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Flashcards in Chapter 26 Deck (18)
1

railroads

Networks of iron (later steel) rails on which steam (later electric or diesel) locomotives pulled long trains at high speeds. First railroads were built in England in the 1830s. Success caused a railroad building boom lasting into the 20th Century

2

submarine telegraph cables

Insulated copper cables laid along the bottom of a sea or ocean for telegraphic communication. The first short cable was laid across the English Channel in 1851;; the first successful transatlantic cable was laid in 1866.

3

steel

an alloy of iron with small amounts of carbon

4

electricity

energy made available by the flow of electric charge through a conductor

5

Thomas Edison

American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.

6

victorian age

a period in British history during the reign of Queen Victoria in the 19th century

7

separate spheres

Middle-class ideal where home life was strictly separated from the workplace and women roles were separate from mens, with women running the household and men earning money outside it.

8

socialism

a political theory advocating state ownership of industry

9

labor unions

Organizations of workers who, together, put pressure on the employers in an industry to improve working conditions and wages.

10

Karl Marx

founder of modern communism

11

anarchist

A revolutionary who wanted to abolish all private property and governments, usually by violence, and replace them with free associations of groups.

12

nationalism

A political ideology that stresses people's membership in a nation-a community defined by a common culture and history as well as by territory. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, nationalism was a force for unity in western Europe. In the late nineteenth century it hastened the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires. In the twentieth century it provided the ideological foundation for scores of independent countries emerging from colonialism.

13

liberalism

an economic theory advocating free competition and a self-regulating market and the gold standard

14

Giuseppe Garibaldi

Italian patriot whose conquest of Sicily and Naples led to the formation of the Italian state (1807-1882)

15

Otto Von Bismarck

German statesman under whose leadership Germany was united (1815-1898)

16

meiji restoration

The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.

17

Yamagata Aritomo

One of the leaders of the Meiji Restoration.

18

Empress Dowager Cixi

Empress of China and mother of Emperor Guangxi. She put her son under house arrest, supported anti foreign movements, and resisted reforms of the Chinese government and armed forces.