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Flashcards in Chapter 24 Deck (108):
0

Franklin D. Roosevelt came from _________ background

A wealthy

1

What disease did Franklin D. Roosevelt catch in 1921 and what did it do?

He caught polio and it paralyzed both his legs

2

Franklin D. Roosevelt believed that ____________ to save the economy

Government should intervene

3

Franklin D. Roosevelt had vast political experience, like what?

NY state legislature, assistant secretary of the Navy, governor of New York and Vice Presidential candidate

4

Who was Franklin D. Roosevelt's distant cousin?

Theodore Roosevelt

5

Franklin D. Roosevelt had a 1932 election victory due to rearrangement of the Democratic Party-

New Deal ("Roosevelt") coalition

6

Political coalition supporting Franklin D. Roosevelt and ______________

The Democratic Party

7

Who did the political coalition include?

Farmers, factory workers, immigrants, urbanites, women, African Americans and Progressives

8

What was Franklin D. Roosevelt philosophy and approach?

Increase the governments involvement in the economy

9

Franklin D. Roosevelt pledged __________ for the American people

A "new deal"

10

What were the goals of the "new deal"?

Relief
Recovery
Reform

11

Four features of the new approach of the Roosevelt administration:

1) "fireside chats"
2) reliance upon a "brain trust" of experts
3) concern for the "forgotten man"
4) rejection of laissez faire: "the nation asks for action now"; "above all, try something"; "bold, persistent experimentation"

12

What are "fireside chats"?

Use of the radio

13

Theory:
Root cause of the economic problems=

Underconsumption

14

Factories and farms producing _________

Too much

15

Need to provide jobs to give consumers money to __________

Buy goods

16

What does FDIC stand for?

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

17

FDIC was a ____________ body

Regulatory

18

What did the FDIC guarantee?

Guarantees federal government would reimburse bank depositors if the bank failed

19

What was the goal of FDIC?

They attempted to restore confidence in banks

20

What did the CCC stand for?

Civilian Conservation Corps

21

What was the CCC?

A federal relief program

22

What did the CCC provide?

Jobs to millions of young people and women

23

The CCC worked ____________ projects

Conservation

24

What does the TVA stand for?

Tennessee Valley Authority

25

What did the TVA do?

They built dams along the Tennessee River

26

What did the AAA stand for?

Agricultural Adjustment Act

27

AAA was a _____________ legislation

New Deal

28

What was the goal of the AAA?

To cut agricultural production and forcing prices to increase

29

The AAA paid formers to __________________

NOT grow crops

30

The AAA also made farmers not grow on _____________

An allotment

31

What was an allotment?

Part of the farmers' land

32

What did farmers do to qualify to the goal of the AAA?

They slaughtered animals and destroyed crops

33

(National Recovery Administration)
Unlike farmers, industry already ______________

Cut production

34

What was the goal of the National Recovery Administration?

To stabilize industry and maintain workforce

35

What did the National Recovery Administration encourage?

Encouraged industry to voluntary adopt codes for better working conditions, set prices and minimized competition

36

The National Recovery Administration lessened _____________

Anti-trust legislation

37

What did National Recovery Administration encourage CONSUMERS to do?

To purchase NRA code

38

What did some protests in the countryside argue?

That AAA favored wealthy farmers

39

Farmers who _________ would not qualify to AAA.

Rented

40

Many farmers became __________ workers

Migrant

41

What did John Steinback write?

Grapes of Wrath

42

Opposition to the New Deal took two forms:

1. Political Right- the N.D. had gone too far; resented the creation of regulations, new taxes and unions
2. Political Left- the N.D. had not gone far enough; resented the alleged favoritism to big business and the lack of regulation

43

____________ declared NRA unconstitutional

Supreme Court

44

Supreme Court later declared the ________ unconstitutional even though it came back in a modified form

AAA

45

Socialist and communists accused New deal of _______________

Being United with big business

46

Who was the socialist author who wrote the jungle?

Upton Sinclair

47

Upton Sinclair ran for governor of __________ but lost

California

48

Who was father Charles Coughlin?

Catholic priest in Detroit

49

Father Charles Coughlin had a radio broadcast with ___________ listeners

40 million

50

Who did Father Charles Coughlin blame for the suffering and inequality?

Communists, bankers, and 'predatory capitalists'

51

Father Charles Coughlin had elements of ____________

Anti-Semitic rhetoric

52

What did Father Charles Coughlin create?

Created National Union for Social Justice (Union Party)

53

Dr. Francis Townsend lived in __________

California

54

Dr. Francis Townsend criticized timidity of __________

The New Deal

55

Dr. Francis Townsend retired ____________

Patients suffering

56

What plan did Dr. Francis Townsend create?

Old age Pension Plan

57

What did the Old age Pension plan state?

$200 per month

58

Dr. Francis Townsend combined with __________

Union party

59

Who was the southern wing of the Democratic Party?

Huey Long

60

Huey Long wanted _______ over _______

Poor over rich

61

What did Huey Long attempt to pass?

"Soak the rich" senate bill

62

What did the "soak the rich" senate bill want to do?

Outlaw income over $1 million and $5 million inheritance
It was rejected

63

Huey Long ran for __________

President

64

Depression regardless of the new deal _________

Initiatives

65

1935- control of congress commences emergence of American __________

Welfare state

66

What acts did the "Second New Deal" include?

National Labor Relations Act (Wagner act)
Fair Labor Standards Act
Social Security Act

67

What did the Fair Labor Standards Act do?

Made minimum wage 25 cents an hour

68

What was the WPA?

Works Progress Administration
Began in 1935

69

What was the Works Progress Administration?

Public works program

70

Works Progress Administration
________ to construction

Arts

71

A year after the Works Progress Administration was passes _____% of labor force

7%

72

(New deal cultural projects u see WPA)
__________ project
__________project
__________project
__________project

Federal art project
Federal theater project
Federal writer's project
Federal music project

73

(Empowering labor)
Violent strikes-

Actual police beatings and shootings

74

(Empowering labor)
Wagner act guaranteed what?

Guarantee industrial workers the right to organize in unions

75

What Wagner Act meant
Majority of a company's workers voted for ____________

Creating a union

76

What are 2 things the Wagner Act made happen?

1) The Union became the sole negotiating agent for the workers
2) The company were forced to negotiate with the Unions

77

The Wagner act was the first time the federal government _____________

Gave upfront support for unions

78

What year did FDR become president?

1933

79

Wagner acts affect of the Union
In 1933 ____________ skilled workers
In 1945 ____________ skilled workers and unskilled workers

3 million
14 million (30% of workers)

80

Who was John L. Lewis?

He headed the United Mine workers union and later found the congress of industrial organization (CIO)

81

What was the CIO?

Committee for industrial organization

82

What was the CIO?

Coalition of primarily unskilled workers

83

What did the CIO do?

-organized union drives for membership
-assisted United Auto workers in overcoming resistance to unionize the entire industry

84

What was a goal for the New Deal?

To provide a modest income for poor elderly people

85

What was the issue of the new deal?

Only 15% of Americans had private pensions and often companies would fire people to avoid paying pensions

86

What act was passed because it was part of the second New Deal?

Social security act

87

What did the social security act provide and create?

Provided modest income for the elderly and also created a modest unemployment insurance

88

What did the social security act do?

Gave payers a personal stake in the system=politically invaluable

89

In the social security act not everyone was covered; excluded:

Domestic and agricultural workers

90

Domestic and agricultural workers= ____ of Americans and especially effected women

1/2

91

New deal created a two tier system:

1) Organized workers in major industries
2) Women, children, elderly, unorganized workwear and unemployed

92

How much did national unemployment average?

17%

93

Why was New Deal's record of helping minorities not good?

FDR relies upon the south's support

94

Ideal of the welfare state benefited skilled industrial workers over ___________

women, minorities, the elderly and unskilled workers

95

African Americans suffered the most because of the New deal; infant mortality rate was ___% greater than for whites and life expectancy was ___ fewer years than for whites

50%
12

96

What did the Indian Reorganization Act do?

Restores tribal self-rule and ownership of land

97

1936; FDR easily defeated _________

Kansas governor Alfred Landon

98

What was the "Roosevelt Coalition"

cross section of voters

99

FDR was angered by ___________

Supreme Court Conservatism

100

1937; FDR attempted to "pack the court" by ____________

Adding six justices

101

Congress _________ FDR's "pack the court" proposal

Defeated

102

What was the Court-packing plan?

Law b FDR

103

What would the Court-packing plan want to do?

To add one new Supreme Court justice for each judge over 70

104

How many new judges would be added by the Court-packing plan?

6 new judges

105

Senate __________ Court-packing plan

Defeated

106

1935-36; economy was in __________ phase

Recovery

107

What was the reuse of the recover phase?

Government cut spending, federal reserve increased the interest rate and secretary taxes slashed business spending