Flashcards in Chapter 23 Deck (92):
Who was the embodiment of the new era?
When was Henry Ford born?
What was Henry Ford
Henry Ford in 1903 began to produce ___________
Cars, model T, custom made
Henry Ford was responsible for the moving _________
Henry Ford tried to distance himself from __________
Henry Ford had many prejudices, who/what did he hate?
Jews, Catholics, alcohol, tobacco, bankers and doctors
US experienced a period of postwar conservatism and a return to _________ policies
What period was from 1922-1929
Period of prosperity
1920s saw the creation of a ___________
Mass national culture
Warren G. Harding won the 1920 elections with over ___ of the popular vote
For how long did Harding serve?
What was Harding's slogan?
"Return to normalcy"
When did Harding die?
After Harding scandals were revealed afterwards such as _________
What was the Teapot Dome?
Scandal involving interior secretary Albert Fall accepting bribes
When did Calvin Coolidge serve and what was he known as?
Coolidge was a supporter of _________
High tariffs and tax cuts
President Coolidge helps block any attempts to ____________
Join the League of Nations
Even though the U.S. did not join the League of Nations, they did not return to _________
What was the Power Naval Treaty of 1922?
Britain, France, Japan, Italy, and US; portioned reduction in naval forces
Who made the Power Naval Treaty of 1922?
Secretary of State Kellogg with French foreign minister Briand
___ countries signed to pledge to renounce war and settle arguments peacefully?
What did Germany give to the allies?
$ 2 Billion in reparation payments
What did the Allies give to the U.S.?
$ 2.6 Billion in War debt payments
What did the U.S. give to Germany?
$ 2.5 Billion in Loans
Successful businessmen were universally admired, example _________
Auto industry's influence:
federal highway system, rubber, oil, glass, restaurants and metals
Companies began to engage in welfare capitalism to discourage workers from joining unions; what was the result?
Union membership fell by 10% throughout the twenties
_________ popular during the twenties?
Welfare capitalism improved ___________
Safety and sanitation
What did Welfare Capitalism pay?
Vacations and pensions
What did welfare capitalism encourage?
Encouraged loyalty to the company
Progressive era brought expanded ____________
federal government powers
Claim prohibition would reduce ________ and increase _________
Production and morality
What were loopholes in prohibition?
Allowed sacramental wine and created fake clergy
________ overwhelmingly opposed prohibition?
What did prohibition fuel?
What year did prohibition end?
1933 (only amendment repealed)
Women in the 1920s experienced liberation from traditions to an extent; ________ exhibited the "new woman" of urban America
What was youth movement characterized by ___________
Rebellion against authority
Concept of ________ aimed at elevating blacks self esteem; upset whites
The "new negro"
Who's black nationalism inspired many?
Who challenged the efforts of the NAACP?
What marked a period of artistic development in music, literature, art, etc. in the black community in upper Manhattan?
What was the most popular venue for jazz artist?
The cotton club
In the Jazz age, who were the leading figures?
Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, Aaron Douglas
Jazz music emerged as a uniquely American art form. Where was the birth place?
Leading musicians/bandleaders included:
Trumpeter Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington
Technology changed daily life, examples:
radios, photographs, automobiles
NBC founded in _____
ABC founded in _____
Motion picture industry established itself in ________
Large studios founded examples;
RKO United artists, Metro-Goldwyn Mayer, Columbia Pictures etc.
_____________ had a large influence on the American public
Radio and motion pictures
Who flew the first solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean?
How long did the first flight across the Atlantic take? Where did it land?
Approx 33 hours
Landed near Paris
What was the plane that flew across the Atlantic called?
"Spirit of St Louis"
Where is the "Spirit of St Louis" in today?
Housed today in Smithsonian national air and space museum in Washington DC
American literature critiqued the disillusionment with World War I and the corrupting influence of modern society and its __________
Who led American expatriates to Europe, especially Paris
By 1920, more Americans were living in ________ than in rural areas
Social tensions between cities and rural areas, rising crime rates, and fears brought on by the "Red scare" led to a rise in _________
1921; national _______ for immigrants introduced
1924; _________ passed
National Origins Act (AKA Johnson-Reid act)
By 1925 only __________ immigrants allowed entry each year (none from Asia)
Fear of change, antagonism towards foreign ideas gave rise to two movements:
1) Religious fundamentalism
2) renewed popularity of the KKK; membership soared to approx 3-4 million by 1925
KKK emerged in 1886 in __________
Who was the leading figure in the KKK?
Nathan Bedford Forrest
When and where was the KKK reborn?
1915 in Georgia
KKK fought against perceived threats from:
African Americans, immigrants, radicals, feminists, Catholics and Jews.
KKK extended beyond the _______
Who pioneered the study of psychoanalysis?
Psychoanalysis theories were accepted by the ___________
Liberal middle class
1925; Scopes "monkey" trial takes place in __________
Who was the prosecution of the Scopes "monkey" trial case?
William J. Bryan
Who was the defense for the Scopes "monkey" trial case?
What was the Scopes conviction? It was overturned on appeal
Easy victory for Herbert Hoover over __________
NY governor Al Smith
Smith "wet", Hoover "dry"; candidate Smith was from _____ and catholic
Al Smith- Tammany Hall political machine-
Child of immigration
What is the cycle of the economy?
Prosperity---> recession ---> depression ---> recovery
_________ conditions continued through September 1929- share prices continued to rise- ex. Stock value (1927)
Underlying problems in the economy included:
1. Overproduction and under consumption
2. Europe's continued debt and overextension of loans from American banks
3. Increase in personal debt. "Get rich-quick" schemes, over speculation, buying on margin
4. Farmers and blue collar workers left out; "sick industries"
End of 1932- unemployment over ______
12 M (25% rate)
Black unemployment exceeded _____; "last hired, first fired"
End of 1932- bank failures exceeded _______ nationwide
GNP has dropped from ______ to _____
$103 B (1929)
$56 B (1933)
Psychological damage of depression was extreme- Americans felt they were to blame; _________ eroded
After the depression, __________ all dropped
Marriages, divorces and birth rates
What's the case where 9 black youths accused of raping two white women aboard a train in Alabama
Scottsboro Boys case
What did the retrial of the Scottsboro Boys case result in?
Five convictions and jail terms