Chapter 2: Cellular Level of Organization Flashcards Preview

HSS305 Anatomy > Chapter 2: Cellular Level of Organization > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 2: Cellular Level of Organization Deck (61):
1

proteins, lipids, and carbs come together to form what

cells

2

name the four types of tissues

muscle, nervous, connective, and epithelial

3

define the cell

basic structural element that can live on its own

4

how many types of cells are in the human body

230

5

what is the plasma membrane made of

phospholipid bilayer

6

properties of phosphorus head

hydrophilic/polar

7

properties of fatty acid tails

nonpolar/hydrophobic

8

what are membrane proteins

proteins that allow exchange from inside and outside

9

proteins that are not around the entire width of the membrane are

peripheral proteins

10

define integral proteins

proteins that span width of membrane and are partially inside and out of the membrane

11

define glycoproteins

carbohydrate chains that stick out of the membrane and are never inside of the cell

12

what do membrane proteins do

allow communication between calls, identify what kind of cell it is

13

what is the nucleus

the core of the cell

14

what does the nucleus do

store and process genetic info and control protein synthesis

15

what is the nuclear envelope

a phospholipid bilayer with not proteins outside of the nucleas with specific channels

16

what is chromatin

unwound DNA

17

what is a gene

a section of DNA that makes something specific. These genes can be inactive or active

18

How can all cells have DNA but have different cell functions

depending on which genes are inactive or active in the cell

19

what is the nucleolus

located in the core of the nucleus, the nucleolus is the site for rRna synthesis and production of ribosomal subunits.

20

define cytoplasm

everything inside cell but outside nucleus

21

what are the two components of the cytoplasm

cytosol and organelles

22

what is the cytosol

the fluid portion of the cell containing mostly water

23

what is an organelle?

a structure that carries our specific functions within the cell

24

what causes variation in the amount of organelles in a cell?

the type of cell it is

25

where are ribosomes

free in the cytosol or attached to the ER

26

what is the function of ribosomes

responsible for making proteins

27

what is the endoplasmic reticulum

the network of flattened tubules

28

name two types of ER

rough and smooth, rough contains ribosomes to modify proteins, smooth synthesizes lipids and carbohydrates

29

what is the function of the golgi apparatus

to modify, sort and package proteins, carbs, and lipids for transport to other parts of the cell

30

what are vesicles

packages

31

name the three types of vesicles

transfer, secretory and membrane

32

what do transfer vesicles do

transport packages to other parts of the cell

33

what do secretory vesicles do

move secretions outside of the cell

34

what do membrane vesicles do

send to be part of plasma membrane

35

what does the mitochondria do

produce ATP and aid cellular respiration

36

cells with lots of energy have lots of what

mitochondria

37

what are lysosomes

organelles that contain digestive enzymes for breaking down material

38

autophagy

self eating, lysosomes recycling and regaining energy by breaking

39

autolysis

self-destroy, lysosomes release enzymes to kill cell from inside out

40

what is a centrosome

contains centrioles and microtubules that move organelles and vesicles throughout cell, (railroad tracks to particular locations)

41

what types of movement occur in the centrosome via motor proteins

dynein move things to the center while kinesin moves things to the periphera

42

what is a cytoskeleton

a network of protein filaments

43

what are the three types of protein filaments in the cytoskeleton

microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments

44

what is microfilaments made of

protein actin

45

where are microfilaments found

the periphery of the cell

46

what do microfilaments do

provide mechanical support

47

what is microtubules made of

protein tubuilin

48

what do microtubules do

aid in movement of organelles within cell

49

where are intermediate filaments found

throughout the cytosol

50

what is the function of intermediate filaments

stabilize organelle position, anchor cells together, resist extracellular forces

51

what is a cellular projection

something that sticks out from surface

52

what is microvilli

a nonmatile, fingerlink projection from the cell surface that contains microfilaments in the core so they stick upright

53

what do microvilli do

increase surface are for absorption

54

what are cilia

motile projections on the surface that are longer than microvilli and contain microtubules for support

55

what does cilia do

move substances across cell surface

56

what is a flagella

a motile projection from cell surface with microtubules

57

what does flagella do

moves the entire sell

58

what is the only cell with a flagell

sperm cells

59

what is a receptor proteins

proteins that trigger vesicle formation when bound to ligand

60

ligands attach to what

receptor proteins

61

what are carrier proteins

proteins that help transportation across membrane in facilitated diffusion and active transport