Flashcards in Chapter 27 And 28 Deck (97):
Eisenhower's style was low-key the _______________
What did "Modern Republicanism" favor?
Favored conservative causes yet supported reforms
What were domestic achievements of the Eisenhower years?
1. Increasing the minimum wage
2. Creating the Department of Health, Education and Welfare
3. Initiating the Interstate Highway Act of 1956
What did Eisenhower change the minimum wage to?
To $1 an hour
What year was the did Interstate Highway act?
What was the original purpose of the Interstate Highway Act?
Military transport and means to evacuate cities in case of nuclear attack
What was the result of the Interstate Highway Act?
1. Increased dependence on the automobile to the detriment of the Railroads
2. Made Americans more mobile
Eisenhower restrained federal act in favor of the _________
Eisenhower made large ________ cuts
What was Eisenhower against?
Against federal aid for primary and secondary education
What insurance did Eisenhower oppose?
Opposed national health insurance (instead private insurance)
Beginning under President Truman but continuing with President Eisenhower, Indian policy involved in a three part program?
Describe the compensation part of the Indian policy program
Indian Claims Commission had paid out over $800 M. By 1978
Describe the termination part of the Indian policy program
Ended the paternalistic treatment of native Americans by federal government in favor of greater involvement by local and state government. Results were harmful to native Americans and policy was discontinued in the 1950s
Describe the relocation part of the Indian policy program
Native Americans were encouraged to move to urban locations and assimilate, by 1973 over 100,000 had done so, but many faced a multitude of hardships
Eisenhower easily defeated Adlai Stevenson again in _____
Despite Eisenhower's victory ___________ however took control of both houses of congress in the midterm elections of 1958
Eisenhower's "New Look" in foreign policy reflected several key principles:
1. Reliance upon nuclear weapons and airpower ("a bigger bang for the buck")
2. Strategy of brinksmanship (threats to use nuclear weapons)
3. Threat of "massive retaliation"
What would happen if there was a nuclear attack?
Mutually assured destruction (MAD)
In terms of nuclear attack; what did the first strike by either side equal?
Massive retaliation and MUTUAL DESTRUCTION
The Hungarian Uprising of 1956:
Opposition to Soviet rule begun by students led to a general revolt that toppled the government. What did the Soviet Union respond?
The Soviet Union responded with overwhelming force, while the U.S. remained disengaged
Vietnamese opposition to French rule led a revolt in the north by the ___________ from 1945-1954
French defeat at military outpost at ____________ in 1954 signaled end of French rule
Dien Bien Phu
Geneva accords divided the country at ___________
The 17th Parallel
Who was the North Vietnamese leader?
Ho Chi Minh
Who was the South Vietnamese prime minister?
Ngo Dinh Diem
What was the Theory of Containment?
Fall of non-communist governments to communism would trigger the spread of communism to neighboring countries
Siege of Dien Bien Phu lasted from March to May 1954 and cost over ____________
7,000 French lives
1954; Eisenhower approved a ____________ against Guatemala President President Jacobo Arbenz Guzman
CIA-sponsored coup d'etat
1954; overthrow of Cuban dictator ___________ by Rebekah forces led by Fidel Castro
Castro's declaration of ___________________________ led Eisenhower to approve of a secret plan to oust him
Marxist philosophy and active courtship of the Soviet Union
______________ nationalized the Suez Canal after the U.S. and Great Britain withdrew financial aid for a dam on the Nile River
Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser
Subsequent attack by __________ and invasion by Great Britain and France condemned by Eisenhower
What was the result of the attack by Israel and invasion by Great Britain and France?
The "Suez Crisis" embarrasses the West and Nasser became a hero to Arabs
What did the Eisenhower Doctrine state?
U.S. Would actively combat communism in Middle East
October 1957; USSR launches first satellite, named _________
There was a grave concern in the U.S. after the Russian satellite launch. The U.S. made efforts to better _____________
Science and math education
What was the U-2 incident?
May 1, 1960; a U-2 spy plane was shot down over the USSR by a missile
Americans denials about its mission were exposed as _________
Who was the pilot of the U-2 that got shot down?
Francis Gary Powers
What did President Eisenhower warn upon leaving office?
Warned of the perils of the increasing influence of the arms industry in America
African Americans continued to face much discrimination through out the U.S. in the south, segregation was strictly enforced and _____________ upheld
By 1950's, blacks (especially in the south) had begun to:
Take a more active role in facing injustice
National civil rights organizations:
What year was Brown v. Board of education
What was the decision of Recsy v. Ferguson? (Overturned)
"Separate but equal"
1955- where was Rosa parks arrested?
Who leads a year long boycott of the bus system?
Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
What was the key strategy of the Martin Luther King boycott?
Engage in acts of civil disobedience through positive resistance
Example: "sit ins", "kneel ins"
Supreme Court declares segregation in buses are _____________
1947- governor Orval Faubus orders the Arkansas national guard to prevent:
9 black students from attending Central High School in Little Rock
President "Ike" orders federal troops to enforce __________
Who did the 1960 presidential election match?
Nixon and JFK
What were two main issues of the presidential election of 1960
GNP and threat of communism
Market value of all the products arms services produced in one year by Labor and properly supplied by the citizens of a country
What was the turning point of the presidential election of 1960?
September 26- over 70 million viewers watch the presidential debate on TV
What was the margin that Kennedy defeated Nixon by?
What was Kennedy's domestic reform package called?
What were the 3 parts of the New Frontier?
The space program
Aid to the poor
What is a notable accomplishment of the New Frontier?
Rise of NASA
November 22, 1903- JFK was assassinated in ___________
Who was identified as the loan gunman by a special commission directed by Chief Justice Earl Warren
Lee Harvey Oswald
How did Lee Harvey Oswald die?
Shot and killed by Jack Ruby, a night club owner
After JFK died, who became the 36th president?
Lyndon B. Johnson
He sworn in on Air Force one
What slogan promoted Kennedy's programs?
"Let us continue"
Johnson's domestic package of reforms and programs was known as _____________
The great society
What did the Great Society include?
1. Tax cuts
2. Poverty measures- creation of VISTA (Volunteers in Service to America)- modest income service to poor, HUD-low income housing
3. Health-Medicare- universal elderly medical insurance; Medicaid-federal aid to support state aid for poor medical insurance
4. Education, cultural programs, immigration
What act did LBJ make?
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965
What does the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 do?
Abolishes discriminatory acts based on national origins
__________ supported the Great Society
Warren Court was considered _________; upheld civil rights legislation
Several important Supreme Court cases protected _________________
The rights of citizens
(1963)- Gideon vs. Wainwright-
(1964)- Escobedo vs. Illinois-
Council before interrogations
(1966)- Miranda vs. Arizona-
Rights upon arrest
(1962)- Baker vs. Carr-
Federal court restricting issues
(1962)-Engel vs. Vitale-
Official school prayer
1964; Civil rights act is passed by congress; provisions included:
1. Prohibiting discrimination in public accommodations
2. Prohibit discriminatory voting practices
3. Prohibiting discriminatory hiring practices in companies with at least 25 employees
4. Guaranteed equal access to and treatment by public facilities
1964- known as ___________
1964- ____________ is ratified
What does the 24th amendment do?
Prohibits both congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote federal elections
1965- ____________ is passed by congress
Voting rights act
What did the voting rights act aim to do?
Aimed to overcome legal barriers at the state and local levels that prevented African Americans
By the 1960's civil rights activism was becoming more __________
From 1960-1965 groups like the SNCC were engaging in _________ and __________
What does CORE mean and what do they do
Congress of racial equality
They organize freedom rides
There was one instance where whites attacked the bus, setting fire and attacking them with ______
By 1965, civil rights activist were adopting a more provocative and aggressive strategy and following more ____________
radical outspoken leaders
Who was the leader of the NAACP who was assassinated?
1964- what did the Mississippi Freedom Summer Project focus?
Focus on voter registration
1963; MLK arrives in ____________ to lead protest marches
MLK and others were jailed by __________
Eugene "Bull" Connor
How does MLK respond to criticism?
By writing letters from a Birmingham jail
March 7 1965; "Bloody Sunday"-
the Selma-to-Montgomery, Alabama voting rights march led to 17 people hospitalized after beatings inflicted by local police and state troopers
The shocking assassinations of
Malcolm X (1965) and MLK (1968) also led to unrest