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Demographic changes- post-Civil War industrialization fuels move to the cities by the three groups:

rural residents, African Americans, and immigrants

1

BY 1900, urban population reaches _____

30 million

2

BY 1900, rural population reaches ______

46 million

3

Which three cities topped one million in population by 1900?

Chicago
Philadelphia
NYC

4

Brooklyn Bridge symbolized-

When did it open?

the industrial and urban potential of America
1883

5

"Old" immigrants-

those that arrived prior to 1880

6

What was the percentage of "Old" immigrants?

85% of the total

7

"New" immigrants-

those that arrived after 1880

8

What was the percentage of "New" immigrants

80% of the total

9

What were three "Pushing" factors?

-Population pressures
-Economic conditions, especially after 1880
-Religious and political persecution, e.g. pogroms in Russia

10

What were three "Pulling" factors?

-Recruitment campaigns by American Companies
-Need for labor
-Educational opportunities

11

By 1920, nearly _____ immigrants had arrived,
mostly in ______ class

30 million
"steerage"

12

What was New York City known as?

"Golden door"

13

1900; approx. ____ of immigrants lived in cities

2/3

14

Approx. ____ of immigrants who lived in cities were single young men,

assimilation was increasingly difficult

75%

15

Ellis island- ________ center

processing

16

Over ______ immigrants passed through Ellis Island

12 million

17

What was the processing center for Asians?

Angle island (San Francisco)

18

By 1910, over ______ Chinese and ______ Japanese had emigrated to the U.S.

300,000
150,000

19

What year was the Chinese Exclusion Act?

1882

20

As big business grew, fear arose that power would be based on _______

wealth (plutocracy)

21

How long was a typical work week in the city?

60-70 hours

22

How much were typical wages in the city?

$1.50-$3.00 a day

23

Labor movement grew out of a concern for _______, ______ and _______

wages, hours, and working conditions

24

What was the average yearly pay for a white laborer?

$500 dollars

25

1900; approx. ____ children in the work force

1.7 million

26

1900; over _____ women earned wages

4 million

27

_________ jobs became available, especially to high school grads.

"White collar"

28

________ enhanced businesses

Marketing (nationwide advertising)

29

______, ______, ______, _____ grew

Chain stores, mail order houses, ads and brand names

30

What was a Sweatshop?

Small room used for clothing piecework

31

19th century Mechanization lead to _______ being replaced by sweatshop workers

Tailors

32

Sweatshop workers sewed pieces into _______

Clothing

33

Who led the Knights of labor?

Terence V. Powderly

34

The Knights of labor attempted to:

create one giant national union of craft and industrial workers opposes strikes but supported negotiations

35

What was the height of membership?

700,000 (included blacks and women); declined after 1886

36

Who led the American Federation of Labor?

Samuel Gompers

37

What was the goal of the American Federation of Labor?

To create a federation of craft unions

38

American federation of labor:
Use of __________ to achieve desired outcomes
Example: the 8 hour workday

Collective bargaining

39

(Knights of labor)
The ________ organization of working class

1st mass

40

(Knights of labor)
When were they founded?

1869

41

(Knights of labor)
Universal brotherhood of all ________

Workers

42

(Knights of labor)
Secret society turned public after _______

Campaign

43

Strikes were used as a weapon of last resort to bring ________

Pressure

44

The Great Railroad strike of 1877 began with which railroads?

The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
Then spread throughout the country

45

What militia was fired upon?

Pennsylvania militia

46

How many people died because they were a part of the militia? And where?

20 people were killed in Pittsburgh

47

Economic depression following __________

Panic of 1873

48

How many people were out of work because of the economic depression?

3 million
And others received lower wages

49

Economic depression caused ____ of wage cure with same percent dividend for stockholders

10%

50

The economic depression turned _______

Violent

51

________ sent federal troops.

President Hayes

52

Strike a failure, yet ________ surges

Union membership

53

What riot was In 1886?

Hay market square (Chicago) riot

54

Domestic leisure:

Card, parlor, yard games

55

Sentimental ballad:

Ragtime popular

56

What were three entertainments outside of home?

Circus immensely popular
Baseball
Football

57

_______ and _______ make evening a time of entertainment and pleasure

Street lights and streetcars

58

"New women" had _________ careers

Self supporting

59

What did "New women" demand an end to?

Gender discrimination

60

What concept did "New women" oppose and resent?

The concept of "separate sphere" and " cult of domesticity"

61

What permits the construction of skyscrapers?

Steel

62

What allowed growth of suburbs?

Street cars

63

What was the design principle?

"Form follows function"

64

Tenements house working class, what were some problems?

Overcrowding
Inadequate sanitation
Poor ventilation
Polluted water

65

What were some urban problems?

Poor public health
Juvenile crime

66

Urban party machines headed by _______

"Bosses"

67

Some bosses were notoriously corrupt.
Example:

William Tweed of New York City

68

Most bosses trade _______ for _______

Services for votes

69

Why did bosses stay in power?

Good organizational skills
Helped immigrants

70

Most bosses _______ conditions in cities

Improve

71

Who was Thomas Nast?

American political cartoonist?

72

Global migration

Movements of population across large distances such as oceans and continents

73

Ellis Island

Immigration facility opened in 1892 in New York harbor that processed new immigrants coming into New York City

74

Family economy

Economic contributions of multiple members of a household that were necessary to the survival of the family

75

"Typewriters"

Women who were hired by businesses in the decades after the civil war to keep records and conduct correspondence, often using equipments such as typewriters

76

Great Railroad Strike

Nationwide strikes that began in 1877 with West Virginia Railroad brakemen who protested against sharp wage reductions and quickly spread to include roughly 600,000 workers

77

Haymarket bombing

May 4, 1886, conflict in which both workers and policemen were killed or wounded during a labor demonstration in Chicago

78

Cult of domesticity

19th century belief that women's place was in the home, where they should create havens for their families

79

Bossism

Pattern of urban political organization that arose in the late 19th century in which an often corrupt "boss" maintains an inordinate level of power through command of a political machine that distributes services to its constituents

80

World's Columbian Exposition

World's fair held in Chicago in 1893 that attracted millions of visitors