Chapter 28 - The Crisis of Imperial Order, 1900-1929 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 28 - The Crisis of Imperial Order, 1900-1929 Deck (22)
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1
Q

Western Front

A

A line of trenches and fortifications in World War I that stretched without a break from Switzerland to the North Sea. Scene of most of the fighting between Germany, on the one hand, and France and Britain, on the other.

2
Q

Faisal

A

Arab prince, leader of the Arab Revolt in World War I. The British made him king of Iraq in 1921, and he reigned under British protection until 1933.

3
Q

Theodore Herzl

A

Austrian journalist and founder of the Zionist movement urging the creation of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine.

4
Q

Balfour Declaration

A

Statement issued by Britain’s Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour in 1917 favoring the establishment of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine.

5
Q

Bolsheviks

A

Radical Marxist political party founded by Vladimir Lenin in 1903. Under Lenin’s leadership, the Bolsheviks seized power in November 1917 during the Russian Revolution.

6
Q

Vladimir Lenin

A

Leader of the Bolshevik (later Communist) Party. He lived in exile in Switzerland until 1917, then returned to Russia to lead the Bolsheviks to victory during the Russian Revolution and the civil war that followed.

7
Q

Woodrow Wilson

A

President of the United States (1913–1921) and the leading figure at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. He was unable to persuade the U.S. Congress to ratify the Treaty of Versailles or join the League of Nations.

8
Q

Fourteen Points

A

A peace program presented to the U.S. Congress by President Woodrow Wilson in January 1918. It called for the evacuation of German-occupied lands, the drawing of borders and the settling of territorial disputes by the self-determination of the affected populations, and the founding of an association of nations to preserve the peace and guarantee their territorial integrity. It was rejected by Germany, but it made Wilson the moral leader of the Allies in the last year of World War I.

9
Q

League of Nations

A

League of Nations International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s, and it was superseded by the United Nations in 1945.

10
Q

Treaty of Versailles

A

The treaty imposed on Germany by France, Great Britain, the United States, and other Allied Powers after World War I. It demanded that Germany dismantle its military and give up some lands to Poland. It was resented by many Germans.

11
Q

New Economic Policy

A

Policy proclaimed by Vladimir Lenin in 1923 to encourage the revival of the Soviet economy by allowing small private enterprises. Joseph Stalin ended the NEP in 1928 and replaced it with a series of Five-Year Plans.

12
Q

Sun Yat-sen

A

Chinese nationalist revolutionary, founder and leader of the Guomindang until his death. He attempted to create a liberal democratic political movement in China but was thwarted by military leaders.

13
Q

Yuan Shikai

A

Chinese general and first president of the Chinese Republic (1912–1916). He stood in the way of the democratic movement led by Sun Yat-sen.

14
Q

Guomindang

A

Nationalist political party founded on democratic principles by Sun Yat-sen in 1912. After 1925, the party was headed by Chiang Kai-shek, who turned it into an increasingly authoritarian movement.

15
Q

Chiang Kai-shek

A

Chinese military and political leader. Succeeded Sun Yat-sen as head of the Guomindang in 1925; headed the Chinese government from 1928 to 1949; fought against the Chinese Communists and Japanese invaders. After 1949 he headed the Chinese Nationalist government in Taiwan.

16
Q

mandate system

A

Allocation of former German colonies and Ottoman possessions to the victorious powers after World War I, to be administered under League of Nations supervision.

17
Q

Atatürk

A

The founder of modern Turkey. He distinguished himself in the defense of Gallipoli in World War I and expelled a Greek expeditionary army from Anatolia in 1921–1922. He replaced the Ottoman Empire with the Turkish Republic in 1923. As president, he pushed through a radical Westernization and reform of Turkish society.

18
Q

Margaret Sanger

A

American nurse and author; pioneer in the movement for family planning; organized conferences and established birth control clinics.

19
Q

Max Planck

A

German physicist who developed quantum theory and was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 1918.

20
Q

Albert Einstein

A

German physicist who developed the theory of relativity, which states that time, space, and mass are relative to each other and not fixed.

21
Q

Sigmund Freud

A

Austrian psychiatrist, founder of psychoanalysis. He argued that psychological problems were caused by traumas, especially sexual experiences in early childhood, that were repressed in later life. His ideas caused considerable controversy among psychologists and in the general public. Although his views on repressed sexuality are no longer widely accepted, his psychoanalytic methods are still very influential.

22
Q

Wilbur and Orville

Wright

A

American bicycle mechanics; the first to build and fly an airplane, at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, December 7, 1903.