Chapter 21 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 21 Deck (14)


A movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions


Benjamin Franklin

Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity


George Washington

Commander of Continental Army, that battled Britain for freedom was also the first president of the united states


Joseph Brant

Mohawk leader who supported the British during the American Revolution


Constitutional Convention

Meeting of delegates in 1787 to revise the Articles of Confederation, which produced the new U.S. Constitution


Estates General

France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution


Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

A document, issued during the French Revolution that guaranteed certain human rights and other freedoms



Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794


Maximilien Robespierre

Young provincial lawyer who led the most radical phases of the French Revolution. His execution ended the Reign of Terror


Napoleon Bonaparte

Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile


gens de couleur

Free men and women of color in Haiti. They sought greater political rights and later supported the Haitian Revolution


Francois Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture

Leader of the Haitian Revolution. He freed the slaves and gained effective independence for Haiti despite military interventions by the British and French


Congress of Vienna

Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon


Revolutions of 1848

Democratic and nationalist revolutions that swept across Europe. The monarchy in France was overthrown. In Germany, Austria, Italy, and Hungary the revolutions failed