Flashcards in Chapter 22 Deck (207):
President Wilson did not possess _________ experience
Strong moral convictions influenced his world outlook/champion (progressive):
1. All nations deserved self-determination
2. Promotion of free trade
3. Furtherance of democracy
What could President Wilson not avoid?
The growing militarism, nationalism and violence
President Wilson was ready to use the ________ including in the Americas
President Wilson continued America's aggressive policy- Marines landed in ______ (1915) and in ______ (1917)
(Taming the Americas)
"I am going to teach South American Republics to elect ______!"
President Wilson would military action-
Thus allowing American business to intervene in LA
What was the policy in Mexico?
What was General Huerta known as?
General Huerta seized power (coup with Wilson's blessing) but he assassinated __________
In 1914 Wilson sent ____ marines to seize Veracruz to prevent an arms shipment
US welcomes a new _________ in Mexico
Who erupted the Mexican rebellions?
Who was known as the Mexican Robin Hood?
Rebellion commander Francisco "Pancho" Villa
Francisco "Pancho" Villa seized a ______ carrying gold to Texas
How many people did Francisco "Pancho" Villa kill in the seize of the train?
Francisco "Pancho" Villa later made a raid into ________
How many people did Francisco "Pancho" Villa kill in the New Mexico rad?
After the killings at Texas and New Mexico, Wilson released 12,000 troops led by _________
General John J. "Blackjack" Pershing
What year were the 12,000 troops recalled?
What were 3 characteristics of the Congress of Vienna?
-Task restore stability and order to Europe-PEACE
-Ring around France
-Hereditary monarchy alliance
Who were the founders of Germany?
William I and Otto van Bismarck
When did Germany become a state?
When did Italy become a state?
1881: Russia witness violence, who was assassinated?
Who created the secret police in Russia?
What religion did Alexander III make the official religion of Russia?
Eastern Orthodox Church
In 1881 there was a mass exodus of _________
What did Kaiser Wilhelm II challenge?
Britain naval superiority
What were factors leading to war?
What were the two secret systems of alliances?
Who were known as the "powder keg" of Europe?
Who was part of the Triple Alliance?
Who were the "Allies" known as?
Who was part of the Triple Entente?
Where was Archduke Francis Ferdinand assassinated?
By Gavrilo Princip, Serbian nationalist
When was Archduke Francis Ferdinand assassinated?
June 28, 1914
Who declares war on Serbia and when?
On July 29, 1914
Who joins the war in August of 1914?
Who does Germany invade as soon as they join the war?
President Wilson announce US would remain ________
Why did the U.S. remain neutral?
-No national interest
What was the advantage of the U.S. remaining neutral?
They could trade freely with all nations
Who did the U.S. sympathy lay with?
The Triple Entente
Britain's fleets controlled the seas and set up a blockade of _______ (US protests)
The blockade of Germany by Great Britain has little effect on US because exports to Great Britain increased _____
How did Germany retaliate to the blockade put upon them by Great Britain?
Germany retaliated with submarine blockade
What happened with the German Submarine blockade?
Threatened "Western way of war" and "Civilized Warfare"
How did U-boat threaten "civilized warfare"?
Needed to sink shipping and not capable of rescuing survivors
May 1915; ocean liner Lusitania sunk off ______
How many people died in the sinking of Lusitania?
1,198 dead including 128 Americans
In the sinking of Lusitania what did the Newspapers show?
Showed drowning women and children
In the sinking of Lusitania who remained calm?
Secretary of State Bryan
How many years had Britain and France been fighting when America joined the war?
In March 1917, a revolution had forced ________ to abdicate
Czar Nicholas II
The ________ withdrew from war
Bolshevik revolutionary government
What was the Selective Service Act?
Act that authorized the draft of all young men into the armed forces
How big was the army before conscription?
How many people were inducted to the army because of the draft?
How many were black Americans?
2.8 million, including the 2 million who volunteered
American Expeditionary Force (AEF)
American armed forces under the command of General John Pershing who fought under a separate American Command in Europe during World War I
How many French and British soldiers died and were wounded in the three day battle of Somme?
How many German?
What was the deadliest battle of the war?
Battle of Somme
U.S. Soldiers saw almost no combat in 1917, what was the major exception?
92nd Division of black troops
Why did the 92nd face more combat?
Pershing received an urgent call for troops from the French so he sent the 92nd to be integrated with the French army because he did not want to lose command over the white troops he valued more
How many days did the 92nd spend in battle?
The ____ Regiment of the 92nd division received more medals than any other American combat unit
Where did the French cry retreat?
In 1918, ______ of US troops joined the route of German forces along the Marne River
1/4 of a million
Why did Kaiser Wilhelm II flee to Holland?
A revolt agains German government
When was the armistice that brought the fighting to an end signed by the French and Germans?
November 11, 1918
By the end of the war ________ AEF soldiers perished from wounds and disease while another _______ suffered casualties but survived
Many soldiers died in the war:
____ Germans died
____ Russians died
____ French died
____ Britons died
After Lusitania Wilson states that any further attacks on US shipping would be viewed as ________
Germany apologize for death of civilians and promised no further attacks without _________
In 1916 when Wilson was reelected what was his campaign slogan?
"He kept us out of war"
What did Germany issue in 1916?
In 1917 Germany announced that the Sussex pledge was resuming policy of ____________
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
Why was the allied powers in trouble around 1917?
-Morale low (3 yrs of fighting)
-Russia in Turmoil
Why was Russia in turmoil?
Czar Nicholas II abdicated and they later withdraw from WWI
Who made Czar Nicholas II abdicate?
What happened when Russia withdrew from the war?
It allowed Germany to redeploy eastern front troops to western front
When and where did Bolshevik Revolution occur?
Russia and 1917
In Russia industrialization created new wealth, little to improve life for ________
What is the Prelude of the Russian revolution?
Bloody Sunday and 1905 revolution
What manifesto did Czar Nicholas II create?
War was a disaster _______, ________, _______, ________, _______.
Economically, inflation, trade loss, blood, treasure etc.
How many revolutions were in the Russian revolution?
What was the February revolution?
Protest marches and Czar Nicholas II called on his army to dwell the demonstrations but the army refuses and he abdicates
Who was Vlademir Lenin?
The leader of a group of soviets called the Bolsheviks
Who was another leader of the Bolsheviks besides Lenin?
What was also known as the October Revolution?
The Bolshevik Revolution overthrew the provisional government and established a __________
1917: ___________ exposed by the press
What did the Zimmerman telegram state about U-boats?
U boats continued to sink merchant ships
After Zimmerman telegram what does president Wilson ask congress?
For a declaration of war
After Zimmerman telegram congress votes _____
Who was the Zimmerman telegram from and to who?
From Germany to the German ambassador in Mexico
Zimmerman telegram was a __________
What was the Sussex pledge?
A pledge made after the sinking of the merchant ship Sussex
What did the Sussex pledge state?
1) Passenger ships would not be targeted
2) Merchant ships would not be sunk until the presence of weapons was established, possibly by searching the ship
3) merchant ships would not be sunk without provision for the safety of passengers
How many casualties was chemical warfare responsible for?
What was the effect of chlorine gas on the victim?
Lungs filled with liquid
What were the physical characteristics of mustard gas?
Yellow-brown in color and have an odor resembling mustard plants, garlic or horse radish
What did mustard gas cause the victim to have?
Caused b,oysters on skin and lunges and also temporary blindness
How many pilots were killed in training?
More than 1/2
What was the life expectancy of war pilots?
Several weeks (c. 50 hours of flight time)
What color did Baron Richthofen paint his plane?
What did Baron Richthofen decorate his plane with?
Decorated his walls with the serial number of downed British aircraft
How many kills did Baron Richthofen have?
When was Baron Richthofen killed?
April 21, 1918
Why was the battle of Somme also called the Somme offensive?
It is an offensive of the French and British
Who won the battle of Somme?
How many casualties did the French and Britain have in the Battle of Somme?
How many casualties did the German have in the Battle of Somme?
How many miles did the allies advance in the Battle of Somme?
What were the four reasons the US entered the war?
1. Economic interests; ties and sympathies to allies, example allies purchased over $ 3B in goods and burrowed over $2B in bonds
2. Allied propaganda
3. Germany's resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare
4. Russian revolution and the Czar's abdication
What did the selective service act do?
It activated the draft
How many American men were under in uniform after the draft
4 million (2.8 million draftees) (2 million served "over there")
How many African Americans served in the war for the U.S.?
400,000 African Americans (100,000 in combat)
Who was the American expeditionary forced commanded by?
General John J. "Blackjack" Pershing
American soldiers were called __________
What were two main heroes for the US in the war and what award did they both received?
Fighter pilot Eddie Rickenbacker and infantry man Sergeant Alvin York
Both awarded Medal of Honor
What profession did Eddie Rickenbacker have?
Race car driver
Who was the most successful American pilot?
How many victories did Eddie Rickenbacker have?
Eddie Rickenbacker won __________
The Medal of Honor
Eddie Rickenbacker served _____ more than any other American pilot
Eddie Rickenbacker served in the _____
94th Aero "Hat-in-the ring"
What was the highest military award?
Medal of Honor
Who was the most decorated soldier of WWI?
Sergeant Alvin York
Did Sergeant Alvin York win the Medal of Honor?
What company was Sergeant Alvin York a part of?
How many decorations did sergeant Alvin York receive?
March 1918; ____________ ultimately failed- Germany forced to retreat back to Germany
Germans' Spring Offensive
Over _____ American troops participated in the Meuse-Argonne counteroffensive
When to when was the Meuse-Argonne counteroffensive?
Nov. 11- an armistice (ceasefire) reached; in the US., it is celebrated as ___________
How many allied deaths were there at the end of the war?
How many central deaths were there at the end of the war?
How many deaths were there in total at the end of the war?
war could change nation for the better
Federal government would have greater control of human & physical resources with ________
What was the 18th amendment (prohibition)?
Banned manufacture, transportation, and sale of alcohol
Federal government emphasized ________, not compulsion
What was the war's cost?
In what two ways was the war's cost paid?
1. Loans, esp. "Liberty Bonds" ($22 B.)
2. Federal income taxes on corporations and the wealthy ($11 B.)
The war required a reevaluation of the government/business relationship. Response-
an increased level of cooperation with some regulation
War Industries Board
War Labor Board
Who made the War industries board?
Who made the Food Administration?
What did the War Industries Board do?
coordinated purchases, pricing, manufacturing standards, etc
What was the slogan of the Food Administration?
"Food will win the war."
What did the Food administration call?
called for "meatless" Mondays,
"wheat less" Wed.'s
Who made the War Labor Board?
What did the War Labor Board do?
Set 8 hour workdays and equal pay for women; prohibited labor strikes
How many women served in France?
How many of the women that served in France were nurses?
What were the others?
rest drivers, food service, humanitarian roles, correspondents and telephone operators
What amendment was the Woman's suffrage amendment?
What were the few peace activists labeled?
What took control over the hearts and minds of Americans?
Committee on Public Information
Use of "four-minute men" to give speeches
expansion of propaganda to stir nativism
anti-German feeling; encouraged "100% Americanism"
Who was the director of the Committee on Public Information?
There was an anti-German ___________
Saturday evening post-
"Scum of the melting-pot"
Who was Robert Prager?
A German socialist who was lynched and acquitted
In the war Americans also changed the name of German __________
When did the soccer game take place?
December 25, 1914
Espionage Act (1917) Sedition Act (1918)-
heavy fines & prison sentences for antiwar actions
How many people were arrested because of The Espionage Act and theS edition Act (1918)?
Who was prosecuted and convicted because of anti war actions?
Bill Haywood & Eugene V. Debs (socialist)
Schenck v. United States
When did the Paris Peace Conference take place?
January - June 28,1919
Who were the "Big four" of the Paris Peace Conference?
1. President Wilson (USA)
2. Prime Minister David Lloyd George (UK)
3. Pres. Georges Clemenceau (France)
4. Premier Vittorio Orlando (Italy)
What were some things mentioned in Idealism?
"peace without victory"; "war to end all wars"; "make the world safe for democracy"
What was the Basis?
the Fourteen Points (self-determination, collective security)
Allies wanted Vengeance against ___________
Allies seized _________
What did the allies limit?
The fourteen points
(Versailles Peace Treaty)
Who was blamed for the war and what were they forced to do?
Germany and they were forced to make reparation payments ($33 billion)
(Versailles Peace Treaty)
Germany stripped of all _________
(Versailles Peace Treaty)
Germany forced to surrender __________
(Versailles Peace Treaty)
Germany forced to completely __________
(Versailles Peace Treaty)
What was created?
League of Nations
Who was the League of Nations proposed by?
President Woodrow Wilson
What was the League of Nations?
General association of nations
(League of Nations)
"Parliament of _______"
Why did the U.S. never become a member of the League of Nations?
US Senate never ratified the Treaty of Versailles,
What ended WWI
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles redrew a map of __________
Senate opposition to the League of Nations-
"Irreconcilables" (isolationists), "Reservationists"
Why was the Treaty of Versailles never ratified in the US?
President Wilson failed to compromise
Wilson suffered a _______
US made a separate peace with ____________ in 1921
Germany, Austria, and Hungary
(Democracy at Risk)
Americans were disillusioned with the war; ________ for farmers and industry were over after the war finished
(Democracy at Risk)
Millions of soldiers and sailors returned to society; rise in ___________ in the job market
unemployment and turmoil
(Democracy at risk)
Unemployment rate rose Rising inflation led to a wave of strikes and lockouts- over _______ went on strike in
1919; country's economy was in a recession from 1920-1922
What were the three major strikes that occurred in 1919?
Seattle general strike
What was the "Red Scare" (1919-1920)?
Public fears of communist infiltration led to panic
What were "Palmer Raids"?
Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer conducted raids and deportations of suspected subversives, including anarchist Emma Goldman
What was the USS Buford also known as?
1919- USS Buford delivered:
Over 250 deported extremists to Finland & Russia
Over ________ blacks moved from the south between 1915 & 1920
Approx. ________ Mexicans migrated to the Southwest and California
BY 1920, nearly _________ people of Mexican descent lived in the US
Both groups (Mexican and blacks) suffered from __________
discrimination and resentment
__________ won the 1920 election
Warren G. Harding
How much did Warren G. Harding serve?
served from 1921-1923