Chapter 22 Flashcards Preview

History > Chapter 22 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 22 Deck (207):
0

President Wilson did not possess _________ experience

Foreign policy

1

Strong moral convictions influenced his world outlook/champion (progressive):

1. All nations deserved self-determination
2. Promotion of free trade
3. Furtherance of democracy

2

What could President Wilson not avoid?

The growing militarism, nationalism and violence

3

President Wilson was ready to use the ________ including in the Americas

Military

4

President Wilson continued America's aggressive policy- Marines landed in ______ (1915) and in ______ (1917)

Haiti
Dominican Republic

5

(Taming the Americas)
"I am going to teach South American Republics to elect ______!"

good men

6

President Wilson would military action-

Thus allowing American business to intervene in LA

7

What was the policy in Mexico?

"Watchful waiting"

8

What was General Huerta known as?

"The Jackal"

9

General Huerta seized power (coup with Wilson's blessing) but he assassinated __________

President Madero

10

In 1914 Wilson sent ____ marines to seize Veracruz to prevent an arms shipment

800

11

US welcomes a new _________ in Mexico

Government

12

Who erupted the Mexican rebellions?

Peasants

13

Who was known as the Mexican Robin Hood?

Rebellion commander Francisco "Pancho" Villa

14

Francisco "Pancho" Villa seized a ______ carrying gold to Texas

Train

15

How many people did Francisco "Pancho" Villa kill in the seize of the train?

17

16

Francisco "Pancho" Villa later made a raid into ________

New Mexico

17

How many people did Francisco "Pancho" Villa kill in the New Mexico rad?

18

18

After the killings at Texas and New Mexico, Wilson released 12,000 troops led by _________

General John J. "Blackjack" Pershing

19

What year were the 12,000 troops recalled?

1917

20

What were 3 characteristics of the Congress of Vienna?

-Task restore stability and order to Europe-PEACE
-Ring around France
-Hereditary monarchy alliance

21

Who were the founders of Germany?

William I and Otto van Bismarck

22

When did Germany become a state?

1871

23

When did Italy become a state?

1861

24

1881: Russia witness violence, who was assassinated?

Alexander II

25

Who created the secret police in Russia?

Alexander III

26

What religion did Alexander III make the official religion of Russia?

Eastern Orthodox Church

27

In 1881 there was a mass exodus of _________

Jewish people

28

What did Kaiser Wilhelm II challenge?

Britain naval superiority

29

What were factors leading to war?

1. Militarism
2. Nationalism
3. Imperialism

30

What were the two secret systems of alliances?

Triple Alliances
Triple Entente

31

Who were known as the "powder keg" of Europe?

Balkans

32

Who was part of the Triple Alliance?

Germany
Austria-Hungary
Italy

33

Who were the "Allies" known as?

Triple Entente

34

Who was part of the Triple Entente?

Great Britain
France
Russia

35

Where was Archduke Francis Ferdinand assassinated?
By who?

Sarajevo
By Gavrilo Princip, Serbian nationalist

36

When was Archduke Francis Ferdinand assassinated?

June 28, 1914

37

Who declares war on Serbia and when?

Austria Hungary
On July 29, 1914

38

Who joins the war in August of 1914?

Germany
Russia
France
Britain

39

Who does Germany invade as soon as they join the war?

Belgium

40

President Wilson announce US would remain ________

Neutral

41

Why did the U.S. remain neutral?

-No national interest
-No principle

42

What was the advantage of the U.S. remaining neutral?

They could trade freely with all nations

43

Who did the U.S. sympathy lay with?

The Triple Entente

44

Britain's fleets controlled the seas and set up a blockade of _______ (US protests)

Germany

45

The blockade of Germany by Great Britain has little effect on US because exports to Great Britain increased _____

C. 400%

46

How did Germany retaliate to the blockade put upon them by Great Britain?

Germany retaliated with submarine blockade

47

What happened with the German Submarine blockade?

Threatened "Western way of war" and "Civilized Warfare"

48

How did U-boat threaten "civilized warfare"?

Needed to sink shipping and not capable of rescuing survivors

49

May 1915; ocean liner Lusitania sunk off ______

Irish Coast

50

How many people died in the sinking of Lusitania?

1,198 dead including 128 Americans

51

In the sinking of Lusitania what did the Newspapers show?

Showed drowning women and children

52

In the sinking of Lusitania who remained calm?

Secretary of State Bryan

53

How many years had Britain and France been fighting when America joined the war?

3 years

54

(Russia)
In March 1917, a revolution had forced ________ to abdicate

Czar Nicholas II

55

The ________ withdrew from war

Bolshevik revolutionary government

56

What was the Selective Service Act?

Act that authorized the draft of all young men into the armed forces

57

How big was the army before conscription?

80,000

58

How many people were inducted to the army because of the draft?
How many were black Americans?

2.8 million, including the 2 million who volunteered
370,000

59

American Expeditionary Force (AEF)

American armed forces under the command of General John Pershing who fought under a separate American Command in Europe during World War I

60

How many French and British soldiers died and were wounded in the three day battle of Somme?
How many German?

600,000
500,000

61

What was the deadliest battle of the war?

Battle of Somme

62

U.S. Soldiers saw almost no combat in 1917, what was the major exception?

92nd Division of black troops

63

Why did the 92nd face more combat?

Pershing received an urgent call for troops from the French so he sent the 92nd to be integrated with the French army because he did not want to lose command over the white troops he valued more

64

How many days did the 92nd spend in battle?

191

65

The ____ Regiment of the 92nd division received more medals than any other American combat unit

369th

66

Where did the French cry retreat?

Belleau Wood

67

In 1918, ______ of US troops joined the route of German forces along the Marne River

1/4 of a million

68

Why did Kaiser Wilhelm II flee to Holland?

A revolt agains German government

69

When was the armistice that brought the fighting to an end signed by the French and Germans?

November 11, 1918

70

By the end of the war ________ AEF soldiers perished from wounds and disease while another _______ suffered casualties but survived

112,000
230,000

71

Many soldiers died in the war:
____ Germans died
____ Russians died
____ French died
____ Britons died

2.2 million
1.9 million
1.4 million
900,000

72

After Lusitania Wilson states that any further attacks on US shipping would be viewed as ________

Unfriendly

73

After Lusitania:
Germany apologize for death of civilians and promised no further attacks without _________

Warning

74

In 1916 when Wilson was reelected what was his campaign slogan?

"He kept us out of war"

75

What did Germany issue in 1916?

Sussex Pledge

76

In 1917 Germany announced that the Sussex pledge was resuming policy of ____________

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

77

Why was the allied powers in trouble around 1917?

-Morale low (3 yrs of fighting)
-Russia in Turmoil

78

Why was Russia in turmoil?

Czar Nicholas II abdicated and they later withdraw from WWI

79

Who made Czar Nicholas II abdicate?

Bolsheviks

80

What happened when Russia withdrew from the war?

It allowed Germany to redeploy eastern front troops to western front

81

When and where did Bolshevik Revolution occur?

Russia and 1917

82

In Russia industrialization created new wealth, little to improve life for ________

the majority

83

What is the Prelude of the Russian revolution?

Bloody Sunday and 1905 revolution

84

What manifesto did Czar Nicholas II create?

October Manifesto

85

(Russian Revolution)
War was a disaster _______, ________, _______, ________, _______.

Economically, inflation, trade loss, blood, treasure etc.

86

How many revolutions were in the Russian revolution?

2 revolutions

87

What was the February revolution?

Protest marches and Czar Nicholas II called on his army to dwell the demonstrations but the army refuses and he abdicates

88

Who was Vlademir Lenin?

The leader of a group of soviets called the Bolsheviks

89

Who was another leader of the Bolsheviks besides Lenin?

Leon Trotsky

90

What was also known as the October Revolution?

Bolshevik Revolution

91

The Bolshevik Revolution overthrew the provisional government and established a __________

Communist government

92

1917: ___________ exposed by the press

Zimmerman Telegram

93

What did the Zimmerman telegram state about U-boats?

U boats continued to sink merchant ships

94

After Zimmerman telegram what does president Wilson ask congress?

For a declaration of war

95

After Zimmerman telegram congress votes _____

For war

96

Who was the Zimmerman telegram from and to who?

From Germany to the German ambassador in Mexico

97

Zimmerman telegram was a __________

Decoded message

98

What was the Sussex pledge?

A pledge made after the sinking of the merchant ship Sussex

99

What did the Sussex pledge state?

1) Passenger ships would not be targeted
2) Merchant ships would not be sunk until the presence of weapons was established, possibly by searching the ship
3) merchant ships would not be sunk without provision for the safety of passengers

100

How many casualties was chemical warfare responsible for?

1.3 million

101

What was the effect of chlorine gas on the victim?

Lungs filled with liquid

102

What were the physical characteristics of mustard gas?

Yellow-brown in color and have an odor resembling mustard plants, garlic or horse radish

103

What did mustard gas cause the victim to have?

Caused b,oysters on skin and lunges and also temporary blindness

104

How many pilots were killed in training?

More than 1/2

105

What was the life expectancy of war pilots?

Several weeks (c. 50 hours of flight time)

106

What color did Baron Richthofen paint his plane?

Bright red

107

What did Baron Richthofen decorate his plane with?

Decorated his walls with the serial number of downed British aircraft

108

How many kills did Baron Richthofen have?

80 kills

109

When was Baron Richthofen killed?

April 21, 1918

110

Why was the battle of Somme also called the Somme offensive?

It is an offensive of the French and British

111

Who won the battle of Somme?

Allied victory

112

How many casualties did the French and Britain have in the Battle of Somme?

600,000

113

How many casualties did the German have in the Battle of Somme?

500,000

114

How many miles did the allies advance in the Battle of Somme?

6 miles

115

What were the four reasons the US entered the war?

1. Economic interests; ties and sympathies to allies, example allies purchased over $ 3B in goods and burrowed over $2B in bonds
2. Allied propaganda
3. Germany's resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare
4. Russian revolution and the Czar's abdication

116

What did the selective service act do?

It activated the draft

117

How many American men were under in uniform after the draft

4 million (2.8 million draftees) (2 million served "over there")

118

How many African Americans served in the war for the U.S.?

400,000 African Americans (100,000 in combat)

119

Who was the American expeditionary forced commanded by?

General John J. "Blackjack" Pershing

120

American soldiers were called __________

"Dough boys"

121

What were two main heroes for the US in the war and what award did they both received?

Fighter pilot Eddie Rickenbacker and infantry man Sergeant Alvin York
Both awarded Medal of Honor

122

What profession did Eddie Rickenbacker have?

Race car driver

123

Who was the most successful American pilot?

Eddie Rickenbacker

124

How many victories did Eddie Rickenbacker have?

26 victories

125

Eddie Rickenbacker won __________

The Medal of Honor

126

Eddie Rickenbacker served _____ more than any other American pilot

300 hours

127

Eddie Rickenbacker served in the _____

94th Aero "Hat-in-the ring"

128

What was the highest military award?

Medal of Honor

129

Who was the most decorated soldier of WWI?

Sergeant Alvin York

130

Did Sergeant Alvin York win the Medal of Honor?

Yes

131

What company was Sergeant Alvin York a part of?

Company G

132

How many decorations did sergeant Alvin York receive?

50 decorations

133

March 1918; ____________ ultimately failed- Germany forced to retreat back to Germany

Germans' Spring Offensive

134

Over _____ American troops participated in the Meuse-Argonne counteroffensive

1 million

135

When to when was the Meuse-Argonne counteroffensive?

September- November

136

Nov. 11- an armistice (ceasefire) reached; in the US., it is celebrated as ___________

Veterans' Day

137

How many allied deaths were there at the end of the war?

5,142,631

138

How many central deaths were there at the end of the war?

3,386,200

139

How many deaths were there in total at the end of the war?

8,528,831

140

Progressives-

war could change nation for the better

141

Federal government would have greater control of human & physical resources with ________

new agencies

142

What was the 18th amendment (prohibition)?

Banned manufacture, transportation, and sale of alcohol

143

Federal government emphasized ________, not compulsion

voluntarism

144

What was the war's cost?

33 Billion

145

In what two ways was the war's cost paid?

1. Loans, esp. "Liberty Bonds" ($22 B.)
2. Federal income taxes on corporations and the wealthy ($11 B.)

146

The war required a reevaluation of the government/business relationship. Response-

an increased level of cooperation with some regulation

147

Agencies included:

War Industries Board
Food Administration
War Labor Board

148

Who made the War industries board?

Bernard Baruch

149

Who made the Food Administration?

Herbert Hoover

150

What did the War Industries Board do?

coordinated purchases, pricing, manufacturing standards, etc

151

What was the slogan of the Food Administration?

"Food will win the war."

152

What did the Food administration call?

called for "meatless" Mondays,
"wheat less" Wed.'s

153

Who made the War Labor Board?

Felix Frankfurter

154

What did the War Labor Board do?

Set 8 hour workdays and equal pay for women; prohibited labor strikes

155

How many women served in France?

25,000

156

How many of the women that served in France were nurses?
What were the others?

1/2 Nurses
rest drivers, food service, humanitarian roles, correspondents and telephone operators

157

What amendment was the Woman's suffrage amendment?

19th amendment

158

What were the few peace activists labeled?

Cowards/traitors

159

What took control over the hearts and minds of Americans?

Committee on Public Information
Use of "four-minute men" to give speeches
expansion of propaganda to stir nativism
anti-German feeling; encouraged "100% Americanism"

160

Who was the director of the Committee on Public Information?

George Creel

161

There was an anti-German ___________

Sentiment

162

Saturday evening post-

"Scum of the melting-pot"

163

Who was Robert Prager?

A German socialist who was lynched and acquitted

164

In the war Americans also changed the name of German __________

Food items

165

When did the soccer game take place?

December 25, 1914

166

Espionage Act (1917) Sedition Act (1918)-

heavy fines & prison sentences for antiwar actions

167

How many people were arrested because of The Espionage Act and theS edition Act (1918)?

Approx 1500

168

Who was prosecuted and convicted because of anti war actions?

Bill Haywood & Eugene V. Debs (socialist)

169

S.C. case-

Schenck v. United States

170

When did the Paris Peace Conference take place?

January - June 28,1919

171

Who were the "Big four" of the Paris Peace Conference?

1. President Wilson (USA)
2. Prime Minister David Lloyd George (UK)
3. Pres. Georges Clemenceau (France)
4. Premier Vittorio Orlando (Italy)

172

(President Wilson)
What were some things mentioned in Idealism?

"peace without victory"; "war to end all wars"; "make the world safe for democracy"

173

(President Wilson)
What was the Basis?

the Fourteen Points (self-determination, collective security)

174

Allies wanted Vengeance against ___________

Germany

175

Allies seized _________

Territory

176

What did the allies limit?

The fourteen points

177

(Versailles Peace Treaty)
Who was blamed for the war and what were they forced to do?

Germany and they were forced to make reparation payments ($33 billion)

178

(Versailles Peace Treaty)
Germany stripped of all _________

Colonies

179

(Versailles Peace Treaty)
Germany forced to surrender __________

Border areas

180

(Versailles Peace Treaty)
Germany forced to completely __________

Disarm

181

(Versailles Peace Treaty)
What was created?

League of Nations

182

Who was the League of Nations proposed by?

President Woodrow Wilson

183

What was the League of Nations?

General association of nations

184

(League of Nations)
"Parliament of _______"

Man

185

Why did the U.S. never become a member of the League of Nations?

US Senate never ratified the Treaty of Versailles,

186

What ended WWI

Treaty of Versailles

187

Treaty of Versailles redrew a map of __________

Europe

188

Senate opposition to the League of Nations-

"Irreconcilables" (isolationists), "Reservationists"

189

Why was the Treaty of Versailles never ratified in the US?

President Wilson failed to compromise

190

Wilson suffered a _______

Stroke

191

US made a separate peace with ____________ in 1921

Germany, Austria, and Hungary

192

(Democracy at Risk)
Americans were disillusioned with the war; ________ for farmers and industry were over after the war finished

boom times

193

(Democracy at Risk)
Millions of soldiers and sailors returned to society; rise in ___________ in the job market

unemployment and turmoil

194

(Democracy at risk)
Unemployment rate rose Rising inflation led to a wave of strikes and lockouts- over _______ went on strike in
1919; country's economy was in a recession from 1920-1922

4 million

195

What were the three major strikes that occurred in 1919?

Seattle general strike
Boston policeman
Steel workers

196

What was the "Red Scare" (1919-1920)?

Public fears of communist infiltration led to panic

197

What were "Palmer Raids"?

Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer conducted raids and deportations of suspected subversives, including anarchist Emma Goldman

198

What was the USS Buford also known as?

"Soviet Ark"

199

1919- USS Buford delivered:

Over 250 deported extremists to Finland & Russia

200

Over ________ blacks moved from the south between 1915 & 1920

500,000

201

Approx. ________ Mexicans migrated to the Southwest and California

100,000

202

BY 1920, nearly _________ people of Mexican descent lived in the US

500,000

203

Both groups (Mexican and blacks) suffered from __________

discrimination and resentment

204

__________ won the 1920 election

Warren G. Harding

205

How much did Warren G. Harding serve?

served from 1921-1923

206

Slogans of the migration of Mexicans and blacks:

"return to normalcy"; "less government in business and more business in government"