Chapter 25 Quiz Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 25 Quiz Deck (61):
1

What is imperialism?

Domination of one country by another

2

What ways can imperialism be carried out?

Militarily, politically, economically, culturally

3

How did the IR give Europe lots of power?

Boost to the economies, strong governments emerged, powerful militaries

4

What was Europe's more aggressive expansion called?

New Imperialism

5

What were the reasons for New Imperialism?

Some because of need, some because of want

6

What were the causes of New Imperialism?

Economic Interests, political/military interests, "Humanitarian" Goals, Social Darwinism

7

Why was economic interests a cause of new imperialism?

Manufacturers needed access to more natural resources: coal, oil, rubber; needed new markets to sell goods; needed new places for growing population to move

8

Why was political/military interests a cause of new imperialism?

Merchant ships needed protection and bases to refuel; national pride-couldn't let other European countries seize al foreign land

9

Why was "Humanitarian" goals a cause of new imperialism?

Many felt a real concern for their little brothers overseas

10

What did Europeans believe about western civilization?

Europeans believed they had a duty to spread ideas of western civilization such as Christianity, medicine, and law

11

Why was Social Darwinism a cause of new imperialism?

Growing sense in Europe of Racial Superiority; Survival of Fittest mentality- strongest races were destined to conquer weaker ones- it was nature's way

12

Why did new imperialism succeed?

Weakness of non-western states; western advantages

13

Why was weakness of non-western states a reason why ni succeed?

Many old empires in decline-Ottoman, china, India; Slave trade negatively affected African Empire

14

Why was western advantages a reason why ni succeed?

Supportive gov'ts and powerful militaries; superior technology-weapons, steam ships

15

What were colonies?

Most involved form of imperialism; Ways Imperialist nations had control

16

What rule did the British use?

Indirect Rule

17

What was indirect rule?

Used local rulers to govern, but encouraged their children to gain education in Britain; Soon a new generation of "westernized" leaders would rule and spread British civilization

18

What rule did French use?

Direct Rule

19

What was direct rule?

Sent officials and officers to countries to impose French laws and customs

20

What were protectorates?

Local rulers left in place, but were expected to follow advice of European "advisors"

21

What was an advantage to protectorates?

Cheaper and required less military force

22

What is spheres of influence?

Area in which an outside power claimed exclusive involvement/trade privileges

23

What are examples of spheres of influence?

Europe in China; US in Latin/S.America

24

Explain West Africa?

Muslim states arose built on trade, farming and herding; traded with Europeans because they wanted help to defeat enemies; Slave trade to Europe/US

25

What was Liberia?

Country founded as a refuge for freed US slaves

26

What was jihad?

Holy struggle to purify Islam

27

How big is Africa compared to Europe?

4 times as big

28

Explain North Africa.

Under control of Ottoman; large Muslim influence

29

Explain East Africa.

Profitable trade of slaves to Middle East; Trade copper/ivory to India for cloth/weapons

30

Explain South Africa.

Heavy turmoil and chaos; fighting between Zulu tribe and "Boers" from Denmark

31

What are missionaries?

Someone sent on a religious cause

32

What did missionaries do/think?

Built school and medical clinics alongside churches; Thought Africans were almost like children in need of guidance

33

Who started to colonize Africa?

King Leopold of Belgium began colonizing the Congo

34

What was the Berlin Conference?

European leaders met to establish the rules for African colonization

35

What was not thought of at the Berlin Conference?

Traditional Settlement patterns; ethnic boundaries and tribes

36

What did France gain from the Berlin Conference?

By late 1800s controlled area in W and N Africa as big as the US is today

37

What did the British gain from the Berlin Conference?

Smaller/more scattered area than French; focused on larger population centers; dominated where most valuable resources were- diamonds and gold

38

What was special about Ethiopia?

Only African country to remain free

39

How was Ethiopia able to remain free?

Menelik II modernized before Europeans came; Built state-of-the-art roads/bridges; western style schools; Imported newest weapons; Had Europeans train his army

40

Who did Ethiopia defeat?

Italy

41

How much of India did the British East India Company control?

60%

42

Who was India ruled by?

Ranjit Singh

43

What did Ranjit Singh rule?

Sikh Empire

44

How/Why did Britain gain power of India?

Exploited Indian Diversity

45

Why did Exploiting Indian Diversity help Britain gain control of India?

Many types of people lived in India-Various cultures/customs/languages made it hard to unite

46

What were some of British's policies?

Worked to end slavery; Preserved peace/maintained order; improved education; spread Christianity; outlawed sati

47

What were the goals of the BEIC?

make money and improve life for Indians

48

What was sati?

Widows must kill themselves when their husbands die

49

What were sepoys?

Indian Soldiers

50

What things were offensive to sepoys/ why they rebelled?

Made to serve anywhere Britain wanted them to- for Hindus oversea travel was offense to religion; new rifles required them to bit off tips of bullet cartridges that were greased with cow/pig fat

51

Why are cows and pigs important?

Cows=Sacred to Hindus; Pork= Forbidden by Muslims

52

Who were viceroys?

People who ruled in India in the name of the British King

53

What did Britain do to help their economy and helping India modernize?

Built roads and huge rail networks

54

How did the roads and rails mainly help Britain?

Easier to remove raw materials/resources; easier to sell British products throughout India

55

What did transportation led to for India?

Unity

56

What is famines?

Mass starvation

57

What did British do to get more involved in India?

Flooded Indian markets w/ cheap textiles; increased British pressure on Indians to grow cash crops and deforest their lands; medical advancements allowed for increased population, but led to food shortages and famines

58

What was India's views on British?

Impressed with technology; adopted western ways and customs

59

What was Britain's view on India?

Some respected Indians ancient heritage/history, most thought India was just their to be exploited

60

What was the Indian National Congress?

Believed in peaceful protest; wanted British modernization but also self-rule

61

Who helped India break control from the British?

Mahatma Gandhi