Flashcards in Chapter 19 Deck (81):
Demographic changes- post-Civil War industrialization fuels move to the cities by the three groups:
rural residents, African Americans, and immigrants
BY 1900, urban population reaches _____
BY 1900, rural population reaches ______
Which three cities topped one million in population by 1900?
Brooklyn Bridge symbolized-
When did it open?
the industrial and urban potential of America
those that arrived prior to 1880
What was the percentage of "Old" immigrants?
85% of the total
those that arrived after 1880
What was the percentage of "New" immigrants
80% of the total
What were three "Pushing" factors?
-Economic conditions, especially after 1880
-Religious and political persecution, e.g. pogroms in Russia
What were three "Pulling" factors?
-Recruitment campaigns by American Companies
-Need for labor
By 1920, nearly _____ immigrants had arrived,
mostly in ______ class
What was New York City known as?
1900; approx. ____ of immigrants lived in cities
Approx. ____ of immigrants who lived in cities were single young men,
assimilation was increasingly difficult
Ellis island- ________ center
Over ______ immigrants passed through Ellis Island
What was the processing center for Asians?
Angle island (San Francisco)
By 1910, over ______ Chinese and ______ Japanese had emigrated to the U.S.
What year was the Chinese Exclusion Act?
As big business grew, fear arose that power would be based on _______
How long was a typical work week in the city?
How much were typical wages in the city?
$1.50-$3.00 a day
Labor movement grew out of a concern for _______, ______ and _______
wages, hours, and working conditions
What was the average yearly pay for a white laborer?
1900; approx. ____ children in the work force
1900; over _____ women earned wages
_________ jobs became available, especially to high school grads.
________ enhanced businesses
Marketing (nationwide advertising)
______, ______, ______, _____ grew
Chain stores, mail order houses, ads and brand names
What was a Sweatshop?
Small room used for clothing piecework
19th century Mechanization lead to _______ being replaced by sweatshop workers
Sweatshop workers sewed pieces into _______
Who led the Knights of labor?
Terence V. Powderly
The Knights of labor attempted to:
create one giant national union of craft and industrial workers opposes strikes but supported negotiations
What was the height of membership?
700,000 (included blacks and women); declined after 1886
Who led the American Federation of Labor?
What was the goal of the American Federation of Labor?
To create a federation of craft unions
American federation of labor:
Use of __________ to achieve desired outcomes
Example: the 8 hour workday
(Knights of labor)
The ________ organization of working class
(Knights of labor)
When were they founded?
(Knights of labor)
Universal brotherhood of all ________
(Knights of labor)
Secret society turned public after _______
Strikes were used as a weapon of last resort to bring ________
The Great Railroad strike of 1877 began with which railroads?
The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
Then spread throughout the country
What militia was fired upon?
How many people died because they were a part of the militia? And where?
20 people were killed in Pittsburgh
Economic depression following __________
Panic of 1873
How many people were out of work because of the economic depression?
And others received lower wages
Economic depression caused ____ of wage cure with same percent dividend for stockholders
The economic depression turned _______
________ sent federal troops.
Strike a failure, yet ________ surges
What riot was In 1886?
Hay market square (Chicago) riot
Card, parlor, yard games
What were three entertainments outside of home?
Circus immensely popular
_______ and _______ make evening a time of entertainment and pleasure
Street lights and streetcars
"New women" had _________ careers
What did "New women" demand an end to?
What concept did "New women" oppose and resent?
The concept of "separate sphere" and " cult of domesticity"
What permits the construction of skyscrapers?
What allowed growth of suburbs?
What was the design principle?
"Form follows function"
Tenements house working class, what were some problems?
What were some urban problems?
Poor public health
Urban party machines headed by _______
Some bosses were notoriously corrupt.
William Tweed of New York City
Most bosses trade _______ for _______
Services for votes
Why did bosses stay in power?
Good organizational skills
Most bosses _______ conditions in cities
Who was Thomas Nast?
American political cartoonist?
Movements of population across large distances such as oceans and continents
Immigration facility opened in 1892 in New York harbor that processed new immigrants coming into New York City
Economic contributions of multiple members of a household that were necessary to the survival of the family
Women who were hired by businesses in the decades after the civil war to keep records and conduct correspondence, often using equipments such as typewriters
Great Railroad Strike
Nationwide strikes that began in 1877 with West Virginia Railroad brakemen who protested against sharp wage reductions and quickly spread to include roughly 600,000 workers
May 4, 1886, conflict in which both workers and policemen were killed or wounded during a labor demonstration in Chicago
Cult of domesticity
19th century belief that women's place was in the home, where they should create havens for their families
Pattern of urban political organization that arose in the late 19th century in which an often corrupt "boss" maintains an inordinate level of power through command of a political machine that distributes services to its constituents