Flashcards in Unit 1 Test Deck (53):
Define the Paleolithic Age
The Paleolithic Age is the old Stone Age. This was the time period for hunters and food gathers. This is where we saw the first tools, signs o language and clothing, fires, and caves to protect from cold.
Define Neolithic Age.
The Neolithic Age was the agricultural revolution age. This is when people started to learn how to farm and domesticate animals.
How did life change during the agricultural revolution?
Population booms, less egalitarian, warfare begins to increase as competition for scarce resources grow, very little social class, and specialization. As well as new technology.
How was the agricultural revolution good for humans?
Agricultural is a way to get more food for less work and not be as exhausted; gave people more free time which gave us the ability to build different things; specialization; surplus of food; technological advances; civilizations.
How was the agricultural revolution bad for humans?
Slavery; sexism; disease; health problems; all of these things lead to conflict in the world and lead to war.
What is Jared Diamond's theory of why some civilizations flourished and some failed?
His theory says that some civilizations flourished and some failed based on geographical luck. Some civilizations had better climates to grow food in than others.
Do you agree or disagree with Diamond's theory and why?
I agree with his theory because the climate of where you live or if you are close to water or not can definitely affect what food you are able to have in order to make your civilization flourish. Also, if you don't have different animals near you you might not be as lucky.
Which rivers were near Indus?
Which rivers were near China?
Yellow River, huang river or river of sorrows. (All mean the same thing)
Which rivers were near Egypt?
Which Rivers were near Mesopotamia?
Between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
How did the river behave in the Indus Civilization?
The rivers flooded about twice a year.
How did the river behave in China?
It was very hard to predict the yellow river's floods
How did the river behave in Egypt?
The Nile flooded very predictably.
How did the rivers behave in Mesopotamia?
The floods were unpredictable and violet.
What were the gods of the Indus Civilization?
They were polytheistic; buffalo and Bulls were scared; (Aryan's) Gods were representatives of nature; Chief God was Indra of War; Brahman (single force)
What were the Gods of the Chinese civilization?
Animism; Shang D chief God; prayed to ancestors' spirits for good luck.
What were the gods of the Egyptian civilization?
Enteral life after death; Amon-Re: sun God; Osiris- God of underworld and Nile; Isis- taught woman how to do essential things to society
What were the Gods of Mesopotamia?
Ea; Anu; Enlil
How did the geography of the Indus Civilization influence the people?
They were able to trade with other civilizations and farm. They traded with Sumer by the sea. They were able to experience cultural diffusion.
How did the geography of China influence the people?
China was surrounded by difficult terrain so China stayed the same for a very long time. They had few invaders and little trade.
How did the geography of Egypt influence the people?
Deserts kept Egypt isolated so they stayed the same for a long time. Not many invaders or traders.
How did the geography of Mesopotamia influence the people
They had to trade. Tried to extend power outside of city. Assyrains come along. They were pretty warlike.
What is the general hierarchy in the Indus civilization?
Brahmins (priests); Kshatriyas (warriors); Vasyas (herders, farmers, artisans, and merchants); Sudras (non Aryans); Dalits (workers who do what others wouldn't do); system involved in a caste
What was the general hierarchy in China?
Kings to lords to lower lords to peasants; lower lords to lords and lords to king
What is the general hierarchy in Egypt?
Pharaohs; high priest + nobles; officials, scribes and minor priests, craftsman; servants, laborers and peasants
What was the general Hierarchy in Mesopotamia?
King; priest; scribes; merchants and artisans; commoners; slaves
What were peasants life's like in India?
What were peasants life's like in China?
Gave lords free crops and goods and received protection and stability
What were peasants life's like in Egypt?
Farming and building stuff for the pharaoh
What were the peasants life's like in Mesopotamia?
They had to pay taxes; provide labor; and serve in the army.
What were the cultural developments, inventions and ideas in the Indus?
Ramayana- tells story of behavior; Mahabharata- story of welfare and religion
What were the cultural developments, inventions and ideas in China?
Shang Dynasty- first dynasty that we know is real; Mandate of Heaven- heaven decides who should rule; feudal system- rewards supporters of dynasties with land; 365 1/4 calendar; silk work; first books
What were the cultural developments, inventions and ideas in Egypt?
Pyramids; medicine; astronomy; geometry and math
What were the cultural developments, inventions and ideas in Mesopotamia?
The wheel; sailboats
What was the Indus writing style?
What was China's writing style?
What was Egypt's writing style?
Hieroglyphics; ideograms; demotic
What was Mesopotamia writing style?
What was Indus capitals and city organization?
Harappa and Mohenjo-Darojoint capitals; 3 mile circumference
What were the Aryans?
They intermarried with the local population and were very warlike. They were nomads who settled down.
What were Indus epic stories?
Mahabharata- story of warfare and religion; Ramayana- teaches value of behavior
What is the Mandate of Heaven?
Says heaven decides who should rule.
What are the 2 Chinese dynasties?
Shang Dynasty- first; male Heirs; rules in China based on dynasties
How did the feudal system work in China?
It rewards the supporters of dynasties with land; lords had people work and grow for them; lords get free crops and good and give peasants protections and stability
What are the 8 aspects of civilization?
Cities, Organized Government, Complex Religion, Job Specialization, Social Class, Art and Architecture, Public Works, and Writing
What were Egpyt's 3 kingdoms and what transitioned one to the next?
The Old Kingdom goes to the Middle Kingdom which goes to the New Kingdom.
Who were the Hyksos?
The Hyksos conqured Egpyt, and when they did they became really impressed by Egpyt so they converted to Egyptain. However, after 100 years the Egpytains conqured back the Hyksos.
What were Egypt's conquests?
Egypt conqured Nubia to the South and later the Egypt delta was conqured by the Hyksos (happened in Middle Kingdom); (happening in the New kingdom)- then then later conqured all the way to the Euphrates and continued to expand with Rames II to Syria.
What were Egypt's religious views?
They believed in enternal life after death. They would pass over a lake of fire upon death, then weighed heart against "truth feather", if passed they would be permitted to after life; There Gods were Amon-Re-sun God only the Pharoh could talk to; Osiris- God of underworld and the Nile; Isis- taught woman how to do essential things to society
What was Mesopotamia's epic story?
There epic story was the Epic of Gilgamesh. . It is one of the oldest works of literature. It is the enduring conflict between country and city.
What was Hammurabi's Code and was it just?
Hammurabi's Code was laws. The goal of his laws was to protect the weak, and make the powerful suffer if they ever did anything bad.. Hammurabi's Code was just because it protected the weak, and caused people to not want to do any crimes, so because of his laws, the city was overall safer.