Chapter 4: Biomechanics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 4: Biomechanics Deck (49)
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1

Functional Anatomy

The relation between body structures and their function, particularly with respect to movement. (NSCA CPT, pg. 61)

2

Linear Motion

Motion along a straight or curved line. (NSCA CPT, pg. 62)

3

Rectilinear Motion

Motion along a straight line. (NSCA CPT, pg. 62)

4

Curvilinear Motion

Motion along a curved line. (NSCA CPT, pg. 62)

5

Angular Motion (Rotational Motion)

Motion in which a body rotates about an axis. (NSCA CPT, pg. 62)

6

Axis of Rotation (Fulcrum)

Imaginary line about which joint rotation occurs. (NSCA CPT, pg. 62)

7

Frontal Plane

A vertical plane that divides the body or organs into front and back portions. (NSCA CPT, pg. 62)

8

Sagittal Plane

A vertical plane that divides the body or organs into left and right portions. (NSCA CPT, pg. 62)

9

Transverse Plane

A horizontal plane that divides the body or organs into upper and lower portions. (NSCA CPT, pg. 62)

10

Kinematics

Description of motion with respect to space and time, and without regard to the forces or torques involved. (NSCA CPT, pg. 62)

11

Acceleration

An increase in velocity. (NSCA CPT, pg. 62)

12

Kinetics

Assessment of motion with regard to forces and force-related measures. (NSCA CPT, pg. 62)

13

Friction

The resistance to motion of two objects or surfaces that touch. (NSCA CPT, pg. 65)

14

Angular Velocity

An object’s rotational speed. (NSCA CPT, pg. 66)

15

Torque

The tendency of a force to rotate an object about a fulcrum. (NSCA CPT, pg. 66)

16

First-class Lever

A lever for which the applied and resistive forces act on opposite sides of the fulcrum. (NSCA CPT, pg. 68)

17

Second-class Lever

A lever in which the applied and resistive forces act on the same side of the fulcrum, but with the applied force acting through a moment arm that is longer than that of the resistive force. (NSCA CPT, pg. 68)

18

Third-class Lever

A lever in which the applied and resistive forces act on the same side of the fulcrum, but with the resistive force acting through a moment arm that is longer than that of the applied force. (NSCA CPT, pg. 68)

19

Mechanical Advantage

The ratio of the length of the moment arm through which a muscular force acts to the length of a moment arm through which a resistive force acts. (NSCA CPT, pg. 68)

20

Work

The product of the force exerted on an object and the distance the object moves (i.e., force 􏰀 distance). (NSCA CPT, pg. 69)

21

Power

The rate of performing work, often expressed as either work divided by time or force times velocity. 70)

22

Mechanical Energy

Capacity or ability to do mechanical work. (NSCA CPT, pg. 71)

23

Efficiency

Amount of mechanical output produced for a given amount of metabolic input. (NSCA CPT, pg. 71)

24

Antagonist

A muscle, typically anatomically opposite to the agonist, that can stop or slow down a muscle action caused by the agonist. (NSCA CPT, pg. 71)

25

Agonist

A muscle that is shortening to perform a concentric action. (NSCA CPT, pg. 71)

26

Pennation Angle

The angle between the direction of the muscle fibers and an imaginary line between the muscle’s origin and its insertion. (NSCA CPT, pg. 72)

27

Anatomical Position

Position in which a person stands erect with arms down at the sides and palms forward. (NSCA CPT, pg. 62)

28

Moment Arm

Perpendicular distance from the axis of rotation to the line of force action. (NSCA CPT, pg. 66)

29

Line of Force Action

The line along which the force acts, passing through the force’s point of application. (NSCA CPT, pg. 66)

30

Force

A mechanical action or effect applied to a body that tends to produce acceleration. (NSCA CPT, pg. 65)