
Joints

2

What are bones?

Body organs with blood supply, nerves, and lymphatic vessels that form a skeleton.

3

How many bones make a skeleton?

206

4

What is red bone marrow?

It is within the bones that produces blood cells

5

What is a joint?

The place where the 2 bones meet

6

What holds together the joints and bones?

Ligaments

7

What is another name for bones?

Osseous tissue

8

What is the process of bone formation before birth?

Ossification

9

What model forms a fetal skeleton?

Cartilage model

10

Flexible tissue is replaced by what?

Osteoblasts

11

What is another name for osteoblasts?

Immature bone cells

12

What do osteoblasts mature into?

Osteocytes

13

What are the 4 shapes of bones?

Long bones
Short bones
Flat bones
Irregular bones

14

What are 2 examples of a long bone?

Femur
Humerus

15

What are 2 examples of short bones?

Carpals
Tarsals

16

What are 3 examples of flat bones?

Sternum
Scapula
Pelvis

17

What is an example of an irregular bone?

Vertebrae

18

What majority of bone shape is the body?

Long bones

19

What are the 2 types of long bones?

Diaphysis
Epiphysis

20

What are the 6 functions of the skeletal system?

Internal framework of body
Supports body
Protects internal organs
Point of attachment for muscles
Produces blood cells
Stores minerals

21

What is the medullary cavity?

It is an open canal within the diaphysis that contains yellow bone marrow.

22

What is yellow bone marrow?

mostly fat

23

What is the Epiphysis and where is it located?

It is at the wide end of a long bone and it is covered by the articular cartilage, which prevents the bones from rubbing together.

24

What is the periosteum?

It is a thin connective tissue membrane that contains numerous nerve and lymphatic vessels that covers the surface of bone where articular cartilage doesn't cover.

25

What is the Compact bone and where can it be found?

The cortical bone outer layer of bone that is a very dense and hard. It can be found in both the epiphysis and diaphysis.

26

What is the cancellous bone and where can it be found?

Also known as the spongy bone, it is inside the bone and has spaces containing red bone marrow.

27

What is red bone marrow

it manufactures blood cells

28

Head

Large smooth ball-shaped end of a long bone

29

Condyle

Smooth rounded portion at end of bone

30

Epicondyle

Projection above or on a condyle

31

Trochanter

Larger rough process

32

Tubercle

Small rough process

33

Tuberosity

Large rough process

34

Sinus

Hollow cavity within bone

35

foramen

Smooth opening for nerves and blood vessels

36

fossa

Shallow cavity or depression within a bone

37

fissure

Deep grooves or slit-like opening

38

Identify the 2 divisions of a skeleton.

Axial Skeleton
Appendicular skeleton

39

What bones are in the Axial Skeleton?

Head
Neck
Spine
Chest
Trunk

40

What are the 2 parts of the skull?

Cranium
Facial Bone

41

What is the purpose of the skull?

Protects brain, eyes, ears, nasal cavity, and oral cavity.
Attachment for muscles of chewing and turning the head.

42

Frontal

Forehead

43

Parietal

Upper Sides and roof of skull

44

Temperal

Sides and base of skull

45

Ethmoid

Part of eye orbit, nose, and floor of skull

46

Sphenoid

Part of floor of skull

47

Occipital

Back and base of skull

48

Mandible

Lower jawbone

49

Maxilla

Upper jawbone

50

Zygomatic

Cheek bones

51

Vomer

Part of nasal septum

52

Palatine

Hard palate and floor of nose

53

nasal

part of nasal septum and bridge of nose

54

Lacrimal

Inner corner of eye

55

What is the Hyoid Bone?

U shaped bone
Attachment point for swallowing and speech muscles

56

where si the Hyoid located?

Between mandible and larynx

57

What are the 3 parts of the trunk?

Vertebral column
Sternum
Rib cage

58

What are the 5 sections of the Vertebral column?

Cervical
Thoracic
Lumbar
Sacrum
Coccyx

59

Where is the cervical and how many vertebrae?

Neck
7

60

Where is the thoracic and how many vertebrae?

Chest
12

61

Where is the lumbar and how many vertebrae?

Low back
5

62

Where is the Sacrum and how many vertebrae?

Base of spine
5 Fused

63

Where is the Coccyx and how many vertebrae?

Attached to Sacrum
3-5 small

64

How many pairs of rib are there?

12

65

Rib Cage

Attached to vertebral column at back.

66

What is the purpose of the rib cage?

Provides support for organs

67

True ribs

10 pairs attached to sternum in front

68

Floating ribs

Inferior 2 pairs with no attachment to front

69

What is the Appendicular Skeleton's 4 divisions?

Pectoral Girdle
Upper Extremity
Pelvic Girdle
Lower Extremity

70

Pectoral Girdle

Attaches upper extremity to axial skeleton.

71

What does the Pectoral Girdle articulate with?

Sternum anteriorly
Vertebral Column posteriorly

72

What does the pectoral girdle consist of?

Clavicle
Scapula

73

Clavicle

Collar bone

74

Scapula

Shoulder bone

75

Upper Extremity

Arms

76

Humerus

upper arm

77

Ulna

part of forearm

78

radius

part of forearm

79

carpals

wrist bones

80

metacarpals

hand bones

81

phalanges

finger bones

82

What are 3 other names the Pelvic Girdle is known as?

os coxae
innominate bone
hipbone

83

Pelvic Gridle

Attaches lower extremity to axial skeleton

84

What does the pelvic girdle articulate with?

Sacrum posteriorly

85

What does the pelvic girdle consist of?

Ilium
Ischium
Pubis

86

Lower Extremity

Leg

87

Femur

thigh bone

88

patella

knee cap

89

tibia

shin bone

90

fibula

lower leg bone

91

tarsals

ankle bone

92

metatarsals

foot bones

93

phalanges

toe bones

94

What is another name for joints?

articulation

95

What are the 3 types of joints?

Synovial
Cartilaginous
Fibrous

96

Synovial Joints

Freely moving joints
Ball-and-socket joint

97

Ligaments

Strong bands of connective tissue that holds bones together

98

Bursa

Sac-like structure lined with synovial membrane

99

What so the most common joint?

Synovial joint

100

Joint capsule

Encloses synovial joints and contains synovial fluid.

101

Synovial Fluid

Lubricant secreted by synovial membrane

102

What are the end of bones covered with?

Articular Cartilge

103

What is cartilaginous joints?

Holds bones in place by solid piece of cartilage that allows slight movement

104

What is an example of a cartilaginous joint?

Pubic Symphysis

105

Fibrous Joint

Joined by thick fibrous tissue that allows almost no movement

106

What is an example of a fibrous joint?

Sutures of the skull

107

articular

pertaining to a joint

108

carpal

pertaining to the wrist

109

cervical

pertaining to the neck

110

clavicular

pertaining to the collar bone

111

coccygeal

pertaining to the tail bone

112

cortical

pertaining to the outer portion

113

costal

pertaining to the ribs

114

cranial

pertaining to the skull

115

femoral

pertaining to the femur

116

fibular

pertaining to the fibula

117

humeral

pertaining to the humerus

118

iliac

pertaining to the ilium

119

intervertebral

pertaining to between vertebrae

120

intracranial

pertaining to inside the skull

121

ischial

pertaining to the ischium

122

lumbar

pertaining to the low back

123

mandibular

pertaining to the lower jaw

124

maxillary

pertaining to the upper jaw

125

medullary

pertaining to the inner portion

126

metacarpal

pertaining to the hand

127

metatarsal

pertaining to the foot

128

Patellar

Pertaining to the knee cap

129

Pelvic

Pertaining to the pelvis

130

Phalangical

Pertaining to the fingers/toes

131

Pubic

Pertaining to the pubis

132

Radial

Pertaining to the radius

133

Sacral

Pertaining to the sacrum

134

scapular

pertaining to the shoulder blade

135

sternal

pertaining to the breast bone

136

synovial

pertaining to the synovial membrane

137

tarsal

pertaining to the ankle

138

thoracic

pertaining to the chest

139

tibial

pertaining to the tibia

140

ulnar

pertaining to the ulna

141

arthralgia

joint pain

142

bursitis

inflammation of the bursa

143

callus

mass of bone tissue that forms at fracture site during healing

144

chondromalacia

softening of the cartilage

145

crepitation

noise produced by bones or cartilage rubbing together

146

ostealgia

bone pain

147

oseomyelitis

inflammation of bone and bone marrow

148

synovitis

inflammation of synovial membrane

149

Closed Fracture

Fracture with no open skin wound; also called simple fracture

150

Colles' Fracture

Common wrist fracture

151

comminuted fracture

fractured with an open skin wound; also called open fracture

152

Compression Fraction

Fracture with loss of height in vertebral body; often from osteoporosis

153

fracture

broken bone

154

FX, Fx

fracture

155

greenstick fracture

incomplete break; one side of bone is broken, the other is bent; common in children

156

impacted fracture

bone fragments are pushed into each other

157

oblique fracture

fracture at an angle to bone

158

pathologic fracture

fracture caused by diseased or weakened bone

159

spiral fracture

fracture line spiral around shaft of bone; often slower to heal

160

stress fracture

slight fracture caused by repetitive low-impact forces like running

161

transverse fracture

fracture is straight across bone

162

Chondroma

tumor in cartilage; usually benign

163

Ewing's Sarcoma

Cancerous tumor of shaft of long bones; spreads through periosteum; amputation is necessary to prevent metastasis

164

Exostosis

Bone Spur

165

Myeloma

Tumor forming in bone marrow tissue

166

osteochondroma

tumor consisting of bone and cartilage tissue; usually benign

167

osteogenic sarcoma

most common type of bone cancer; begins in osteocytes

168

osteomalacia

softening of bones caused by calcium deficiency; caused in children with insufficient sunlight and Vitamin D

169

osteopathy

General term for bone disease

170

osteoporosis

decrease in bone mass; results in thinning and weakening of bones; porous bone easily fractures

171

Paget's Disease

metabolic disease of bone; unknown cause; results in bone destruction and deformity

172

rickets

caused by calcium and vitamin D deficiency; results in bone deformities

173

ankylosing spondylitis

inflammatory condition resembles rheumatoid arthritis; gradual stiffening and fusion of vertebrae

174

herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP)

protusion of an intervertebral disk; also called ruptured disk

175

kyphosis

abnormal increase in curve of thoracic spine; humpback

176

lordosis

abnormal increase in forward curvature of lumbar spine; swayback

177

scoliosis

lateral curve of spine

178

spina bifida

congenital anomaly; vertebra fails to fully form around spinal cord

179

spinal stenosis

narrowing of spinal canal; causes pressure on spinal cord and nerves

180

spondylolisthesis

forward sliding of lumbar vertebra over vertebra over it

181

spondylosis

general term for degenerative vertebral column condition

182

whiplash

cervical muscle and ligament sprain

183

bunion

inflammation of bursa at base of great toe

184

dislocation

bones in joint are displaced from normal alignment

185

osteoarthritis (OA)

results in degeneration of bone and joints; bone rubs against bone

186

rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

autoimmune inflammation of joints with swelling, stiffness, pain; results in joint deformities

187

sprain

damage to ligaments around joint due to over stretching; no dislocation or fracture

188

subluxation

incomplete dislocation; joint alignment is disrupted, but ends of bones remain in contact

189

systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

autoimmune disease of connective tissue affecting many systems including joints; looks like rheumatoid arthritis

190

talipes

congenital deformity of ankle misalignment; clubfoot

191

arthrogram

x-ray record of a joint

192

arthrography

visualizing joint by x-ray after injecting contrast medium into joint

193

bone scan

nuclear medicine procedure; radioactive dye is used to visualize bones; useful for identifying stress fractures and metastases

194

dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA)

measures bone density using low dose x-ray; detects osteoporosis

195

myelography

study of spinal column after injecting opaque contrast medium; useful for identifying herniated nucleus pulposus

196

radiography

uses x-rays to study internal structure of body; especially useful for visualizing bones and joints

197

arthroscope

instrument used to view inside a joint

198

arthroscopy

examining interior of joint with an arthroscope, a fiberoptic camera; view of joint interior appears on monitor during procedure

199

arthrocentesis

insertion of needle into joint cavity to remove fluid

200

orthotic

brace or splint used to prevent or correct deformities

201

prosthesis

artificial device to substitute for a missing or damaged body part

202

amputation

removal of a limb

203

arthroclasia

forcibly break loose a fused joint

204

arthrodesis

stabilize join by fusing bones together

205

arthroscopic surgery

performing surgery while using an arthroscope to view inside joint

206

arthrotomy

cutting into a joint

207

bone graft

bone from another source used to replace boney defect in another location

208

bunionectomy

removal of bursa at base of great toe

209

bursectomy

removal of bursa

210

chondrectomy

removal of cartilage

211

chondroplasty

repair of cartilage

212

craniotomy

cutting into the skull

213

laminectomy

removal of posterior arch of vertebra to remove compression of a spinal nerve

214

osteoclasia

intentional breaking of a bone

215

osteotome

instrument used to cut bone

216

osteotomy

cutting into a bone

217

percutaneous diskectomy

tube is inserted into intervertebral disk to suck out ruptured disk; may also be done with a laser

218

spinal fusion

surgical immobilization of adjacent vertebrae

219

synovectomy

removal of a synovial membrane

220

total hip arthroplasty (THA)

implanting a prosthetic hip joint

221

total knee arthroplasty (TKA)

implanting a prosthetic knee joint

222

cast

solid material to immobilize a fracture; may be made of plaster of Paris or fiberglass

223

fixation

stabilizes fracture while it heals; external fixation fixation includes casts and splints; internal fixation includes pins, plates, and screws

224

reduction

realigning bone fragments of fracture; closed reduction is manipulation without surgery; open reduction requires surgery

225

traction

applying a pulling force on fracture or dislocation to restore alignment

226

bone reabsorption inhibitors

reduce the reabsorption of bone; treats osteoporosis and Paget's disease

227

corticosteroids

have strong anti-inflammatory properties; treats rheumatoid arthritis

228

What is the function of the muscular system?

individual cells are able to contract or shorten in length that produces movement

229

What are the organs of the muscular system

muscles

230

What do muscle tissue fibers contract?

shorten in length
produce movement
move bones closer together
push food through digestive system
pump blood through blood vessels

231

What are the 3 types of muscles?

Skeletal
Smooth
Cardiac

232

Voluntary Muscles

Skeletal muscles that consciously choose to contract the muscle

233

Involuntary muscles

Smooth & cardiac muscles that are under control of subconscious brain

234

Skeletal Muscle

Attached to bones
Looks striped under microscope

235

Striated Muscle

Skeletal Muscle

236

Fascia

Skeletal muscles wrapped in layers of connective tissue

237

What are skeletal muscles stimulated by?

Motor neurons

238

Myoneural junction

Point of contact with muscle fiber

239

Where are skeletal muscles found?

Trunk, extremities, head, and neck

240

Where are visceral muscles found?

Viscera
Blood vessels

241

Where are cardiac muscles found?

Heart

242

What internal organs are smooth muscles associated with?

Stomach
Respiratory airways
Blood Vessels

243

Visceral Muscle

Smooth muscle.

244

Myocardium

cardiac muscle

245

Cardiac Muscle

makes up the walls of the heart

246

abduction

movement away from midline of body

247

adduction

movement toward midline of body

248

flexion

act of bending or being bent

249

extension

brings limb into a straight condition

250

dorsiflexion

backward bending of foot

251

plantar flexion

bending sole of foot; pointing toes

252

eversion

turning outward

253

inversion

turning inward

254

pronation

turning palm downward

255

supination

turning palm upward

256

elevation

to raise

257

depression

to drop down

258

Circumduction

Movement in circular direction from a central point

259

Opposition

Moving thumb away from palm to contact tip of other fingers

260

Rotation

Moving around a central axis

261

fascial

pertaining to fascia

262

muscular

pertaining to muscles

263

myocardial

pertaining to heart muscle

264

skeletal

pertaining to the skeleton

265

tendonous

pertaining to tendons

266

adhesion

scar tissue in fascia; makes muscle movement difficult

267

atrophy

poor muscle development; result of muscle disease or lack of use; muscle wasting

268

bradykinesia

having slow movements

269

contracture

abnormal shortening of muscle fibers, tendons, or fascia

270

dyskinesia

having difficulty or painful movements

271

dystonia

having abnormal muscle tone

272

hyperkinesia

having an excessive amount of movement

273

hypertonia

having excessive muscle tone

274

hypokinesia

having insufficient amount of movement

275

hypotonia

having insufficient muscle tone

276

intermittent claudication

attacks of severe pain and lameness caused by muscle ischemia; usually in calf muscles

277

myalgia

mucle pain

278

myasthenia

muscle weakness

279

myotonia

muscle tone

280

spasm

sudden, involuntary, strong muscle contraction

281

tenodynia

tendon pain

282

fascitis

inflammation of fascia

283

fibromyalgia

widespread aching and pain in muscles and soft tissue

284

lateral epicondylitis

inflammation of elbow muscles; caused by strong gripping; tennis elbow

285

muscular dystrophy (MD)

inherited disease with progressive muscle atrophy

286

myopathy

muscle diease

287

myorrhexis

tearing a muscle

288

polymyositis

inflammation of 2 or more muscles

289

pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy

inherited muscular dystrophy

290

torticollis

severe neck spasms pulling head to one side; wryneck or crick in neck

291

carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)

repetitive motion disorder; compression of finger tendons and median nerve as they pass through carpal tunnel of the wrist

292

Ganglion Cyst

Cyst on tendon sheath; usually on hand wrist, or ankle

293

Repetitive Motion Disorder

Chronic disorders involving tendon, muscles, joints, and nerve damage; tissue is subjected to pressure, vibration, or repetitive movements

294

rotator cuff injury

joint capsule of shoulder joints is reinforced by tendons; high degree of flexibility puts rotator cuff at risk for strain and tearing

295

Strain

damage to muscle, tendons, or ligaments due to overuse or overstretching

296

tendinitis

inflammation of a tendon