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Flashcards in Chapter 23 Deck (92):
0

Who was the embodiment of the new era?

Henry Ford

1

When was Henry Ford born?

1863

2

What was Henry Ford

Journeyman machinist

3

Henry Ford in 1903 began to produce ___________

Cars, model T, custom made

4

Henry Ford was responsible for the moving _________

Assembly line

5

Henry Ford tried to distance himself from __________

'Robber barons'

6

Henry Ford had many prejudices, who/what did he hate?

Jews, Catholics, alcohol, tobacco, bankers and doctors

7

US experienced a period of postwar conservatism and a return to _________ policies

Laissez-faire

8

What period was from 1922-1929

Period of prosperity

9

1920s saw the creation of a ___________

Mass national culture

10

Warren G. Harding won the 1920 elections with over ___ of the popular vote

60%

11

For how long did Harding serve?

1921-1923

12

What was Harding's slogan?

"Return to normalcy"

13

When did Harding die?

August, 1923

14

After Harding scandals were revealed afterwards such as _________

Teapot Dome

15

What was the Teapot Dome?

Scandal involving interior secretary Albert Fall accepting bribes

16

When did Calvin Coolidge serve and what was he known as?

1923-1929
"Silent Cal"

17

Coolidge was a supporter of _________

High tariffs and tax cuts

18

President Coolidge helps block any attempts to ____________

Join the League of Nations

19

Even though the U.S. did not join the League of Nations, they did not return to _________

Isolationism

20

What was the Power Naval Treaty of 1922?

Britain, France, Japan, Italy, and US; portioned reduction in naval forces

21

Who made the Power Naval Treaty of 1922?

Secretary of State Kellogg with French foreign minister Briand

22

___ countries signed to pledge to renounce war and settle arguments peacefully?

50

23

What did Germany give to the allies?

$ 2 Billion in reparation payments

24

What did the Allies give to the U.S.?

$ 2.6 Billion in War debt payments

25

What did the U.S. give to Germany?

$ 2.5 Billion in Loans

26

Successful businessmen were universally admired, example _________

Henry Ford

27

Auto industry's influence:

federal highway system, rubber, oil, glass, restaurants and metals

28

Companies began to engage in welfare capitalism to discourage workers from joining unions; what was the result?

Union membership fell by 10% throughout the twenties

29

_________ popular during the twenties?

Industrial programs

30

Welfare capitalism improved ___________

Safety and sanitation

31

What did Welfare Capitalism pay?

Vacations and pensions

32

What did welfare capitalism encourage?

Encouraged loyalty to the company

33

Progressive era brought expanded ____________

federal government powers

34

Claim prohibition would reduce ________ and increase _________

Crime
Production and morality

35

What were loopholes in prohibition?

Allowed sacramental wine and created fake clergy

36

________ overwhelmingly opposed prohibition?

Americans

37

What did prohibition fuel?

Criminality

38

What year did prohibition end?

1933 (only amendment repealed)

39

Women in the 1920s experienced liberation from traditions to an extent; ________ exhibited the "new woman" of urban America

Flappers

40

What was youth movement characterized by ___________

Rebellion against authority

41

Concept of ________ aimed at elevating blacks self esteem; upset whites

The "new negro"

42

Who's black nationalism inspired many?

Marcus Garvey's

43

Who challenged the efforts of the NAACP?

UNIA

44

What marked a period of artistic development in music, literature, art, etc. in the black community in upper Manhattan?

Harlem Renaissance

45

What was the most popular venue for jazz artist?

The cotton club

46

In the Jazz age, who were the leading figures?

Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, Aaron Douglas

47

Jazz music emerged as a uniquely American art form. Where was the birth place?

New Orleans

48

Leading musicians/bandleaders included:

Trumpeter Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington

49

Technology changed daily life, examples:

radios, photographs, automobiles

50

NBC founded in _____
ABC founded in _____

1926
1927

51

Motion picture industry established itself in ________

Hollywood, CA

52

Large studios founded examples;

RKO United artists, Metro-Goldwyn Mayer, Columbia Pictures etc.

53

_____________ had a large influence on the American public

Radio and motion pictures

54

Who flew the first solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean?

Charles Lindbergh

55

How long did the first flight across the Atlantic take? Where did it land?

Approx 33 hours
Landed near Paris

56

What was the plane that flew across the Atlantic called?

"Spirit of St Louis"

57

Where is the "Spirit of St Louis" in today?

Housed today in Smithsonian national air and space museum in Washington DC

58

American literature critiqued the disillusionment with World War I and the corrupting influence of modern society and its __________

materialism

59

Who led American expatriates to Europe, especially Paris

Gertrude Stern

60

By 1920, more Americans were living in ________ than in rural areas

Cities

61

Social tensions between cities and rural areas, rising crime rates, and fears brought on by the "Red scare" led to a rise in _________

Nationalism

62

1921; national _______ for immigrants introduced

quotas

63

1924; _________ passed

National Origins Act (AKA Johnson-Reid act)

64

By 1925 only __________ immigrants allowed entry each year (none from Asia)

150,000

65

Fear of change, antagonism towards foreign ideas gave rise to two movements:

1) Religious fundamentalism
2) renewed popularity of the KKK; membership soared to approx 3-4 million by 1925

66

KKK emerged in 1886 in __________

Tennessee

67

Who was the leading figure in the KKK?

Nathan Bedford Forrest

68

When and where was the KKK reborn?

1915 in Georgia

69

KKK fought against perceived threats from:

African Americans, immigrants, radicals, feminists, Catholics and Jews.

70

KKK extended beyond the _______

South

71

Who pioneered the study of psychoanalysis?

Sigmund Freund

72

Psychoanalysis theories were accepted by the ___________

Liberal middle class

73

1925; Scopes "monkey" trial takes place in __________

Dayton Tennessee

74

Who was the prosecution of the Scopes "monkey" trial case?

William J. Bryan

75

Who was the defense for the Scopes "monkey" trial case?

Clarence Darrow

76

What was the Scopes conviction? It was overturned on appeal

$100 fine

77

(1928 election)
Easy victory for Herbert Hoover over __________

NY governor Al Smith

78

(1928 election)
Smith "wet", Hoover "dry"; candidate Smith was from _____ and catholic

NYC

79

(1928 election)
Al Smith- Tammany Hall political machine-

Child of immigration

80

What is the cycle of the economy?

Prosperity---> recession ---> depression ---> recovery

81

_________ conditions continued through September 1929- share prices continued to rise- ex. Stock value (1927)

Bull market

82

Underlying problems in the economy included:

1. Overproduction and under consumption
2. Europe's continued debt and overextension of loans from American banks
3. Increase in personal debt. "Get rich-quick" schemes, over speculation, buying on margin
4. Farmers and blue collar workers left out; "sick industries"

83

End of 1932- unemployment over ______

12 M (25% rate)

84

Black unemployment exceeded _____; "last hired, first fired"

56 %

85

End of 1932- bank failures exceeded _______ nationwide

5,000

86

GNP has dropped from ______ to _____

$103 B (1929)
$56 B (1933)

87

Psychological damage of depression was extreme- Americans felt they were to blame; _________ eroded

Self confidence

88

After the depression, __________ all dropped

Marriages, divorces and birth rates

89

What's the case where 9 black youths accused of raping two white women aboard a train in Alabama

Scottsboro Boys case

90

What did the retrial of the Scottsboro Boys case result in?

Five convictions and jail terms

91

Who defends the 9 black youths in court?

Communist party