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Flashcards in Chapter 16 Deck (76):
0

Postwar dilemma:

Who had the authority to develop reconstruction plan, the president or congress?

1

Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction aka the "Ten percent plan":

1. Amnesty (pardon)
2. 10% of states voters required to take oath of allegiance
3. Slavery abolished
4. Status of freedom not addressed

2

("The ten percent" plan) Radical republicans countered with ____________ (1864)

The Wade-Davis Bill

3

("The ten percent" plan) ____% of electorate to take an oath of allegiance and repudiate acts of secession; banned ex-confederates in ____________

50
Drafting state constitutions

4

("The ten percent" plan) Punitive in nature; congress should ___________

Determine reconstruction policies; status of freedmen left to the states

5

("The ten percent" plan) vetoed by _________

Abraham Lincoln

6

("The ten percent" plan) Issue of _______ was controversial

Free labor

7

("The ten percent" plan) the union armies imposed conditions upon _________; planters rented it, and freedmen felt restricted by labor codes

The conquered south

8

In 1863 congress creates _____________

The Freedmen's Bureau

9

The Freedmen's Bureau was a:

Government organization created to distribute food and clothing to southerners to ease transition of slaves to free persons

10

The Freedmen's Bureau made abandoned land dived into ________

40-acre plots

11

Freedmen desired three things:

1) to possess their own land (by the end of 1865, Congress had parceled over 500,000 acres to 10,000 families- "40 acres and a mule")
2) to reunite their families
3) to worship freely

12

Johnson's reconstruction plan (1865):

1. Loyalty oath taken by 10% of the electorate
2. State must ratify the 13 amendment
3. Secession acts voided and war debt repudiated
4. Pardons granted

13

(Johnson's amnesty policy was very liberal)
Southerners elected _________ to congress

Ex-confederate officials

14

(Johnson's amnesty policy was very liberal)
Southern states enacted _________ to restrict freedmen; violence erupted against freedmen

Black codes

15

(Johnson's amnesty policy was very liberal)
What was the objective of southern planters?

To reduce freedmen to plantation field hands and subservience

Johnson didn't interfere

16

Johnson vetoed ____________ and ____________ -both were overridden by congress eventually

The Freedmen's bureau bill (food and clothing) and the civil rights bill of 1866 (nullifies black codes)

17

In 1866 the fourteenth amendment was introduced.
What did it do?

It granted citizenship to "all persons born or naturalized in the United States"

18

Who was defeated in the 1866 congressional elections?

Humiliating defeat for President Johnson and the Democrats

19

Reconstruction act of 1867:

1. South's New state government is abolished; south placed under military rule
2. 14th amendment to be ratified
3. All qualified male voters be allowed to vote; equal rights for all citizens
4. Ex-confederate officials banned from voting

20

The military reconstruction act was a _________ act

Congressional

21

What year was the military reconstruction act?

1867

22

Military reconstruction act had military rule of the ______

South

23

The military reconstruction act had divided:

10 unreconstructed confederate states, each with a general charge

24

________ began to dismantle the will of congress

Andrew Johnson

25

Andrew Johnson encouraged southerners ________

To resist

26

Andrew Johnson's Pardons replaced __________

Union generals

27

Andrew Johnson was against ___________

Freedmen's Bureau

28

Who was impeached?

Andrew Johnson

29

Why was Andrew Johnson impeached?

For violation the Tenure of Office act; "high crimes and misdemeanors"

30

Johnson dismissed _____________

Sec. Of war Edwin Stanton

31

What was the result of Johnson dismissing Edwin Stanton?

Johnson acquitted in the senate by one vote (35-19)- needed 2/3 vote

32

When was Johnson impeached?

1867-1868

33

Fifteenth amendment ratified in ___

1870

34

After fifteenth amendment women were:

Still excluded vote could not be deprived because of race, color or previous condition of servitude

35

The Republican Party gained support in the south from three main groups:

Freedmen
Northerners (especially from New England)
Yeomen farmers

36

Southerners came to hate two groups of Republican supporters:

1. "Carpetbaggers"
2. "Scalawags"

37

What was a Scalawag?

Derogatory term southerners applied to southern white republicans, seen as traitors

38

____ of southern whites voted republican- often unionists and yeomen farmers

1/4

39

What are Carpetbaggers?

Southern term for northern immigrants seeking opportunity in the south

40

What was the Ku Klux Klan?

Confederate veterans' social club- developed into a paramilitary club supporting Democrats

41

Where was the KKK formed?

Tennessee

42

Without enough _________; KKK went on a rampage

Union troops (only 20,000)

43

(1868-1872); great political progress achieved; participation in state _______ as well as the U.S. congress

Legislatures

44

Leaders of great political progress included:

Hiram Revels and Blanche Bruce

45

Who was the first African American to serve in the senate?

Hiram Revels (Mississippi)

46

Who was the first African American to serve a full term as US senator?

Blanche Bruce (Mississippi)

47

Republicans wanted to alter southern life, especially its ________- diversification was a goal

economy

48

Taxes were imposed to pay for the republicans __________

Ambitious programs

49

Huge problem for republicans-

Public as well as private corruption
And the resistance by the federal government to confiscate properties of ex-confederates

50

What was a labor system during reconstruction?

Sharecropping

51

(Sharecropping)
Planters divided their plantations into ___________

Small farms that freedmen rented paying with a share of the crop

52

(Sharecropping)
Former slaves had freedom but dependent on __________

White landlords

53

(Sharecropping)
Freedmen built ________ on the rented lands

Separate cabins on the rented land

54

Sharecropping- "_________"

"Economic bondage"

55

(Sharecropping)
Some sharecroppers were forced into permanent debt that led to _________

Debt peonage

56

(Sharecropping)
Black farmers owned roughly ____ of the land they cultivated

1/3

57

Grant's presidency (1869-1877) dominated by ____________

Reconstruction Amnesty Act passed (1872)

58

Federal government's inability to effectively enforce __________ led to the end of the reconstruction

Laws, public waning interest and intimidation

59

By 1876, only 3 states remained in republican hands:

South Carolina
Louisiana
Florida

60

Was Grant more Effective as a President or General?

General

61

Grant surrounded himself with _______

Friends

62

(Grant as president)
Corruption at the highest levels including ______ and _________

VP (Colfax) and 2 cabinet members

63

KKK emerged in ___ in ________

1866
Tennessee

64

KKK leading figure was _________

Nathan Bedford Forrest

65

US govt. response to KKK:

Reconstruction Act (1867)
Force acts (1870-1871)
Civil rights act (1875)

66

What are Redeemers?

Name taken by southern Democrats who harnessed white rage in order to overthrow republican rule

67

1876 election
Election decided by a special congressional electoral commission that voted ______ in favor of ______

8-7
Hayes

68

Reconstruction officially came to an end with _______

troop withdrawals

69

Freedmen's Bureau

Government organization created in March 1865 to distribute food and clothing to destitute southerners and to ease the transition of slaves to free persons

70

Black codes

Laws passed by state governments in the south in 1865 that sought to keep ex-slaves subordinate to whites

71

Civil rights act of 1866

Legislation passed by congress in 1866 that nullified the black codes and affirmed that black Americans should have equal benefits of the law

72

Fourteenth amendment

Constitutional amendment passed in 1866 that made all naive-born or naturalized persons US citizens and prohibited states from abridging the rights of natural citizens

73

Military reconstruction act

Congressional act of March 1867 that initiated military rule of the south

74

Fifteenth amendment

Constitutional amendment passed in February 1869 prohibiting states from depriving any citizen of the right to vote because of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude"

75

Compromise of 1877

Informal agreement in which democrats agreed not to block Hayes' and to deal fairly with freedmen