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Flashcards in Ch18 and a bit of ch17 Deck (113):
0

American economy experienced unprecedented growth and per capital income rose nearly ___ between 1877 and 1900

50%

1

Manufacture of capital goods fueled the income growth; _________ was the critical element

Steel production

2

Between 1865 and 1900, RR tracks increased from _______ miles to approx. __________ miles

35,000
193,000

3

RR's helped immensely by ______ and __________,
example; through land grants and money

States
The US government

4

Gilded age

A period of enormous economic growth and ostentatious displays of wealth during the last quarter of the 19th century

5

Cornelius Vanderbilt known as the _________, owned as the New York central RR

"Commodore"

6

Who controlled Eerie Railroad and Western Union Telegraph company

Jay Goald

7

George Westinghouse created the _________

Air Brake

8

When is the Transcontinental railroad line finished and where

1869
At Prom on-by Point, Utah

9

What were 2 key developments of steel production

1) Bessemer converter (mass produce steel)-made by Henry B.
2) Turbine engine

10

Who dominated the steel industry

Andrew Carnegie

11

US steel was created from the company of ________

Andrew Carnegie

12

Andrew Carnegie donated over ____

$350 million

13

Who dominated the oil industry, especially refinement
And he founded standard oil

John D. Rockefeller

14

John D. Rockefeller donated over _____

$520 million

15

Industrialists created ________ that eliminated competition

Monopolies

16

Use of ________,_______, and ________ companies also provided advantages for the industrialists

Rebates, trust and holding

17

Trust

A system in which the corporation gives shares of their stock to trustees who hold the stock 'in trust' for their stockholders

18

Rebates

A deduction from an amount to be paid or a return of part of an amount given in payment

19

Holding company

Company or firm that owns other companies outstanding stock

20

Who invented the lightbulb

Thomas Edison

21

What did Alexander Graham Bell invent?

"Centennial transmitter"

22

In 1900: _____ becomes the dominant communications carrier in the US

AT&T

23

JP Morgan was a:

Wall Street investment banker

24

How did JP Morgan restore order to the RR industry?

By consolidating them into 6 regional systems

25

JP Morgan hated wasteful competition and pioneered business ________

Mergers

26

In 1901; JP Morgan purchased __________
For approx: _____

Carnegie Steel
$500 M

27

After JP Morgan purchased the company he created _______; the first billion dollar corporation

U.S. Steel

28

"Social Darwinism"

Applied the theories of species evolution and "fitness" to business and society
Justified economic inequality as a positive good

29

What were some disciples of "Social Darwinism"

Herbert Spencer in Britain and William Graham Summer in the U.S.

30

"Gospel of wealth"

Wealthy have an obligation to better society

31

Climate of tolerance- growth of Big business aided by the following factors:

1. Govt.'s Policy of laissez faire
2. Supreme Court's interpretation of the fourteenth amendment, corporations=persons

32

Political campaigns during the Gilded age drew __________

Record turnouts

33

Why did political campaigns draw a record turnout?

Patronage (spoils system very influential); ethnic and religious loyalties

34

"Waving the bloody shirt"

1892 campaign cartoon showing Uncle Sam denying entry to the White House to the democratic candidates in favor of the republican candidates

35

Although the _______ still voted democrat, at the state and local levels political loyalties shifted and new groups emerged
Ex: "Readjusters"

"Solid South"

36

"New south"

Post-reconstruction south became more diversified economically, although agriculture was still dominant

37

In national politics, _______ replaced class as the dominant issue for determining citizenship

Gender

38

Jim Crow laws

System of racial segregation

39

Jim Crow laws segregated African Americans from _________

Public facilities

40

Jim Crow laws
_______ voting rights and _______ other basic civil rights

Curtailed and denied

41

(Readjusters)
Coalition of African Americans and whites determined to lower the state debt and more money on _________

education

42

(Readjusters)
Universal political rights for all ________ but continued segregation in private

males

43

Democrats fight back-

Issue w/racial mixing- protect womanhood

44

(Threatening of white southern womanhood)
Reached apex with ________

Lynching

45

(Threatening of white southern womanhood)
Between 1880 and 1930, over _______ black Americans were lynched along with approx. ______ whites

3,200
700

46

(Anti-Lynching movement)
Fear of ___________ by southern whites influenced voting habits and restored white supremacy while maintains "Jim Crow" laws

Miscegenation

47

(Anti-Lynching movement)
Who launched the personal crusade to expose the barbarism of lynching- issue of gender and race- also economic component

Ida B. Wells

48

(Anti-Lynching movement)
What was the Ida B. Wells crusade called

Crusade for Justice

49

Who formed the National Women Suffrage Association (NWSA)- 1st women's right association

Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Susan B. Anthony

50

Women's ______ proliferated following the civil war

Clubs

51

Temperance movement- supported by many women's groups (bibles and signing hymns- marched on taverns and saloons) aka woman's crusade-

Woman's Christian temperance Union (WCTU)

52

Suffrage movement gained momentum in the late _______

19th century

53

1869: __________ founded

National woman's suffrage association

54

Post-civil war Democratic Party divides electorate almost evenly with _________

republicans

55

Democrats emphasize ________ and limited government

State's rights

56

Republicans see government as agent to promote moral progress and material wealth; party divided into several factions:

Stalwarts, Half-breeds and Mugwumps

57

Through which presidents did the Gilded age last?

Rutherford B. Hayes (1877-1881)- William McKinley (1897-1901)

Less well known presidents

58

What are three reasons why there were less well known presidents in the Gilded age?

-Laissez-faire policies
-social Darwinism
-Yet, it was a period with many struggles for the executive branch (party politics, corruption social issues)

59

Where did Laissez-faire originate

Scotland

60

When was Adam smith born and when did he die?

1723-1790

61

Adam smith was a

Scottish economist and moral philosopher

62

What did Adam Smith write

An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the wealth of Nations- AKA Wealth of Nations (1776)

63

(Corruption and party strife)
Recall issues with Grant- these types of issues continue. Why?

1) spoils system
2) business influence on government

64

(Corruption and party strife)
Party bosses controlled the _________ process

Nomination

65

(Corruption and party strife)
Business interests tried to influence state legislatures through:

Contributions: indirect control of US senators resulted

66

(Corruption and party strife)
Who controlled the Republican Party

Senator Roscoe Conkling of New York

67

What were the three party factions during Hayes' presidency

Stalwarts
Half-breeds
Mugwumps

68

(Stalwart)
Supporters of the _________ system

Patronage

69

(Stalwart)
Republican senator _________ and his supporters

Roscoe Conkling

70

(Half Breeds)
Supporters of ___________

Senator James G. Blaine

71

(Half Breeds)
Rivals of _________

Senator Conkling

72

(Half Breeds)
Less _______ but still accusations

Corrupt

73

(Mugwumps)
Reformers from ________

NY and Massachusetts

74

(Mugwumps)
Deplored _________ and advocated civil service reform

Spoils system

75

(Presidential election of 1880)
Decorated __________

Civil war veteran

76

(Presidential election of 1880)
Sought consensus within the __________; desires to lower tariff rates and extend American influence in _________

Republican Party
Latin America

77

July 2, 1881; ________ is shot In the back by disgruntled office seeker _________
Dies in September

Garfield
Charles Guiteau

78

When Garfield dies, who becomes president?

VP Chester Arthur (Stalwart)

79

Arthur Oversees in the US Navy's Modernization program; signs the __________-sweeping civil service reform

Pendleton Act (1883)

80

James Garfield was killed less than _______ into term

4 months

81

_________ was insane

Charles Guiteau

82

Charles Guiteau claimed he was a ________

Stalwart

83

What did the assassination of Garfield lead to

Pendleton Act

84

(Pendleton Civil Service act)
Was created in the ____

1880s

85

(Pendleton Civil Service act)
Created _______

Civil service commission

86

(Pendleton Civil Service act)
Award government position based on ________

Merit

87

(Pendleton Civil Service act)
Not allowed to contribute to ____________

Political campaigns

88

(Pendleton Civil Service act)
Difficult remove for ________

Politics

89

(Presidential election of 1884)
First democrat since __________

Buchanan (1861)

90

(Presidential election of 1884)
Committed to less government and lowering the ________

Tariff

91

(Presidential election of 1884)
Vetoed more ________ than all previous presidents combined

Legislation

92

(Presidential election of 1884)
"_____________"

"A public office is a public trust"

93

(Presidential election of 1884)
_________- tended vote republican change support to Cleveland (Dem.)

Mugwumps

94

(Campaign of 1884)
Issue of ___________

Morality of the candidate

95

(Campaign of 1884)
Blain seemed profited for support of ________

Railroads

96

(Interstate commerce act)
What year was this act made

1887

97

(Interstate commerce act)
Began federal regulations of _________

Railroads

98

(Interstate commerce act)
Created ___________

Interstate commerce commission (ICC)

99

(Grandson of William Henry Harrison)
Despite fewer popular votes, won the election: _________ won both houses of congress

Republican

100

(Grandson of William Henry Harrison)
Signed important pieces of legislation- ____________, _________ and __________ all in 1890

McKinley Tariff act, Sherman Antitrust Act, and the Sherman Silver Purchase act

101

(Presidential election of 1888-back to the issue)
Republicans advocated high protective _______
Also promised generous pensions to union ______ of the American civil war (army of the republic)

Tariff
Veterans

102

(Presidential election of 1888-Back to the issues)
Democrats advocated ___________

Lower tariffs

103

States took the lead in establishing commissions to regulate big business, paving the ways for __________

federal initiatives

104

Supreme Court cases included:

Munn v. Illinois (1877)
Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railway Co. v. Illinois (1886)

105

Congress passed the ______________ that created the ICC to regulate the railroads; became the prototype for modern regulatory agencies

Interstate Commerce Act (1887)

106

What were 3 political problems for farmers

1)Declining crop prices
2)Railroad freight rates
3)Mortgages

107

What revolutionized the cattle business

Barbed wire

108

What three things that barbed wire accomplish

1) Prevented animals from entering
2) Put small ranchers out of business
3) Many become wage workers

109

Cowboys gave way to the ________

Cattle King

110

Many__________, __________, _________ and __________were Cowboys

African Americans, Mexicans Indians and ex-confederate Cavalry

111

1886- ________ decimated herds b/c overcrowded ranges and barbed wires

Blizzard

112

___________ alienated people

"Billion dollar congress"