Flashcards in Chapter 25 Quiz Deck (61):
What is imperialism?
Domination of one country by another
What ways can imperialism be carried out?
Militarily, politically, economically, culturally
How did the IR give Europe lots of power?
Boost to the economies, strong governments emerged, powerful militaries
What was Europe's more aggressive expansion called?
What were the reasons for New Imperialism?
Some because of need, some because of want
What were the causes of New Imperialism?
Economic Interests, political/military interests, "Humanitarian" Goals, Social Darwinism
Why was economic interests a cause of new imperialism?
Manufacturers needed access to more natural resources: coal, oil, rubber; needed new markets to sell goods; needed new places for growing population to move
Why was political/military interests a cause of new imperialism?
Merchant ships needed protection and bases to refuel; national pride-couldn't let other European countries seize al foreign land
Why was "Humanitarian" goals a cause of new imperialism?
Many felt a real concern for their little brothers overseas
What did Europeans believe about western civilization?
Europeans believed they had a duty to spread ideas of western civilization such as Christianity, medicine, and law
Why was Social Darwinism a cause of new imperialism?
Growing sense in Europe of Racial Superiority; Survival of Fittest mentality- strongest races were destined to conquer weaker ones- it was nature's way
Why did new imperialism succeed?
Weakness of non-western states; western advantages
Why was weakness of non-western states a reason why ni succeed?
Many old empires in decline-Ottoman, china, India; Slave trade negatively affected African Empire
Why was western advantages a reason why ni succeed?
Supportive gov'ts and powerful militaries; superior technology-weapons, steam ships
What were colonies?
Most involved form of imperialism; Ways Imperialist nations had control
What rule did the British use?
What was indirect rule?
Used local rulers to govern, but encouraged their children to gain education in Britain; Soon a new generation of "westernized" leaders would rule and spread British civilization
What rule did French use?
What was direct rule?
Sent officials and officers to countries to impose French laws and customs
What were protectorates?
Local rulers left in place, but were expected to follow advice of European "advisors"
What was an advantage to protectorates?
Cheaper and required less military force
What is spheres of influence?
Area in which an outside power claimed exclusive involvement/trade privileges
What are examples of spheres of influence?
Europe in China; US in Latin/S.America
Explain West Africa?
Muslim states arose built on trade, farming and herding; traded with Europeans because they wanted help to defeat enemies; Slave trade to Europe/US
What was Liberia?
Country founded as a refuge for freed US slaves
What was jihad?
Holy struggle to purify Islam
How big is Africa compared to Europe?
4 times as big
Explain North Africa.
Under control of Ottoman; large Muslim influence
Explain East Africa.
Profitable trade of slaves to Middle East; Trade copper/ivory to India for cloth/weapons
Explain South Africa.
Heavy turmoil and chaos; fighting between Zulu tribe and "Boers" from Denmark
What are missionaries?
Someone sent on a religious cause
What did missionaries do/think?
Built school and medical clinics alongside churches; Thought Africans were almost like children in need of guidance
Who started to colonize Africa?
King Leopold of Belgium began colonizing the Congo
What was the Berlin Conference?
European leaders met to establish the rules for African colonization
What was not thought of at the Berlin Conference?
Traditional Settlement patterns; ethnic boundaries and tribes
What did France gain from the Berlin Conference?
By late 1800s controlled area in W and N Africa as big as the US is today
What did the British gain from the Berlin Conference?
Smaller/more scattered area than French; focused on larger population centers; dominated where most valuable resources were- diamonds and gold
What was special about Ethiopia?
Only African country to remain free
How was Ethiopia able to remain free?
Menelik II modernized before Europeans came; Built state-of-the-art roads/bridges; western style schools; Imported newest weapons; Had Europeans train his army
Who did Ethiopia defeat?
How much of India did the British East India Company control?
Who was India ruled by?
What did Ranjit Singh rule?
How/Why did Britain gain power of India?
Exploited Indian Diversity
Why did Exploiting Indian Diversity help Britain gain control of India?
Many types of people lived in India-Various cultures/customs/languages made it hard to unite
What were some of British's policies?
Worked to end slavery; Preserved peace/maintained order; improved education; spread Christianity; outlawed sati
What were the goals of the BEIC?
make money and improve life for Indians
What was sati?
Widows must kill themselves when their husbands die
What were sepoys?
What things were offensive to sepoys/ why they rebelled?
Made to serve anywhere Britain wanted them to- for Hindus oversea travel was offense to religion; new rifles required them to bit off tips of bullet cartridges that were greased with cow/pig fat
Why are cows and pigs important?
Cows=Sacred to Hindus; Pork= Forbidden by Muslims
Who were viceroys?
People who ruled in India in the name of the British King
What did Britain do to help their economy and helping India modernize?
Built roads and huge rail networks
How did the roads and rails mainly help Britain?
Easier to remove raw materials/resources; easier to sell British products throughout India
What did transportation led to for India?
What is famines?
What did British do to get more involved in India?
Flooded Indian markets w/ cheap textiles; increased British pressure on Indians to grow cash crops and deforest their lands; medical advancements allowed for increased population, but led to food shortages and famines
What was India's views on British?
Impressed with technology; adopted western ways and customs
What was Britain's view on India?
Some respected Indians ancient heritage/history, most thought India was just their to be exploited
What was the Indian National Congress?
Believed in peaceful protest; wanted British modernization but also self-rule