Chapter 2 - Reproduction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Reproduction Deck (159)
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1

Reproduction

(definition)

organisms perpetuates itself and its species

2

cell division

(definition)

  • cell doubles its organelles and cytoplasm
  • replicates DNA
  • divides into two

3

unicellular organisms 

(cell division)

means of reproduction

4

mutlicellular organism

(cell division)

  • method of growth
  • development
  • replacement of worn-out cells

5

Mitosis

(definition)

  • division and distribution of DNA to two daughter cells
  • each cell receives complete copy of original genome

6

Mitosis

(General steps)

  1. Interphase
  2. Nuclear division
  3. Cell division

7

Karyokinesis

nuclear division

8

cytokinesis

9

Steps of Mitosis

  1. Interphase
  2. Prophase
  3. Metaphase
  4. Anaphase
  5. Telophase
  6. Cytokinesis

10

Interphase

  • 90% of cell's life
  • each chromosome replicated 
  • after replication - chromosome = two daughter chromatids
  • individual chromosomes NOT visible
  • DNA uncoiled (chromatin)

11

each chromosome replicated during interphase so that..

a complete copy of genome can be distributed to both daughter cells

12

centromere

central region where sister chromatids held together

13

chromatin

uncoiled DNA

14

Prophase

  • Chromosomes condense
  • (animals) centriole pairs separate and move towards opposite poles of cell
  • spindle apparatus forms between 
  • nuclear membrane dissolves
  • spindle fibers interact with chromosomes

15

metaphase

centriole pairs at opposite poles of cell

fibers of spindle apparatus attach to each chromatid at centomere to align chromosomes at center of cell (equator)

forms metaphase plate

16

anaphase

centromeres split 

each chromatid has own distinct centromere

sister chromatids separate

shortneing of spindle fibers pulls sister chromatids towards opposite poles of cell 

 

17

microtubules

makeup spindle fibers

18

telophase

  • spindle apparatus disappears
  • nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes
  • each nucleus contains 2N
  • chromosomes uncoil 

 

19

Cytokinesis

end of telophase

cytoplasm divides into two daughter cells

(animal cells) cleavage furrow forms

20

cleavage furrow

  • cell membrane indents along equator of cell
  • pinches through cell
  • separates two nuclei

21

Prophase 

(synopsis)

chromosomes condense

spindles form

22

Metaphase

(synopses)

chromosomes align

23

Anaphase

(synopsis)

sister chromatids separate

24

telophase

(synopsis)

new nuclear membrane forms

25

chromatid composed of..

double-stranded molecule of DNA

26

sister chromatids

identical copies of each other

27

chromosome

single chromatid

or

pair of chromatids attached at centromere

28

Mitosis in Plant Cells

(2 major differences bw plant and animal)

plants lack centrioles

spindle apparatus synthesized by microtubule organizing centers (invisible)

29

Why no cleavage furrow in plant cells?

(cytokinesis)

plant cells are rigid

30

how do plant cells divide?

(cytokinesis)

formation of a cell plate