Chapter 21: Skin & Eyes Diseases Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 21: Skin & Eyes Diseases Deck (30)
1

Impetigo

Causative agent
Portal of Entry
Symptom
Method of Transmission
Treatment

S. aureus

Skin

vesicles on skin

direct contact, fomites

topical antibiotics

2

SSSS (Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome)

Causative agent
Portal of Entry
Symptom

S. aureus

throat, eye, or impetigo infection

separation of skin layers just above stratum basale

3

Folliculitis

Causative agent
Portal of Entry
Symptom
Method of Transmission
Treatment

S. aureus

Hair follicle

Infection of hair follicle

Direct contact, fomites, endogenous infection (infections caused by host microbiota)

Draining of pus, topical antibiotic

4

TSS

Causative agent
Portal of Entry
Symptom
Method of Transmission
Treatment

S. aureus

Surgical incisions

Fever, rash, shock

Endogenous infection

Antibiotics

5

Necrotizing facilitis

Causative agent
Portal of Entry
Symptom
Method of Transmission
Treatment

S. pyogenes

Skin abrasions

Extensive soft-tissue destruction

Direct contact

Surgical tissue removal; broad-spectrum antibiotics

6

Erysipelas

Causative agent
Portal of Entry
Symptom
Method of Transmission
Treatment

S. pyogenes

Skin, mucous membranes

Reddish patches on skin, high fever

Endogenous infection

Cephalosporin

7

Pseudomonas dermatitis

Causative agent
Portal of Entry
Symptom
Method of Transmission
Treatment

P. aeruginosa

Skin abrasions

Superficial rash

Swimming water, hot tubs

Usually self-limiting

8

Otitis Externa

Causative agent
Portal of Entry
Symptom
Method of Transmission
Treatment

P. aeruginosa

Ear

Superficial infection of external ear canal

Swimming water

Fluoroquinolones

9

Acne

Causative agent
Portal of Entry
Symptom
Method of Transmission
Treatment

Propionibacterium acnes

Sebum channels

Inflammatory lesions originating with accumulations of sebum that rupture a hair follicle

Direct contact

Benzyol peroxide, isotretinoin, azelaic acid

10

HHV-3 (varicella)

Causative agent
Portal of Entry
Symptom
Method of Transmission
Treatment

varicella-zoster virus

respiratory tract

vesicles in most cases confined to face, throat, lowerback

respiratory droplets

acyclovir for immunocompromised patients; preexposure vaccine

11

HHV-3 (herpes-zoster)

Causative agent
Portal of Entry
Symptom
Method of Transmission
Treatment

varicella-zoster virus

endogenous infection of peripheral nerves

vesicles typically on one side of waist, face and scalp, or upper chest

recurrence of latent chickenpox infection

acyclovir; preventive vaccine

12

Measles

Causative agent
Portal of Entry
Symptom
Method of Transmission
Treatment

measles virus

respiratory tract

skin rash of reddish macules first appearing on face and spreading to trunk and extremities

respiratory droplets

no treatment; preexposure vaccine

13

Rubella

Causative agent
Portal of Entry
Symptom
Method of Transmission
Treatment

Rubella virus

respiratory tract

mild disease w/ macular rash resembling measles, but less extensive and disappearing in 3 days or less

respiratory droplets

no treatment; preexposure vaccine

14

Fifth disease

Causative agent
Portal of Entry
Symptom
Method of Transmission
Treatment

Human parvovirus B19

respiratory tract

mild disease w/ macular facial rash

respiratory droplets

none

15

Roseola

Causative agent
Portal of Entry
Symptom
Method of Transmission
Treatment

Human herpesvirus 6 & 7

respiratory tract

high fever followed by macular body rash

respiratory droplets

none

16

Smallpox

Causative agent
Portal of Entry
Symptom
Method of Transmission
Treatment

smallpox (variola) virus

respiratory tract

pustules that may be nearly confluent on skin

respiratory droplets

none

17

Herpes simplex

Causative agent
Portal of Entry
Symptom
Method of Transmission
Treatment

herpes simplex virus type 1

Skin, mucous membranes

COLD SORES, vesicles around mouth; can also affect other areas of skin and mucous membranes

initial infection by direct contact; recurring latent infection

acyclovir

18

Warts

Causative agent
Portal of Entry
Symptom
Method of Transmission
Treatment

papillomavirus

skin

horny projection of skin formed by proliferation of cells

direct contact

removal by liquid nitrogen cryotherapy, electrodessication, acid, lasers

19

Ringworm (tinea)

Causative agent
Portal of Entry
Symptom
Method of Transmission
Treatment

microsporum, trychophyton, epidermaphyton

skin

skin lesions of highly varied appearance, on scale may cause local loss of hair; tinea pedis=athlete's foot

direct contact, fomites

griseofulvin (oral); miconazole, clotrimazole (topical)

20

Sporotrichosis

Causative agent
Portal of Entry
Symptom
Method of Transmission
Treatment

S. schenkii

Skin abrasions

ulcer @ site of infection, spreading into nearby lymphatic vessels

soil

potassium iodide solution (oral)

21

Candidiasis

Causative agent
Portal of Entry
Symptom
Method of Transmission
Treatment

Candida albincans

Skin, mucous membranes

macular rash, vaginitis

direct contact; endogenous infection

miconazole, clotrimazole (topical)

22

Scabies

Causative agent
Portal of Entry
Symptom
Method of Transmission
Treatment

Sarcoptes scabiei

skin

papules, itching

direct contact

gamma benzene hexachloride permethrin (topical)

23

Pediculosis (lice)

Causative agent
Portal of Entry
Symptom
Method of Transmission
Treatment

Pediculus humanus capitis

skin

itching

primarily direct contact; also fomites such as bedding, combs

topical insecticide preparations

24

Conjunctivitis (B)

Causative agent
Portal of Entry
Symptom
Method of Transmission
Treatment

Haemophilus influenzae (B)

conjunctiva

redness

direct contact, fomites

none

25

Opthalmia Neonatorum

Causative agent
Portal of Entry
Symptom
Method of Transmission
Treatment

Neisseria gonorrhoaea (B)

conjunctiva

acute infection with much pus formation

through birth canal

prevention: tetracycline, erythromycin, povidone-iodine

26

Inclusion conjunctivitis

Causative agent
Portal of Entry
Symptom
Method of Transmission
Treatment

Chlamydia trachomatis (B)

conjunctiva

swelling of eyelid; mucus, and pus formation

through birth canal; swimming pools

tetracycline

27

Trachoma

Causative agent
Portal of Entry
Symptom
Method of Transmission
Treatment

Chlamydia trachomatis (B)

conjunctiva

conjunctivitis, blindness

direct contact, fomites, flies

Azithromycin

28

Conjunctivitis (V)

Causative agent
Portal of Entry
Symptom
Method of Transmission
Treatment

Adenoviruses (V)

conjunctiva

redness

direct contact

none

29

Herpetic keratitis

Causative agent
Portal of Entry
Symptom
Method of Transmission
Treatment

herpes simplex virus type 1

conjunctiva; cornea

keratitis

direct contact, recurring latent infection

trifluridine may be effective

30

Achanthamoeba keratitis

Causative agent
Portal of Entry
Symptom
Method of Transmission
Treatment

Acanthamoeba spp.

corneal abrasion; soft contact lenses may prevent removal of ameba by blinking

keratitis

contact w/ fresh water

topical propamidine isethionate or miconazole; corneal transplant or eye removal surgery may be required