Chapter 25: Digestive System Flashcards Preview

HSS305 Anatomy > Chapter 25: Digestive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 25: Digestive System Deck (113):
1

what are the two classifications of the digestive system

accessory organs and GI tract

2

what are some examples of accessory digestive organs

teeth, tongue, salivary gland, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas

3

what are some of the basic functions of the digestive system

ingestion, secretion, mixing and propulsion, digestion, absorption, and defecation

4

what is the peritoneum

the serous membrane of the abdominopelvic cavity

5

what is the peritoneum made of

simple squamous epithelial tissue

6

what is the parietal peritoneum

lining of the inside of the abdominopelvic cavity

7

what is the visceral peritoneum

the peritoneum that covers the organs within the abdominopelvic cavity

8

what is the serosa

another name for the visceral peritoneum

9

what is the paritoneal cavity

the space between the parietal and visceral peritoneum

10

what are retroperitoneal organs

organs on the posterior abdominal wall that are covered by parietal peritoneum only on the anterior side

11

what are two examples of retroperitoneal organs

pancreas and kidney

12

what is the mesentery

the double fold of parietal peritoneum that connects the small intestine to the posterior abdominal wall

13

what is found in the mesentery

blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves

14

what is the omentum

the double fold of visceral peritoneum, the "fat blanket"

15

what is the lesser omentum

found off of the lesser curvature of the stomach

16

what is the greater omentum

found off the greater curvature of the stomach and connects to the transverse colon

17

what is the oral cavity lined with

stratified squamous epithelium

18

what is the inferior part of the palate (hard palate) made of

palatine bone

19

hat type of muscle is the tongue

skeletal

20

what nerve innovates with the tongue

CNXII hypoglossal

21

what is found on the back of the tongue

taste buds/papillae CNVII and CNIX

22

when do primary/deciduous teeth erupt

6-24 months

23

how many primary teeth do we have

20

24

when do secondary/permanent teeth erupt

5-11

25

how many secondary teeth are their?

32

26

how many secondary teeth do you have if your wisdom teeth are taken out

28

27

what is found in saliva

salivary amylase

28

what does salivary amylase do

chemically break down carbohydrates

29

what are the three salivary glands

parotid, submandibular, sublingual

30

what are the four layers of the GI Tract from deep to superficial

mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa

31

what is the mucosa

the inner lining of epithelial tissue in direct contact with the lumen

32

what is the submucosa

layer of connective tissue superficial to mucosa that binds (stuff?)

33

what is the muscularis

the skeletal and smooth muscle tissue that is superficial to the submucosa

34

what is the serosa

the most superficial layer of simple squamous epithelium, also known as visceral peritoneum

35

what is the pharynx

a skeletal muscle lined with epithelial tissue that food passes through to get to the esophagus

36

where is the esophagus

begins at inferior laryngopharyx and runs through mediastinum through the hole of the diaphra, posterior to the trachea

37

what is the mucosa of the esophagus made of

stratified squamous epithelium

38

what is the muscularis layer of the superior esophagus

skeletal muscle

39

what is th emuscularis of the inferior esophagus

smooth muscle

40

what is peristalis

coordinated contractions of the muscularis that make sure food propels in the correct direction

41

what do the muscles ahead of food do

relax

42

what do the muscles behind food do

contract

43

what is the upper esophageal sphincter

skeletal muscle that regulates air from passing into the esophagus from the pharynx

44

what is the lower esophageal sphincter (cardiac sphincter)

smooth muscle tissue that regulates food that passes into the stomach and blocks stomach acid from burning the esophagus

45

what is the function of the stomach

a mixing chamber and reserovior for food

46

what are the regions of the stomach

cardiac, fundus, body, and pyloric region

47

what is the pyloric sphincter

the smooth muscle that regulates food entering the duodenum

48

what are the two curvatures of the stomach

greater curvature and lesser curvature

49

what is the mucosa of the stomach made of

simple columnar epithelial tissue

50

what are gastric pits

indentations within the mucosa with gastric glands

51

what are the three types of gastric glands

g cells, parietal cells, and chief

52

what do g cells do

secrete gastric

53

what do parietal cells do

produce intrinsic factor and HCL to absorb vitamin B12

54

what do chief cells do

secrete pepsinogen (to dissolve proteins) and gastric lipase (to dissolve lipids)

55

what is the muscularis of the stomach made of

smooth muscle

56

what are the three layers of smooth muscle in the stomach

outer longitudinal layer, middle circular layer, and inner oblique layer

57

what are rugae

the large folds of mucosa in the inside wall of the stomach

58

how much can the stomach stretch with the rugae

50X the empty size

59

how long is the small intestine

10 feet living and 20 in a cadaver

60

what are the three regions of the small intestine

duoednum, jejunum, and the illeum

61

where is the duodenum

the c shape that wraps around the head of the pancreas

62

what is found within the duodenum

the major and minor duodenal papilla

63

what is the end of the small intestine in the illeum

the ileocecal valve/sphincter

64

what is the mucosa of the small intestine

simple columnar epithelium

65

what are goblet cells

specialized cells found within the epithelial mucosa of the small intestine

66

what types of cells do the intestinal glands have

paneth cells and endocrine cells

67

what does paneth cells secrete

lysozyme

68

what does endocrine cells of the intestinal glands secrete

secretin and CCK (cholecystokinin) hormones

69

what are the two layers of the muscularis

longitudinal outer layer and circular inner layer

70

what is the plicae circularis

circular folds in the inner lining of the mucosa and submucosa of the small intestine

71

what is villi

projections of mucosa into the lumen

72

what are in each of the villus core

venule, arteriole, capillary network, and central lacteal.

73

what are central lacreals

lymphatic capillaries that absorb lipids

74

what do villus do

absorb nutrients via the capillary network

75

what is microvilli

microscopic projections on each epithelial cell that further allow increased surface area

76

what are the functions of the large intestine

absorption of water and elimination of waste

77

what are the four regions of the large intestine

cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal

78

what is the appendix

an attachment to the cecum that plays a role in immunity

79

what is apendicitis

inflammation of the appendix due to an obstruction from collection of becteria

80

what are the symptoms of apendicitis

abdominal pan, fever, and nausea and vommiting

81

what is the removal of the appendix

appendectomy

82

what is peritonosis

burst of the appendix after inflammation of the peritenium

83

what are the four regions and two curvatures of the colon

ascending colon, right coli flexure, transverse colon, left colic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon

84

where is the rectum located

anterior to the sacrum and coccyx that extends from the sigmoid colon to the anal canal

85

what is the function of the rectum

store feces

86

how long is the anal canal

2-3 cm

87

what muscle is the internal anal sphincter

smooth muscle (involuntary)

88

what muscle is the external anal sphincter

skeletal muscle (voluntary)

89

what is the mucosa of the large intestine wall

simple columnar epithelium with goblet cells

90

what are the two layers of the muscularis

external longitudinal layer and internal circular layer

91

what is the tenia coli

thick band of muscularis running longitudinally along the colon

92

what are haustra

contractions of the tenia coli that gather to make pouches

93

what is the serosa of the large intestine

epiploic appendages

94

what are epiploic appendages

small pouches of visceral peritoneum filled with fat along the colon

95

what are the four lobes of the liver

right, left, caudate, and quadate

96

what are the three ligaments on the liver

coronary, falciform, and round ligament of the liver

97

what does the coronary ligament do

connect the liver to superior diaphragm

98

what does the falciform ligament do

connect the liver to anterior diaphragm wall

99

what does the round ligament of the liver do

connect the liver to the anterior abdominal wall

100

what does the liver do

takes waste products from the blood

101

what ar the specialized cells of the liver

hepatocytes

102

what do hepatocytes do

produce bile

103

what are the functions of the bile

emulsifies and breaks down fats, neutralizes acidic contents in the stomach (alkaline)

104

the right and left hepatic ducts combine to form the

common hepatic duct

105

the common hepatic duct joins with cycstic duct to form the

common bile duct

106

where is the gallbladder

posterior side of the liver between righ and quadrate lobe

107

what is the function of the gallbladder

store bile

108

where does the common bile duct go

the pancreas

109

where is the pancreas

posterior and inferior to the stomach

110

what are some of the functions of the pancreas

endocrine to produce insiline and glycogen and exocrine to secrete digestive enzymes to break down carbs, fats, and proteins in SI

111

what diet do they suggest for people who have their gallbladder removed

eat less fatty foods

112

where do the enzymes of the pancreas leave

the main pancreatic duct

113

where does the pancreatic duct release it's contents through

the major duodenal papilla