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Flashcards in Chapter 32 Deck (18)

Proxy Wars

During the Cold War, local or regional wars in which the superpowers armed, trained, and financed the combatants.


Salvador Allende

Socialist politician elected president of Chile in 1970 and overthrown bu the military in 1973. He died during the military attack.


Dirty War

War engaged by the Argentine military(1976-1983) against leftist groups. Characterized by the use of illegal imprisonment, torture, and executions by the military.



Members of a leftist coalition that overthrew the Nicaraguan dictatorship of Anastasia Somoza in 1979 and attempted to install a socialist economy. The United States financed armed opposition by the Contras. The Sandinistas lost national elections in 1990.


Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini

Shi'ite philosopher and cleric who led the overthrow of the shah of Iran in 1979 and created an Islamic republic.



The term used in Latin America and other developing regions to describe free-market policies that include reducing tariff protection for local industries; the sale of public-sector industries, like national airlines and public utilities, to private investors or foreign corporations; and the reduction of social welfare policies and public sector employment.


Saddam Husain

President of Iraq from 1979 until overthrown by American-led invasion in 2003. Waged war on Iran from 1980 to 1988. His invasion of Kuwait in 1990 was repulsed in the Persian Gulf in 1991.



Alliances of corporations and banks that dominate the Japanese economy.


Asian Tigers

Collective name for South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore nations that became economic powers in the 1970s and 1980s.


Newly Industrialized Economies (NIEs)

Rapidly growing, new industrial nations of the late 20th century, including the Asian Tigers.


Deng Xiaoping

Communist Party leader who forced Chinese economic reforms after the death of Mao Zedong.


Tiananmen Square

Site in Beijing where Chinese students and workers gathered to demand greater political openness in 1989. The demonstration was crushed by Chinese military with great loss of life.


Mikhail Gorbachev

Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of communist governments in eastern Europe.



Policy of "restructuring"that was the centerpiece of Mikhail Gorbachev's efforts to liberalize communism in the Soviet Union.



Polish trade union created in 1980 to protest working conditions and political repression. It became the nationalist opposition to communist rule that led in 1989 to the fall of communism in Eastern Europe.


Ethnic Cleansing

Effort to eradicate a people and its culture by means of mass killing and the destruction of historical buildings and cultural materials. Ethnic cleansing was used by both sides in the conflicts that accompanied the disintegration of Yugoslavia in the 1990s.


Thomas Malthus

18th English intellectual who warned that population growth threatened future generations because, in his law, population growth would always outstrip increases in agricultural production.


Demographic Transition

A change in the rates of population growth. Before the transition, both birthrates and death are high, resulting in a slowly growing population. then the death rate drops but the birthrate remains high, causing a population explosion; finally the birthrate drops and the population growth slows down.