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Flashcards in Chapter 27 And 28 Deck (97):
1

Eisenhower's style was low-key the _______________

"Hidden hand"

2

What did "Modern Republicanism" favor?

Favored conservative causes yet supported reforms

2

What were domestic achievements of the Eisenhower years?

1. Increasing the minimum wage
2. Creating the Department of Health, Education and Welfare
3. Initiating the Interstate Highway Act of 1956

3

What did Eisenhower change the minimum wage to?

To $1 an hour

4

What year was the did Interstate Highway act?

1956

5

What was the original purpose of the Interstate Highway Act?

Military transport and means to evacuate cities in case of nuclear attack

6

What was the result of the Interstate Highway Act?

1. Increased dependence on the automobile to the detriment of the Railroads
2. Made Americans more mobile

7

Eisenhower restrained federal act in favor of the _________

State government

8

Eisenhower made large ________ cuts

Tax

9

What was Eisenhower against?

Against federal aid for primary and secondary education

10

What insurance did Eisenhower oppose?

Opposed national health insurance (instead private insurance)

11

Beginning under President Truman but continuing with President Eisenhower, Indian policy involved in a three part program?

1. Compensation
2. Termination
3. Relocation

12

Describe the compensation part of the Indian policy program

Indian Claims Commission had paid out over $800 M. By 1978

13

Describe the termination part of the Indian policy program

Ended the paternalistic treatment of native Americans by federal government in favor of greater involvement by local and state government. Results were harmful to native Americans and policy was discontinued in the 1950s

14

Describe the relocation part of the Indian policy program

Native Americans were encouraged to move to urban locations and assimilate, by 1973 over 100,000 had done so, but many faced a multitude of hardships

15

Eisenhower easily defeated Adlai Stevenson again in _____

1956

16

Despite Eisenhower's victory ___________ however took control of both houses of congress in the midterm elections of 1958

democrats

17

Eisenhower's "New Look" in foreign policy reflected several key principles:

1. Reliance upon nuclear weapons and airpower ("a bigger bang for the buck")
2. Strategy of brinksmanship (threats to use nuclear weapons)
3. Threat of "massive retaliation"

18

What would happen if there was a nuclear attack?

Mutually assured destruction (MAD)

19

In terms of nuclear attack; what did the first strike by either side equal?

Massive retaliation and MUTUAL DESTRUCTION

20

The Hungarian Uprising of 1956:
Opposition to Soviet rule begun by students led to a general revolt that toppled the government. What did the Soviet Union respond?

The Soviet Union responded with overwhelming force, while the U.S. remained disengaged

21

Vietnamese opposition to French rule led a revolt in the north by the ___________ from 1945-1954

Viet Minh

22

French defeat at military outpost at ____________ in 1954 signaled end of French rule

Dien Bien Phu

23

Geneva accords divided the country at ___________

The 17th Parallel

24

North Vietnam-
South Vietnam-

North Vietnam-communist
South Vietnam-democratic

25

Who was the North Vietnamese leader?

Ho Chi Minh

26

Who was the South Vietnamese prime minister?

Ngo Dinh Diem

27

What was the Theory of Containment?

Fall of non-communist governments to communism would trigger the spread of communism to neighboring countries

28

Siege of Dien Bien Phu lasted from March to May 1954 and cost over ____________

7,000 French lives

29

1954; Eisenhower approved a ____________ against Guatemala President President Jacobo Arbenz Guzman

CIA-sponsored coup d'etat

30

1954; overthrow of Cuban dictator ___________ by Rebekah forces led by Fidel Castro

Fulgencio Batista

31

Castro's declaration of ___________________________ led Eisenhower to approve of a secret plan to oust him

Marxist philosophy and active courtship of the Soviet Union

32

______________ nationalized the Suez Canal after the U.S. and Great Britain withdrew financial aid for a dam on the Nile River

Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser

33

Subsequent attack by __________ and invasion by Great Britain and France condemned by Eisenhower

Israel

34

What was the result of the attack by Israel and invasion by Great Britain and France?

The "Suez Crisis" embarrasses the West and Nasser became a hero to Arabs

35

What did the Eisenhower Doctrine state?

U.S. Would actively combat communism in Middle East

36

October 1957; USSR launches first satellite, named _________

Sputnik

37

There was a grave concern in the U.S. after the Russian satellite launch. The U.S. made efforts to better _____________

Science and math education

38

What was the U-2 incident?

May 1, 1960; a U-2 spy plane was shot down over the USSR by a missile

39

U-2 incident
Americans denials about its mission were exposed as _________

False

40

Who was the pilot of the U-2 that got shot down?

Francis Gary Powers

41

What did President Eisenhower warn upon leaving office?

Warned of the perils of the increasing influence of the arms industry in America

42

African Americans continued to face much discrimination through out the U.S. in the south, segregation was strictly enforced and _____________ upheld

Voting restrictions

43

By 1950's, blacks (especially in the south) had begun to:

Take a more active role in facing injustice

44

National civil rights organizations:

NAACP
CORE
Urban league

45

What year was Brown v. Board of education

1954

46

What was the decision of Recsy v. Ferguson? (Overturned)

"Separate but equal"

47

1955- where was Rosa parks arrested?

Montgomery Alabama

48

Who leads a year long boycott of the bus system?

Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

49

What was the key strategy of the Martin Luther King boycott?

Engage in acts of civil disobedience through positive resistance
Example: "sit ins", "kneel ins"

50

Supreme Court declares segregation in buses are _____________

Unconstitutional

51

1947- governor Orval Faubus orders the Arkansas national guard to prevent:

9 black students from attending Central High School in Little Rock

52

President "Ike" orders federal troops to enforce __________

integration

53

Who did the 1960 presidential election match?

Nixon and JFK

54

What were two main issues of the presidential election of 1960

GNP and threat of communism

55

GNP=

Market value of all the products arms services produced in one year by Labor and properly supplied by the citizens of a country

56

What was the turning point of the presidential election of 1960?

September 26- over 70 million viewers watch the presidential debate on TV

57

What was the margin that Kennedy defeated Nixon by?

49.7%-49.5%

58

What was Kennedy's domestic reform package called?

New Frontier

59

What were the 3 parts of the New Frontier?

The economy
The space program
Aid to the poor

60

What is a notable accomplishment of the New Frontier?

Rise of NASA

61

November 22, 1903- JFK was assassinated in ___________

Dallas, Texas

62

Who was identified as the loan gunman by a special commission directed by Chief Justice Earl Warren

Lee Harvey Oswald

63

How did Lee Harvey Oswald die?

Shot and killed by Jack Ruby, a night club owner

64

After JFK died, who became the 36th president?

Lyndon B. Johnson
He sworn in on Air Force one

65

What slogan promoted Kennedy's programs?

"Let us continue"

66

Johnson's domestic package of reforms and programs was known as _____________

The great society

67

What did the Great Society include?

1. Tax cuts
2. Poverty measures- creation of VISTA (Volunteers in Service to America)- modest income service to poor, HUD-low income housing
3. Health-Medicare- universal elderly medical insurance; Medicaid-federal aid to support state aid for poor medical insurance
4. Education, cultural programs, immigration

68

What act did LBJ make?

Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965

69

What does the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 do?

Abolishes discriminatory acts based on national origins

70

__________ supported the Great Society

Warren Court

71

Warren Court was considered _________; upheld civil rights legislation

Liberal

72

Several important Supreme Court cases protected _________________

The rights of citizens

73

(1963)- Gideon vs. Wainwright-

Free lawyer/criminal

74

(1964)- Escobedo vs. Illinois-

Council before interrogations

75

(1966)- Miranda vs. Arizona-

Rights upon arrest

76

(1962)- Baker vs. Carr-

Federal court restricting issues

77

(1962)-Engel vs. Vitale-

Official school prayer

78

1964; Civil rights act is passed by congress; provisions included:

1. Prohibiting discrimination in public accommodations
2. Prohibit discriminatory voting practices
3. Prohibiting discriminatory hiring practices in companies with at least 25 employees
4. Guaranteed equal access to and treatment by public facilities

79

1964- known as ___________

'Freedom summer'

80

1964- ____________ is ratified

24th amendment

81

What does the 24th amendment do?

Prohibits both congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote federal elections

82

1965- ____________ is passed by congress

Voting rights act

83

What did the voting rights act aim to do?

Aimed to overcome legal barriers at the state and local levels that prevented African Americans

84

By the 1960's civil rights activism was becoming more __________

Student-centered

85

From 1960-1965 groups like the SNCC were engaging in _________ and __________

"Sit-ins"
"Freedom rides"

86

What does CORE mean and what do they do

Congress of racial equality
They organize freedom rides

87

There was one instance where whites attacked the bus, setting fire and attacking them with ______

Bats

88

By 1965, civil rights activist were adopting a more provocative and aggressive strategy and following more ____________

radical outspoken leaders

89

Who was the leader of the NAACP who was assassinated?

Medgar Evers

90

1964- what did the Mississippi Freedom Summer Project focus?

Focus on voter registration

91

1963; MLK arrives in ____________ to lead protest marches

Birmingham, Alabama

92

MLK and others were jailed by __________

Eugene "Bull" Connor

93

How does MLK respond to criticism?

By writing letters from a Birmingham jail

94

March 7 1965; "Bloody Sunday"-

the Selma-to-Montgomery, Alabama voting rights march led to 17 people hospitalized after beatings inflicted by local police and state troopers

95

The shocking assassinations of

Malcolm X (1965) and MLK (1968) also led to unrest

96

New leaders emerged such as ____________ of the SNCC and Huey Newton and ____________ of the Black Panthers

Stokely Carmichael
Bobby Seale