Flashcards in Chapter 24 Deck (108):
Franklin D. Roosevelt came from _________ background
What disease did Franklin D. Roosevelt catch in 1921 and what did it do?
He caught polio and it paralyzed both his legs
Franklin D. Roosevelt believed that ____________ to save the economy
Government should intervene
Franklin D. Roosevelt had vast political experience, like what?
NY state legislature, assistant secretary of the Navy, governor of New York and Vice Presidential candidate
Who was Franklin D. Roosevelt's distant cousin?
Franklin D. Roosevelt had a 1932 election victory due to rearrangement of the Democratic Party-
New Deal ("Roosevelt") coalition
Political coalition supporting Franklin D. Roosevelt and ______________
The Democratic Party
Who did the political coalition include?
Farmers, factory workers, immigrants, urbanites, women, African Americans and Progressives
What was Franklin D. Roosevelt philosophy and approach?
Increase the governments involvement in the economy
Franklin D. Roosevelt pledged __________ for the American people
A "new deal"
What were the goals of the "new deal"?
Four features of the new approach of the Roosevelt administration:
1) "fireside chats"
2) reliance upon a "brain trust" of experts
3) concern for the "forgotten man"
4) rejection of laissez faire: "the nation asks for action now"; "above all, try something"; "bold, persistent experimentation"
What are "fireside chats"?
Use of the radio
Root cause of the economic problems=
Factories and farms producing _________
Need to provide jobs to give consumers money to __________
What does FDIC stand for?
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
FDIC was a ____________ body
What did the FDIC guarantee?
Guarantees federal government would reimburse bank depositors if the bank failed
What was the goal of FDIC?
They attempted to restore confidence in banks
What did the CCC stand for?
Civilian Conservation Corps
What was the CCC?
A federal relief program
What did the CCC provide?
Jobs to millions of young people and women
The CCC worked ____________ projects
What does the TVA stand for?
Tennessee Valley Authority
What did the TVA do?
They built dams along the Tennessee River
What did the AAA stand for?
Agricultural Adjustment Act
AAA was a _____________ legislation
What was the goal of the AAA?
To cut agricultural production and forcing prices to increase
The AAA paid formers to __________________
NOT grow crops
The AAA also made farmers not grow on _____________
What was an allotment?
Part of the farmers' land
What did farmers do to qualify to the goal of the AAA?
They slaughtered animals and destroyed crops
(National Recovery Administration)
Unlike farmers, industry already ______________
What was the goal of the National Recovery Administration?
To stabilize industry and maintain workforce
What did the National Recovery Administration encourage?
Encouraged industry to voluntary adopt codes for better working conditions, set prices and minimized competition
The National Recovery Administration lessened _____________
What did National Recovery Administration encourage CONSUMERS to do?
To purchase NRA code
What did some protests in the countryside argue?
That AAA favored wealthy farmers
Farmers who _________ would not qualify to AAA.
Many farmers became __________ workers
What did John Steinback write?
Grapes of Wrath
Opposition to the New Deal took two forms:
1. Political Right- the N.D. had gone too far; resented the creation of regulations, new taxes and unions
2. Political Left- the N.D. had not gone far enough; resented the alleged favoritism to big business and the lack of regulation
____________ declared NRA unconstitutional
Supreme Court later declared the ________ unconstitutional even though it came back in a modified form
Socialist and communists accused New deal of _______________
Being United with big business
Who was the socialist author who wrote the jungle?
Upton Sinclair ran for governor of __________ but lost
Who was father Charles Coughlin?
Catholic priest in Detroit
Father Charles Coughlin had a radio broadcast with ___________ listeners
Who did Father Charles Coughlin blame for the suffering and inequality?
Communists, bankers, and 'predatory capitalists'
Father Charles Coughlin had elements of ____________
What did Father Charles Coughlin create?
Created National Union for Social Justice (Union Party)
Dr. Francis Townsend lived in __________
Dr. Francis Townsend criticized timidity of __________
The New Deal
Dr. Francis Townsend retired ____________
What plan did Dr. Francis Townsend create?
Old age Pension Plan
What did the Old age Pension plan state?
$200 per month
Dr. Francis Townsend combined with __________
Who was the southern wing of the Democratic Party?
Huey Long wanted _______ over _______
Poor over rich
What did Huey Long attempt to pass?
"Soak the rich" senate bill
What did the "soak the rich" senate bill want to do?
Outlaw income over $1 million and $5 million inheritance
It was rejected
Huey Long ran for __________
Depression regardless of the new deal _________
1935- control of congress commences emergence of American __________
What acts did the "Second New Deal" include?
National Labor Relations Act (Wagner act)
Fair Labor Standards Act
Social Security Act
What did the Fair Labor Standards Act do?
Made minimum wage 25 cents an hour
What was the WPA?
Works Progress Administration
Began in 1935
What was the Works Progress Administration?
Public works program
Works Progress Administration
________ to construction
A year after the Works Progress Administration was passes _____% of labor force
(New deal cultural projects u see WPA)
Federal art project
Federal theater project
Federal writer's project
Federal music project
Actual police beatings and shootings
Wagner act guaranteed what?
Guarantee industrial workers the right to organize in unions
What Wagner Act meant
Majority of a company's workers voted for ____________
Creating a union
What are 2 things the Wagner Act made happen?
1) The Union became the sole negotiating agent for the workers
2) The company were forced to negotiate with the Unions
The Wagner act was the first time the federal government _____________
Gave upfront support for unions
What year did FDR become president?
Wagner acts affect of the Union
In 1933 ____________ skilled workers
In 1945 ____________ skilled workers and unskilled workers
14 million (30% of workers)
Who was John L. Lewis?
He headed the United Mine workers union and later found the congress of industrial organization (CIO)
What was the CIO?
Committee for industrial organization
What was the CIO?
Coalition of primarily unskilled workers
What did the CIO do?
-organized union drives for membership
-assisted United Auto workers in overcoming resistance to unionize the entire industry
What was a goal for the New Deal?
To provide a modest income for poor elderly people
What was the issue of the new deal?
Only 15% of Americans had private pensions and often companies would fire people to avoid paying pensions
What act was passed because it was part of the second New Deal?
Social security act
What did the social security act provide and create?
Provided modest income for the elderly and also created a modest unemployment insurance
What did the social security act do?
Gave payers a personal stake in the system=politically invaluable
In the social security act not everyone was covered; excluded:
Domestic and agricultural workers
Domestic and agricultural workers= ____ of Americans and especially effected women
New deal created a two tier system:
1) Organized workers in major industries
2) Women, children, elderly, unorganized workwear and unemployed
How much did national unemployment average?
Why was New Deal's record of helping minorities not good?
FDR relies upon the south's support
Ideal of the welfare state benefited skilled industrial workers over ___________
women, minorities, the elderly and unskilled workers
African Americans suffered the most because of the New deal; infant mortality rate was ___% greater than for whites and life expectancy was ___ fewer years than for whites
What did the Indian Reorganization Act do?
Restores tribal self-rule and ownership of land
1936; FDR easily defeated _________
Kansas governor Alfred Landon
What was the "Roosevelt Coalition"
cross section of voters
FDR was angered by ___________
Supreme Court Conservatism
1937; FDR attempted to "pack the court" by ____________
Adding six justices
Congress _________ FDR's "pack the court" proposal
What was the Court-packing plan?
Law b FDR
What would the Court-packing plan want to do?
To add one new Supreme Court justice for each judge over 70
How many new judges would be added by the Court-packing plan?
6 new judges
Senate __________ Court-packing plan
1935-36; economy was in __________ phase