Chapter 21: Clients With Orthopedic, Injury, and Rehabilitation Concerns Flashcards Preview

NSCA CPT Exam Study > Chapter 21: Clients With Orthopedic, Injury, and Rehabilitation Concerns > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 21: Clients With Orthopedic, Injury, and Rehabilitation Concerns Deck (40)
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1

Macrotrauma

An injury with a sudden and obvious episode of tissue overload and subsequent damage. (NSCA CPT, pg. 554)

2

Microtrauma

The general term given to small injuries to the body. Microtrauma can include the microtearing of muscle fibres, the sheath around the muscle and the connective tissue. It can also include stress to the tendons, and to the bones. (NSCA CPT, pg. 554)

3

Sprain

A wrench or twist the ligaments of (an ankle, wrist, or other joint) violently so as to cause pain and swelling but not dislocation. (NSCA CPT, pg. 554)

4

Strain

An acute or chronic soft tissue injury that occurs to a muscle, tendon, or both. (NSCA CPT, pg. 554)

5

Fracture

A break, usually in a bone. (NSCA CPT, pg. 554)

6

Deafferentation

Microscopic nerve damage in soft tissue. (NSCA CPT, pg. 554)

7

Muscle Contusion

Commonly referred to as a bruise and occurs from a sudden and forceful blow to the body. The result is formation of a hematoma (blood tumor) in tissues surrounding the injured muscle. Speed of healing depends on extent of damage and internal bleeding. Contusions may severely limit movement of the injured muscle. (NSCA CPT, pg. 555)

8

Muscle Strain

Often the result of an abnormal muscle action leading to a stretching or tearing of the muscle fibers. Strains are assigned grades or degrees (first, second, third) to indicate severity of injury. A first- or second-degree strain is a partial tear, whereas third degree reflects a complete tear- ing of the muscle tissue. Pain, strength limitations, and motion restrictions increase with an increase in the grade. (NSCA CPT, pg. 555)

9

Tendinopathy

A more recently accepted term to describe the collective effects of tendinitis and tendinosis. (NSCA CPT, pg. 555)

10

Tendinitis

Inflammation of a tendon. This microtrauma injury is frequently associated with obvious swelling and pain around the injured tendon. If left uncorrected or if the tissue is not allowed to
fully heal, may lead to tendinosis. (NSCA CPT, pg. 555)

11

Ligament Sprain

Trauma to the tissues that connect bones and contribute to joint stability. Ligament sprains
occur when an excessive force (i.e., due to a change in movement direction) results in the joint moving beyond its anatomical limits and stretching the ligament. Ligament sprains are assigned grades (1, 2, 3) to indicate severity of injury. An increase in the grade is associated with greater pain and tenderness, swelling, joint instability, and loss of function. (NSCA CPT, pg. 555)

12

Joint Dislocation

A joint dislocation occurs when a synovial joint moves beyond its normal anatomical limits. Dis- locations are divided into two categories: subluxation and luxation. A subluxation is a partial displacement or separation between two articulating bony surfaces. A luxation is a complete displacement resulting in a total disunion between two articulating bony surfaces. (NSCA CPT, pg. 555)

13

Osteochondrosis

Osteochondrosis refers to degenerative changes in the epiphyses of bones, particularly during periods of significant growth in children. The exact cause(s) of osteochondrosis is not fully understood. Terms commonly used to describe variations of osteochondrosis are osteochondritis dissecans and apophysitis. (NSCA CPT, pg. 555)

14

Osteoarthritis

Degeneration of the articular or hyaline cartilage in a joint. Can occur in any joint but is most common in weight-bearing joints such as the hip, knee, and ankle. (NSCA CPT, pg. 555)

15

Bursitis

Bursae are small fluid-filled synovial membrane sacs designed to reduce friction between tissues such as tendon and bone. When irritated, the bursa becomes inflamed, resulting in bur- sitis. Bursitis commonly occurs in the hip, knee, elbow, and shoulder and is usually accompanied by swelling, pain, and partial loss of function. (NSCA CPT, pg. 555)

16

Bone Fracture

A partial or complete disruption of a bone due to a direct blow. (NSCA CPT, pg. 555)

17

Bone Stress Fracture

A microtraumatic injury that may result from an abnormal muscle action, fatigue-related failure in the stress distribution across the bone, dramatic change in exercise or training ground surface (e.g., wood to grass), excessive training volume, or both. Recent literature has also suggested that nutrition may play a significant role in stress fractures. (NSCA CPT, pg. 555)

18

Inflammation Phase

The body’s initial reaction to injury and is necessary in order for normal healing to occur. (NSCA CPT, pg. 556)

19

Repair Phase

The repair phase of healing allows for the replacement of tissues that are not viable following injury or surgery. (NSCA CPT, pg. 556)

20

Remodeling Phase

Optimizing tissue function is the primary goal during this final phase of healing. (NSCA CPT, pg. 557)

21

Indication

An activity that will benefit the injured client. (NSCA CPT, pg. 558)

22

Contraindication

An activity or practice that is inadvisable or prohibited because of the given injury. (NSCA CPT, pg. 558)

23

Precaution

An activity that may be performed under supervision of a qualified personal trainer and according to client limitations and symptom reproduction. (NSCA CPT, pg. 558)

24

Spondyloysis

A defect, or fracture, of the pars interarticularis region of a lumbar vertebra. (NSCA CPT, pg. 561)

25

Spondylolisthesis

The possible progression of spondylolysis, a forward slippage of one vertebral body on another. (NSCA CPT, pg. 561)

26

Kyphotic Posture

Rounded shoulders. (NSCA CPT, pg. 562)

27

Impingement Syndrome

A “pinching” of the supra- spinatus, the long head of the biceps tendon, or subacromial bursa under the acromial arch. (NSCA CPT, pg. 562)

28

Anterior Instability

The head of the humerus moves too far forward, resulting in possible injury or dislocation. (NSCA CPT, pg. 565)

29

Subluxation

A partial displacement or separation between two articulating bony surfaces.(NSCA CPT, pg. 568)

30

Exercise Modification: Shoulder Press

When lowering the barbell, allow the bar to pass in front of the client’s head in order to minimize anterior shoulder stress. (NSCA CPT, pg. 568)